United Kingdom. United States. About Hill's. Contact Us. Cat Care Education. Choose your cat food. New cat parent. Log in. Dog Care Education. Choose your dog food. New dog parent. Our Brands. Cat Dog Products. Science is at the heart of how we help pets live their best lives. Caring for Your Pet Get the latest pet stories, news, tips and advice right here. Pet Care Center. Therefore, it is necessary to select mixed fruits and determine their ideal sweetness according to consumer acceptance. Sucos de frutas "prontos para beber" representam grande fatia do mercado e importante alvo do desenvolvimento de produtos.
A marca C apresentou amostras com valores elevados de bolores e leveduras em todos os sabores. Entre mulheres que relataram ter realizado dieta no ano anterior houve maior consumo de frutas , legumes e verduras. Os clientes potenciais se apresentam como abertos a novidades de mercado e a novas marcas. Understanding the customers' needs and the use of food technology can make an idea become an innovative product.
The goals of this study were to investigate, through a market research, the opportunity for a new product, and, subsequently, prepare an acceptable and fresh ready-to-eat fruit salad using minimal processing and combined methods. The market research was carried out in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte - MG, Brazil to study the potential market and to assess the market opportunities for a packed, ready-to eat fruit salad. After the development of the product, three types of fruit salad were prepared and a sensory evaluation was carried out every seven days during 21 days of storage.
The market research revealed. El software s Participantes: Adultos mayores no institucionalizados, autovalentes, de dos clubes de adultos mayores en Pueblo Libre y Chaclacayo. A partir disso, Estes microrganismos podem ser inoculados em meios c Si la radiodegradacion de los componentes de los alimentos es minima, estos conservan sus buenas propiedades organolepticas y su comestibilidad, y el procedimiento resulta mas economico.
Se decidio emplear zumos de fruta como sustancia tipo para los estudios fundamentales por las siguientes razones: a sus componentes constituyen una muestra representativa de la mayor parte de los productos alimenticios; b dichos componentes son facilmente separables; c los microorganismos que estropean los zumos de fruta son principalmente levaduras, sobre las que se han efectuado importantes trabajos de investigacion; d son productos que poseen valor economico.
El programa comprende tres clases de investigaciones: Investigaciones fundamentales. Se refieren, en particular, a la radiosensibilizacion de microorganismos, es decir, en el caso de los zumos de fruta , de levaduras, y, hasta cierto punto, de mohos. Estudios tecnologicos. Sobre la base de los resultados de las investigaciones fundamentales se han emprendido estudios de viabilidad tecnologica relativos a los aspectos organolepticos y microbiologicos, asi como analisis de sustancias volatiles y no volatiles. Los resultados obtenidos con el zumo de manzana son prometedores.
Pruebas de comestibilidad. Se estan estudiando los efectos de esos productos en ratas, ratones y cerdos; se ha comenzado por determinar las cantidades de manzanas y zumo de manzana que estos animales pueden tolerar. Se han preparado cultivos de tejidos para separar por metodos biologicos los productos de degradacion. Instalacion de irradiacion. Se esta construyendo una instalacion de irradiacion de nuevo tipo a base de cobalto, con capacidades aproximadas de 10 Ci y de 30 a 40 Ci. Full Text Available Quality control of fruits to satisfy increasingly competitive food markets requires the implementation of automatic servovisual systems in fruit processing operations to cope with market challenges.
A new and fast method for identifying and classifying moving fruits by processing single color images from a static camera in real time was developed and tested. Two algorithms were combined to classify and track moving fruits on image plane using representative color features.
The method allows classifying the fruit by color segmentation and estimating its position on the image plane, which provides a reliable algorithm to be implemented in robotic manipulation of fruits. To evaluate the methodology an experimental real time system simulating a conveyor belt and real fruit was used.
The methodology allows for very simple implementation, and although operational results are promising, even higher accuracy may be possible if structured illumination is used. Se combinaron dos algoritmos para clasificar y rastrear frutas en movimiento en el plano de imagen utilizando aspectos representativos de color. Como resultado, los valores del IG fueron del siguien Estudio piloto de detecci?
Las enfermedades transmitidas por los alimentos contaminados, representan un grave problema de salud p? Se pretende con este trabajo, exaltar la importancia de validar e implementar los m?
Nutrition has the power to transform pets’ lives
Mayo Participantes: Veintisiete escolares con sobrepeso y 33 con obesidad, de primer y segundo grado de nivel primaria. O primeiro documento de patente identificado foi de , sendo uma bebida a base de cola e frutas utilizando sacarose e maltitol como edulcorantes. Publishing and Revising Content. Editors and Webmasters can publish content without going through a workflow. Publishing times and dates can be set, and multiple pages can be published in bulk. Making an edit to published content created a revision. Letter of Map Revision. Hil, popularmente utilizado.
A amostra foi triturada em um gral de porcelana e armazenada em um recipiente de vidro hermeticamente fechado e protegido da luz, sob temperatura ambiente. Acetabular Cup Revision. The use of acetabular cup revision arthroplasty is on the rise as demands for total hip arthroplasty, improved life expectancies, and the need for individual activity increase. For an acetabular cup revision to be successful, the cup should gain stable fixation within the remaining supportive bone of the acetabulum.
Since the patient's remaining supportive acetabular bone stock plays an important role in the success of revision , accurate classification of the degree of acetabular bone defect is necessary. The Paprosky classification system is most commonly used when determining the location and degree of acetabular bone loss. Common treatment options include: acetabular liner exchange, high hip center, oblong cup, trabecular metal cup with augment, bipolar cup, bulk structural graft, cemented cup, uncemented cup including jumbo cup, acetabular reinforcement device cage , trabecular metal cup cage.
The optimal treatment option is dependent upon the degree of the discontinuity, the amount of available bone stock and the likelihood of achieving stable fixation upon supportive host bone. To achieve successful acetabular cup revision , accurate evaluation of bone defect preoperatively and intraoperatively, proper choice of method of acetabular revision according to the evaluation of acetabular bone deficiency, proper technique to get primary stability of implant such as precise grafting technique, and stable fixation of implant are mandatory.
The effects of the process utilized to obtain frozen fruit pulp on the quality of dietary fibers were evaluated, using ripe samples of acerola, cashew, guava, soursop, mango, sweetsop, pitanga, sapoti and grapes. The results obtained showed that the technological process used reduced significantly the fiber percentual of the fruit, determined by gravimetric non-ensymatic method particularly the guava, followed by the grapes, soursop, saoti, cashew, sweetsop and acerola. With the exception of mango and pitanga, all the frozen pulps tested do not seem to substitute, in terms of quantity of dietary fiber, the in natura fruit in the diet of healthy individuals.
Considering the fact that these losses are variable, depending on the characteristics of the fruit which was processed, the inclusion of frozen pulps in the human diet in substitution to fruits will depend on quality control studies which may lead to a classification of the components of the mentioned fraction. Administering medications together with fruit juices may lead to variations in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, with repercussions on the bioavailability and half —life of the compounds.
Pharmacokinetic mechanisms are usually related to intestinal and hepatic enzymes of cytochrome P CYP interference, as well as in transporter enzymes of the mucosa P. Por ello, parece que aumentar las cantidades de selenio en plantas puede tener implicaciones positivas. Los mayores valores para el pH se producen en los tratamientos con T2 y T4. Efecto del portainjerto y del injerto intermedio sobre la calidad de fruta en mango Mangifera indica L. I read the use of irony and gender performance in these texts as a signaling of the social contradictions and problems that come with the bisexual orientation.
I argue that these works should be included in a Mexican literary tradition that represents dissident sexualities, among which bisexuality has been marginalized and underrepresented. Full Text Available Las moscas de las frutas constituyen, como grupo, la plaga insectil mas importante de estos cultivos en Colombia y en el mundo. Revision of Pachycentria Melastomataceae. A revision of Pachycentria Blume, which includes the monotypic Pogonanthera Blume, is presented. Pachycentria comprises eight species and one subspecies. Two species, P. The genus is distinguished from other genera in the Medinillinae by a small.
Revision of Oxandra Annonaceae. A taxonomic revision is given of the Neotropical genus Oxandra Annonaceae. Within the genus 27 species are recognized, 4 of which are new to science. Most of the species are occurring in tropical South America, whereas a few 6 are found in Mexico and Central America and two in the West Indies.
Revision without ordinals. The result is presented in an abstract and general setting, emphasising both its validity for a wide. Revising and editing for translators. Revising and Editing for Translators provides guidance and learning materials for translation students learning to edit texts written by others, and professional translators wishing to improve their self- revision ability or learning to revise the work of others.
Editing is understood as making corrections and improvements to texts, with particular attention to tailoring them to the given readership. Revising is this same task applied to draft translations. The linguistic work of editors and revisers is related to the professional situations in which they work. Mossop offers in-depth coverage of a wide range of topics, including copyediting, style editing, structural editing, checking for consistency, revising procedures and principles, and translation quality assessment.
This third edition provides extended coverage of computer aids for revisers , and of the different degrees of revision suited to different texts. The inclusion of suggested activities and exercises, numerous real-world examples, a proposed gra Fatores associados ao consumo de frutas , legumes e verduras em adultos de uma cidade no Sul do Brasil Factors associated with fruit and vegetable intake among adults in a southern Brazilian city.
Foi realizado em um estudo transversal de base populacional, incluindo adultos. O desfecho foi o consumo regular de frutas , legumes e verduras. The study aimed to describe the frequency of fruit and vegetable intake among adults years of age and to identify associated factors. This population-based study in included adults in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Consumption of fruits and vegetables was evaluated with three questions on habitual food intake during the year prior to the interview. The outcome variable was regular consumption of fruits and vegetables. Only one in five adults Female gender, age 60 years or older, higher socioeconomic status, former smoking, and physical activity were associated with the outcome variable.
According to the results, fruit and vegetable intake among adults fails to meet current Ministry of Health recommendations, particularly among male, young.
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Los valores de la fuerza de fractura indicaron que la fruta pintona resiste mayor carga de aplastamiento con respecto al fruta madura. A rheological characterization of lulo fruits Solanum quitoense x Solanum hirtum by using the test of unidirectional compression to firmness and fracture tests, according to two degrees of. Children Need More Fruits and Vegetables! Ceratitis capitata foi predominante nas cultivares de pessegueiros estudadas. Existen pocos trabajos en trazabilidad con un enfoque como el abordado en este trabajo. The aim of this. This sector dragged on for years a structural problem, increased, especially in the case of fruit, for serious price crisis, the market saturation and increasing competition.
In this difficult context, producers must keep investing to maintain competitiveness and profitability. The cooperatives, by their economic importance, should undertake policies to ensure the viability of this sector. In this paper we do an analysis of Catalan fruit cooperative sector, to identify their strengths and weaknesses, and possible deficiencies and demands. The findings show that cooperatives are important in the fruit growing sector, mainly due to their.
No se observaron cambios en firmeza interna o externa ni en grados brix. It includes sampling, concentration, separation and radioactive measurement, as well as its application to Environmental and Nuclear Establishments Sites Surveys. Author 54 refs. El estudio nace de la necesidad de analizar el estado de la presencia y uso de Internet en general y de la web en particular para una industria vital para la citada provincia.
Una vez identificados los problemas y errores se aportan las posibles mejoras o soluciones a los problemas detectados. Revised Rules for Concrete Bridges. These WL reliability profiles may be used to establish revised rules for Concrete Bridges Emotion Processes in Knowledge Revision. In recent years, a number of insights have been gained into the cognitive processes that explain how individuals overcome misconceptions and revise their previously acquired incorrect knowledge.
The current study complements this line of research by investigating the moment-by-moment emotion processes that occur during knowledge revision using a…. Philippines revises power plans. Following an unexpected surge in electricity demand the Philippines has revised its medium term power development programme. The sharp increase in electricity consumption follows three years of slack demand due to civil disturbances before the end of the Macros administration and the election of Corazon Aquino as President in Originally, the Aquino government's medium term power development plans called for about MW of generating capacity to be installed between and The three proposed plants were scheduled for commissioning in and However, a spurt in power demand growth during the past nine months has caused concern among industrialists that power shortages could occur by the end of the decade.
So additional capacity will be installed to prevent an anticipated shortfall in electricity supplies by the early s. Revised SRAC code system. Since the publication of JAERI in for the preliminary version of the SRAC code system, a number of additions and modifications to the functions have been made to establish an overall neutronics code system. Major points are 1 addition of JENDL-2 version of data library, 2 a direct treatment of doubly heterogeneous effect on resonance absorption, 3 a generalized Dancoff factor, 4 a cell calculation based on the fixed boundary source problem, 5 the corresponding edit required for experimental analysis and reactor design, 6 a perturbation theory calculation for reactivity change, 7 an auxiliary code for core burnup and fuel management, etc.
Microcomputers and the Improvement of Revision Skills. Discusses use of word processing software as an effective tool in writing and revision instruction, and describes the role of the teacher. Examples of exercises that encourage revision and of software designed to teach effective revision skills are reviewed. Energy, fruits and fertilizer integrated system by using ecological engineering; Sistema integrado de energia, fruta e adubo usando engenharia ecologica. Pannir, Selvam P.
In the present work the study of reutilization of the vegetal organic residue of fruits for improvement in agricultural communities search, in special in agrobusiness micron-plant applying the concept of cleaner production and searching technological innovation and of low cost. One develops in this work study and optimization of bioprocessors for seasoning production and energy using itself synthesis and analysis of projects.
Where the vegetable residue is passed by a process of biological daily pay-treatment for acceleration of the degradation of the biomass for then being led to the biodigestor, where he will be proportionate the biological seasoning and biogas. This proper biogas will go to benefit the micron-plant since the same it will be used for the drying of fruits. The project was initiated with a bibliographical research for verification, study and involved election of existing technologies already on the processes of recycling of the residues, generation of biogas, biodegradation and equipment.
Initiate a a simulation of bioprocessors through the Super Software Pro Design 4,9 for term the the confirmation of the the study make through bibliographical revision , but still in phase of study. Simulations in Software had been made Budget developed by our base of research with validation of the economic viability for the drying of the banana. Where four scenes had been created, relating diverse types of energy in the processing of a agroindustry of fruits for drying of the same ones. And getting a bigger viability for the drying of the banana using biogas, providing a bigger annual profit in the return tax.
Considering the viability of this process it is intended to apply this technology in agricultural communities as Bebida Velha, Parazinho, Serra do Mel and Pureza, cities of the RN, providing them an energy source of ample utility, as also the use of the deriving seasoning of the biodigestor, bringing innumerable benefits to the population as to make. A study on scar revision. Full Text Available Introduction: Scars are psychologically distressing for the patients and have an impact on the quality of life and self esteem of the patients.
Scar revision is an aesthetic skill which is mastered by plastic surgeons and encroached now by dermatosurgeons. Scars on the face are aesthetically unacceptable and various techniques have been improvised for making a scar aesthetically acceptable. Various types of techniques are used for scar revision like W plasty, Z plasty and VY plasty. Aims: To see the efficacy of various scar revision techniques including Z plasty, VY plasty and W plasty in 30 patients with disfiguring scars. Methods: We selected twenty patients of disfiguring scars for the study.
The scars from various causes including trauma and burns were included in our study. Various techniques of scar revision include Z plasty, W plasty and VY plasty were performed according to the type and site of scar. Results: Male: female was 1. Conclusions: Dermatologists can employ a number of surgical scar revision techniques. While some are better suited to treat specific types of scars, they can be used in combination with each other or with adjunctive therapies to achieve optimal results. Informacion Bibliografica Educativa, N.
This document discusses some considerations in the development of a system for educational documentation and information in Colombia. There is a need for a national policy of educational documentation to insure cooperation among various institutions involved in the task. The three main objectives are documentation and information for teacher…. Novedades Bibliograficas No.
The first section of this document lists and annotates three conference reports from international meetings. A chapter-by-chapter annotation on a report from the Conference of European Ministers of Education on Post-Secondary Education is provided along with annotations on two Colombian seminars: one on literacy education and the other on…. X Annona squamosa L. Annonas are propagated mainly by grafting and rootstocks are obtained usually by seeds.
Their seeds have substances that inhibit germination and the seed coat also difficults seedling emergence. This trial evaluated the germination of seeds of custard apple Annona squamosa L. All treatments. Minerals and essential fatty acids of the exotic fruit Physalis peruviana L. Full Text Available Physalis peruviana is an exotic fruit that belongs to the Solanaceae family and which has recently started to be produced in Brazil, mainly in the Southern region. Once there is few data regarding its chemical composition, this work presents the centesimal and mineral composition and the fatty acid profile of the lipidic fraction of Physalis peruviana.
Concerning the centesimal composition, Physalis presented high contents of ashes and total lipids, 0. In its mineral composition, K, Mg, Ca and Fe were the main elements, and Fe is present in concentrations higher than those in the common sources such as beans. Revision of ASCE 4. The goal in updating the standard is to make sure that it is still relevant and that it incorporates the state of the practice in seismic engineering or, in some cases, where it has been demonstrated that state-of-the-art improvements need to be made to standard practice; new improvements are included.
The contents of the new standard cover the same areas as the original version, with some additions. The contents are as follows: Input - response spectra and time histories; modeling of structures; analysis of structures; soil-structure interaction; input for subsystem analysis; special structures - buried pipes and conduits, earth-retaining walls, above-ground vertical tanks, raceways, and base-isolated structures; and an appendix providing seismic probabilistic risk assessment and margin assessment. Contact activation: a revision. In conclusion, a revised view of the contact system has been presented.
This system has little to do with the initiation of hemostasis. Like lupus anticoagulants, deficiencies of contact proteins give prolonged APTTs but may be risk factors for thrombosis. BK from kininogens is a potent modulator of vascular biology inducing vasodilation, tissue plasminogen activator release, and prostacyclin liberation. Kininogens, themselves, are selective inhibitors of alpha-thrombin-induced platelet activation preventing alpha-thrombin from cleaving the cloned thrombin receptor after arginine Kininogens' alpha-thrombin inhibitory activity exists in intact kininogens, BK, and all of BK's breakdown products.
HK also is the pivotal protein for contact protein assembly on endothelium. It is the receptor for prekallikrein which when bound to HK becomes activated to kallikrein by an endothelial cell enzyme system independent of activated forms of plasma factor XII. Prekallikrein activation on endothelial cells results in kinetically favorable single chain urokinase and plasminogen activation. Thus the "physiologic, negatively charged surface" for contact system activation is really the assembly of these proteins on cell membranes and activation by membrane-associated enzymes.
Circumcision revision in male children. Sleeve surgical technique was used for revision in patients with redundant foreskin or concealed penis, penoplasty for partial or complete degloving of the penis and meatotomy for external meatal stenosis. The mean age of children was 32 months range 6 months to 9 years. All patients who underwent circumcision revision had good to excellent cosmetic results. A period of training and direct supervision by physicians is required before allowing laymen to perform circumcision independently.
EPR first responders revision test. In this revision test evaluates the acquired knowledge in case of radiological emergency confront. Actions to be taken in relation to people, equipment and the environment. Doses, radioactive sources, pollution. Corporate Author Entries. Revision 5. This reference authority has been created and is maintained to provide standard forms for recording the names of organizations consistently in bibliographic citations. This revision includes approximately 42, entries established since Le cout de l'irradiation apparait rentable compte tenu des resultats obtenus.
Les installations d'irradiation seront principalement a sources de radioelements. Les coefficients d'utilisation annuels des installations jouent un role important dans le cout de l'irradiation. Plusieurs solutions sont envisageables pour ameliorer leur rentabilite, car elles seront forcement saisonnieres. Leurs emplacements dependront de facteurs dependant du produit, de sa duree de conservation, de ses conditions de commercialisation.
En general, pour les problemes de germination, les installations d'irradiation pourront etre sur les lieux de production ou de consommation, niais de preference a la production. Pour les fruits, les installations seront sur les lieux de production, de preference adjacentes a des stations de conditionnement et de refrigeration. En ciertos casos, esas condiciones permiten recolecciones escalonadas en el tiempo.
Gracias a los esfuerzos desplegados en la seleccion de variedades, la especializacion y el mejoramiento de las tecnicas de cultivo, las explotaciones frutfcolas y horticolas se han extendido y los rendimientos han aumentado. Las tecnicas - principalmente las del frio - que permiten prolongar el periodo de conservacion y mantener las calidades, se han perfeccionado, pero en unos casos son insuficientes y en otros su accion es limitada. Parece que la irradiacion permitira nuevas mejoras, sobre todo en la prevencion de la germinacion de tuberculos, bulbos y rizomas, en la conservacion de frutas y verduras por asociacion con el frio o, evemualmente, en atmosfera controlada, asi como en la desinsectacion de ciertos productos.
Los trabajos efectuados en diferentes paises y en Francia muestran el interes que ofrece la irradiacion y la. Los valores obtenidos en las pruebas experimentales se Brazil has great importance in the fruits market; however, data on the composition of Brazilian tropical fruits, mainly of those produced in the Northeast region, is scarce. In the present study, it was determined the macro- and micro-minerals of 11 tropical fruits cultivated in the Northeast of Brazil: pineapple, sweetsop, soursop, jackfruit, papaya, mangaba, murici, sapodilla, ciruela, tamarind, and umbu.
The results indicated that tamarind is a rich source of all minerals available, especially of Mg, Cu and K, in addition to being a good source of Ca, P, Fe, and Se. Among the. The present work had as objective to carry through survey the losses of fresh fruits in the retail markets of the city of Mineiros-GO, as well as its causes and steps to be taken. For this research, visitation to the retail markets supermarkets, groceries stores and street market for an application of a questionnaire was realized.
The results showed that 3. The retail markets had cited the inadequate storage refrigeration lack and the bad conditions of transport highways under bad conditions of conservation as the main causes of the losses of fresh fruits. Supplying control, the education of the consumer, and fruit quality improvement are priority. Este trabalho teve por objetivo identificar e analisar os c Average total FV intakes were The lowest intakes were observed in the northern region and among the population with the lowest wellbeing levels. Developing and implementing strategies aimed at increasing intake of these food groups is a national priority.
Physical-chemical, chemical and enzymatic modifications were studied during the ripening of " fruta -de-lobo" compared with those in other fruits. The fruits were harvested from native plants in the ripening initial stage and they were selected and stored during 18 days at room temperature The fruits were washed with distilled water and peeled. Their pulps were chopped up, frozen in liquid nitrogen and lyophilized until they get a constant mass. The pH and tritable acidity did not show statistical variation during the ripening process.
The amylase activity and the starch contents decreased gradually and the soluble total sugar and nonreducing sugar increased. The loss of economic activity, exclusion, and migration have been signs of the region's deterioration in the last decade. Nonetheless, this region contains several local"nodes" or spheres whose products and activities have the potential to participate in global production-distribution networks.
This paper analyzes the export chain development of a tropical fruit pineapple under the hypothesis that innovation support and strengthening of local production networks in southeast Mexico are closely linked to the formation of logistic supply chains and technical and operative control undertaken by local. Revised licensee event report system. Licensee Event Reports LERs provide the basis for evaluating and assessing operating experience information from nuclear power plants.
Effective Jan. This article summarizes the reporting requirements as presented in NUREG, high-lights differences in data reported between the revised and previous LER systems, and presents results from a preliminary assessment of LERs submitted under the revised LER reporting system. Quantum interaction. Revised selected papers. United Kingdom. United Kingdom ; Arafat, Sachi eds. School of Computing Science. The 26 revised full papers and 6 revised poster papers, presented together with 1 tutorial and 1 invited talk were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions during two rounds of reviewing and improvement.
The papers show the cross-disciplinary nature of quantum interaction covering topics such as computation, cognition, mechanics, social interaction, semantic space and information representation and retrieval. HEDR modeling approach: Revision 1. This revised report describes the methods used in performing scoping studies and estimating final radiation doses to real and representative individuals who lived in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. The scoping studies and dose estimates pertain to various environmental pathways during various periods of time. The original report discussed the concepts under consideration in The methods for estimating dose have been refined as understanding of existing data, the scope of pathways, and the magnitudes of dose estimates were evaluated through scoping studies.
Medical writing, revising and editing. The globalization of science makes medical writing, editing and revision a rapidly growing field of linguistic study and practice. Medical science texts are written according to uniform, general guidelines and medical genres have become highly conventionalized in terms of structure and linguistic Medical editing often takes the form of peer review and mainly addresses issues of contents and overall validity. Medical revision incorporates the checking of the macrostructure and the microstructure of the text, its language and style and its suitability for the target reader or client Full Text Available Nabokov revised his works as he translated them and, on another plane, canon revisionism has been having its backlash and provoked other refracting waves.
To borrow s Biometrics and physical-chemical characteristics of breadfruit Artocarpus altilisAbstract: The species Artocarpus altilis produces fruits popularly known as breadfruit. They are climacteric and contribute considerable amounts of energy and provide the main nutrients in the diet. They can be consumed cooked, fried or roasted and in technological processes having potential to be used in cookies and marketed as flour. In the. Failure of aseptic revision total knee arthroplasties.
In Norway, the proportion of revision knee arthroplasties increased from 6. However, there is limited information on the epidemiology and causes of subsequent failure of revision knee arthroplasty. We therefore studied survival rate and determined the modes of failure of aseptic revision total knee arthroplasties. This study was based on 1, aseptic revision total knee arthroplasties reported to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register between and Revisions done for infections were not included.
Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to assess the survival rate and the relative risk of re- revision with all causes of re- revision as endpoint. In terms of implant survival, revision of the whole implant was better than revision of 1 component only. Young age and male sex were risk factors for re- revision. Deep infection was the most frequent cause of failure of revision of aseptic total knee arthroplasties.
The nuclear liability conventions revised. The signature on 12 February of the Protocols amending respectively the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention was the second step of the process of modernisation of the international nuclear liability regime after the adoption in September of a Protocol revising the Vienna Convention and of a new Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage. The common objective of the new instruments is to provide more funds to compensate a larger number of potential victims in respect of a broader range of damage.
However, while generally consistent vis a vis the Joint Protocol, the provisions of the Paris and Vienna Conventions, as revised , differ on some significant aspects. Another remaining issue is whether the improved international nuclear liability regime will succeed in attracting in the future a larger number of countries, particularly outside Europe, and will so become truly universal. Therefore, the need for international co-operation to address these issues, to facilitate the adoption of new implementing legislation and to ensure that this special regime keeps abreast of economic and technological developments, is in no way diminished after the revision of the Conventions.
Concise revision of the Sarcospermataceae. After the senior writer, together with W. Thanks to the courtesy of Prof. Gagnepain of Paris, and. Guidelines for Curriculum Development. The curriculum development process explained in this booklet was first implemented at College of the Redwoods in May and then revised in June Revised Accounting for Business Combinations. The object of this Statement is to improve the relevance, representational faithfulness, and comparability of reported information about a business combination and its effects.
This Statement…. How Adults Learn. The book's emphasis is on learning during the years of adulthood and examines present-day practice of adult education for practitioners. This revised edition brings up to date advances in such areas of learning as controversial theory; the effects of environment; sensory processes; intellectual capacities; motivation and attitude; transactional….
A revision of the Paronychiinae. This study was undertaken, in April , at the suggestion of Prof. Olsen and Daniel E. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc. Shumway, David R. Souza, Raymond D. Austin: U o f Texas Press, Swanson, Philip. Manchester: Manchester UP, The Lost City. Screenplay by Guillermo Cabrera Infante. Magnolia Films, Calzados Lola El cambio de siglo ha dejado claras muestras de nuevos cambios de paradigma. XXXVI 19 20 Eduardo Barros Grela corporalidad cambiante, resurge la figura del fantasma como pro- puesta actancial de la identidad reconstruida de ese sujeto.
A pesar de la complicidad existente entre todas las figuras femeni- nas de la historia, no cabe duda de que el silencio, el secreto aceptado, la herencia del rumor del viento del pueblo forma parte importante de sus identidades. Siguiendo con los planteamientos propuestos por Guattari Cap. Raimunda aparece en repetidas ocasiones limpiando: en su trabajo en el aeropuerto; en el cementerio; tras la muerte de su pareja, en el restaurante, etc. Tal y como afirma Avery Gordon, "[.
El viento funciona como ese rumor fantasmal, cuya presencia es una ausencia, y cuyas huellas infieren una duda a la realidad de su existencia. Rikki Morgan-Tamosunas indica que, "[. La "voz" que llora esos deseos repite que le da la bienvenida a la muerte, pero que no es esa muerte quien viene a buscarla, sino que es ella, la madre del protagonista, quien se lanza en su busca. Manuel se va transformando a lo largo de la narrativa en un reconocimiento de la ausencia — de la falta — de un origen reconocible. No obstante, el automatismo que Manuel ha ido interiorizando en su desarrollo, tampoco ahora le abandona.
El mejor de los ejemplos para ilustrar este estado espectral es el que corre paralelo al fundamental en Volver. Parece que haya mar de fondo. Parece como si hablase. Como si dijera algo. Es como si se le metiese a uno dentro" Notas 1. Nueva York: Palgrave, Chandler, Raymond. The Simple Art of Murder. Nueva York: Vintage, Obras citadas Baudrillard, Jean. Las estrategias fatales. Barcelona: Anagrama, Davis, Mike. London: Verso, De Certeau, Michel. The Practice of Everyday Life.
Berkeley: University of California Press, Sophie Fiennes. Amoeba Films, Fukuyama, Francis. The End of History and the Last Man. New York: Bard, Visual Thoughts in the Debate on Multiculturalism. Nicholas Mirzoeff. New York: Routledge, Gordon, Avery F. Ghostly Matters: Haunting and the Sociological Imagination. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota Press, Madrid: Akal Ediciones, Labanyi, Jo. Amsterdam: Rodopi, Constructing Identity in Contemporary Spain. Theoretical Debates and Cultural Practice. Oxford: Oxford UP, Navajas, Gonzalo.
Full text of "Mester"
Barcelona: EUB, Richardson, Nathan. Postmodern Paletos. London: Bucknell UP, Sloterdijk, Peter. Barcelona: Seix Barrai, Toro, Suso de. Calzados Lola. Barcelona: Ediciones B, Zizek, Slavoj. The Fragile Absolute. New York: Verso, Memory and Fantasy: The Imaginative Reconstruction of a Lost Past in Las cartas que no llegaron Andrea Colvin University of California, Irvine Since the end of World War II "Holocaust litera ture" has generated an intense debate regarding the relationship between historical reality and its representation through fiction. One could even say that representa- tion itself, when faced with the collective trauma of the Holocaust, entered into a profound crisis.
As philosophers and thinkers of all kinds struggled to come to terms with the horrors endured by millions in Nazi concentration camps, they began to question the possibilities and limits of representation as well as the problems associated with collective and individual memory. Adorno's well-known dictum, "To write poetry after Auschwitz is barbarie" 34 , often serves as a point of departure for this discussion and has provoked different reactions from many, ranging from those who reject any artistic approach to the Holocaust to those who defend fiction as a possible means of overcoming the limits of historical representation.
Although it does not necessarily fall within the category of "Holocaust literature," the autobiographical novel Las cartas que no llegaron ' by Uruguayan playwright and novelist Mauricio Rosencof can be read within the context of this debate. Rosencof is the son of Jewish parents, who emigrated from Poland in the late s hoping to improve their life in Uruguay. In the s, Rosencof became one of the leaders of the National Liberation Army the so- called "Tupamaros" , an urban guerilla group that was overthrown by the Uruguayan army in , leading to his arrest and subsequent imprisonment during the military dictatorship The text is by no means a realistic or mimetic account of his life, but rather joins fact and fiction in such a way that they become inseparable, creating a poetic and imaginative work that enables us to rethink the relation- ship between history, memory, and fiction.
Without a doubt, the Holocaust constituted the traumatic event of the twentieth century, and it has frequently been described as an "inexpressible experience" or an event "beyond words," given that it brought forth a degree of evil and horror that was unimaginable before the era of totalitarianism. When Adorno uttered the afore- mentioned maxim "To write poetry after Auschwitz is barbarie," he alluded to this alleged "inexpressibility" which was understood by some theorists and critics as a kind of prohibition against art in general, suggesting that artistic representations of any event labeled as "unspeakable" would somehow constitute an ethical violation.
Likewise, in his essay "Unspeakable," Thomas Tresize carefully examines Berel Lang's idea of what constitutes an ethically acceptable representation 40 Andrea Colvin of the Holocaust, concluding that his attitude is excessively restric- tive. One of the definitions of the term "unspeakable" that Tresize offers in the introduction to his essay refers to that which "may not or cannot be uttered or spoken" 39 , either "because it lies outside the profane world and its language" or "because speaking it would be a profanation" This seems to be the definition closest to Adorno's original idea that writing poetry after the Holocaust is "barbarie.
Since then, a number of theorists have tried to find new angles from which to approach the problem of representation, trying to escape the risk of making absolute claims or moral prescriptions by shifting the focus from the question of whether to represent or what can be represented to how it is possible to talk about events such as the Holocaust within ethical and aesthetical bounds.
Some have even begun to criticize the notion of "unspeakability" altogether, pointing out that by describing Auschwitz as "inexpressible" we may run the risk of converting it into a "sublime" experience, giving it an almost positive spin in the process. By not offering the reader a strictly mimetic account of his Ufe and instead emphasizing the artistic use of imagination, Rosencof's novel provides one possible answer to the question of how trauma can be represented through fictional writing.
Hartman, for example, has argued that realistic representations often fail because they tend to exceed our human capacity to comprehend and conceptuaHze certain traumatic events In "The Book of the Destruction," he asks whether so-called unreaUstic ways of representing may provide a better ahernative: "In every reaHstic depiction of the Shoah, the more it tries to be a raw representation, the more the Why rises up Hke an unsweet savor.
We describe but cannot explain what happened. Could 'unreahstic' depictions, then, alleviate the disparity? Instead, he insists that the excess of evil which characterizes the concentration camp experience can only be communicated "con un poco de artificio" ; in other words, by stimulating the audience's imagination and putting reality into perspective in such a way that our mind becomes open to the unimaginable In order to accomplish such a task without distorting historical truth, the artist, then, should ideally "present without representing, [. The real issue for him is not "what can be told" but rather how the experience of the Holocaust can be narrated "while stimulating rather than crushing the sensitivity and imagination of one's audience" When telling the readers about his encounter with terror under the Uruguayan mili- tary regime or about his relatives' experience in a Nazi concentration camp, he opts for a blend of "real" and "imagined" memories, which speak powerfully for the importance of imagination in artistic repre- sentations of traumatic events.
Las cartas que no llegaron is divided into three parts, each of them constitutes a different angle from which the author attempts to reclaim 42 Andrea Colvin a lost past, first by returning to his childhood and employing the voice and perspective of a young boy, and later through a reconstruction of the imaginary conversations he has with his father while being in soH- tary confinement.
Throughout the text, writing and the use of fantasy in particular play a privileged role, given that the narrative constitutes an effort to reconstruct a rather "blurry" image of a past that is only partially accessible through distant and fragmented memories. Thus, faced with the insufficiency of his memories, the use of his imagination becomes the only way to fill in the gaps and to "make up" for the emptiness left behind by his relatives' disappearance as well as the absence of human contact during his years in prison.
One must only look at the book's dedication in order to realize that memory plays a special role in this text. Henee, the motivation behind the text becomes clear: it is meant to ensure that the family history will not be lost, that memory will be preserved, not simply because remembering those who suffered is an obligation which is a declaration quite common in Holocaust literature , but also because sharing our family's memories strengthens our sense of who we are. In fact, the cali for "more memories" in the citation above 69 and the attempt to reconstruct a lost history can be interpreted as essential steps in a search for identity which, according to Rosencof, is always rooted in our family's past.
As the title of the novel indicates, the letters possess a special significance, mainly because one day they stop coming, creating a void that haunts the Rosencof family for years. The most important aspect of the first part of the book is that the narrator, rather than looking back and commenting on the events as an adult, takes on the voice and perspective of a child, a procedure that can also be found in some examples of Holocaust literature i.
Whitehead focuses her attention on the effects that this technique has on the reader, pointing out that "the limited insight of the child creates a hiatus in the text, which relies on the knowledge or imagination of the reader to fill in the gap and make sense of the narrative" Rosencof's novel certainly challenges the reader to take on such an active role in order to reconstruct the meaning behind the innocent and nai've voice of the child.
Andrea Reiter, another critic interested in the use of the child's perspective in literature dealing with traumatic experiences, suggests that the impact on the reader is especially power- ful because the child's outlook tends to change our view on things we thought we understood: "It is the gaze of the child that allows us to see in a new way that which we already know" Later in the same essay, Reiter points to the problems associated with memory, specifically early childhood memories which tend to be extremely fragmented and full of gaps 86 , The same problem is evident in Rosencof's text from the very first page.
By pointing out rather than covering up his insecurity with respect to the accuracy of his memories, the author directs our atten- tion toward the problematic nature of memory, giving more importance to the act of remembering itself than the accuracy of the facts. In this fashion, Rosencof emphasizes that the past can never be recovered "as it was" and that retelling it means converting it into fiction. In addition to the already mentioned objects, the parents' house also occupies a privileged space within the narrator's recollections.
According to Nathan Wachtel's essay, "Remember and Never Forget," the home is often given an important role in Holocaust testimonies, where it represents a kind of lost paradise: "In the beginning was a familiar place: a home, a refuge, warm affectionate surroundings. This original space appears in memory as the ideal of all happiness; it is recalled with longing" Though this may be true to a certain extent in Rosencof's novel for example, the mother is lovingly associ- ated with the patio, and the narrator recalls with nostalgia the times in which the whole famiiy would gather around the kitchen table , the feeling of happiness and unity is overshadowed by the never-ending wait for letters that never came.
In the absence of letters or any written proof of what in fact happened, fantasy takes over, substituting for "reality" and filling the silence with the voices of those who iacked the chance to teli their story. In Las cartas que no llegaron, Rosencof invents letters to take the place of those that never came, imagining what might have happened, beginning with the arrival of the Gestapo in the relatives' village to the deportation to Treblinka, a Nazi concentration camp, even imagining a kind of rebellion led by the prisoners in the camp.
Porque han comenzado a acumularse grandes cantidades de cenizas" I shall briefly discuss the use of the word "cenizas" "ashes" , in order to underline its suggestive power. There is no doubt that Rosencof chooses this word carefuUy with the intention of stimulat- ing the reader's imagination and evoking disturbing images in our mind without having to describe anything directly. Used as a type of synecdoche, the word cenizas alludes to the horrors of the concentra- tion camp without explicitly talking about them.
Turning now to the second part of the book, entitled "La carta," we find a temporal leap in the storyline, bringing us face to face with a young man, trapped in a prison cell and desperate for human con- tact. The entire prison experience is summarized quite effectively through the repetition of the word sin, suggesting that the experience of solitary confinement is primarily characterized by the absence of things or beings that make life worth living. Faced with loneliness, endless days, and the complete lack of human interac- tion, the imaginary conversations with his father, which the narrator reconstructs in this part of the book, become not only a way to pass the time but also a seemingly necessary task for survival.
They are marked by two central themes: an obsession with his family's past and its connection to the narrator's own identity. Throughout this section of the novel, Mauricio continually "converses" with his father about the past, trying on the one hand to 46 Andrea Colvin imagine his parents' iife in Poland before their emigration and on the other hand to reconstruct an obviously crucial moment in his child- hood: The day "the letter" arrived, a document presumably containing notification of the relatives' death, though its content is never actually revealed to us.
The narrative returns to this moment again and again, implying that the arrival of this letter constituted a turning point in the Iife of the Rosencof family, stealing their last hope with respect to their relatives' survival. The silence surrounding this only "real" letter in the novel forms a stark contrast with the imagined letters of part one, emphasizing once more the role of imagination in the novel as well as the author's determination not to tell that which may exceed the reader's limits of conceptualization and empathy.
In order to fully understand the obsession with an inaccessible past I will establish a connection between the narrator's attempt to reconstruct the past through memory and to establish an identity that is rooted in family history. As I carefuUy examine the text it is possible to see that Mauricio appears to have gone through a twofold identity crisis in his Iife. First of all, it is evident that Mauricio has always felt distanced from the rest of his family. Being the only member of the family to be born in Uruguay, he does not share the same attachment to Poland, for example.
In addition, he is more comfortable with Spanish than Yiddish 69 and prefers the Tango o ver traditional Jewish songs The sense of estrangement becomes stronger after the death of his older brother, whom he adored and who served as a kind of "bridge" between Mauricio's world and that of his parents. In response to the loss of her first-born son, their mother distances herself emotionally from Mauricio, producing feelings of inferiority, guilt and separation at the same time.
The second aspect of the crisis has to do with the narrator's experience in prison and points to the idea that an encounter with radical evil tends to threaten even the very core of humanity — our identity. Memory and Fantasy 47 This double identity crisis, then, can be seen as the reason why Mauricio goes in search of his family's roots; it is a quest that will later lead him to Poland in order to explore his origins and to visit the concentration camp in which his relatives died.
His fixation with the past impHes hope — the desire to find his own lost identity through the act of remembering and coming to know his family history. As Anne Whitehead points out, Young has been able to show that "the gathering of fragments is central to the process of Holocaust memo- rialisation, particularly in Poland" According to Whitehead, Young recognizes a fascination with and even fetishisation of the remaining objects and indicates that Holocaust museums tend to dis- play them as if "the debris of history" could serve as "an encounter with history itself" The problem is that the object's power or ability to signal beyond itself is gravely overestimated: For, by themselves, these remnants rise in a macabre dance of memorial ghosts.
Armless sieeves, eyeless lenses, head- less caps, footless shoes: victims are known only by their absence, by the moment of their destruction. Young 48 Andrea Colvin For Mauricio, this means that the only thing that can re connect him with his past and help him find himself are his own personal memories of which he desperately wants more, recognizing their insufficiency and pleading with his father for more knowledge about the past.
Though it is never actually pronounced in the text, this word forms the very center of the story, a focal point to which the narrator returns again and again. Admitting that he does not know how to pronounce it, Mauricio nevertheless understands the word's meaning and feels that, for the first time, he and his father share a common lan- guage, a language belonging to those who disappeared from this earth long ago.
The utterance of this word can be seen as a new beginning: As it is passed down from father to son it renews the bond between them and constitutes at the same time an act of resistance by establish- ing communication in a place where human contact is not allowed, a place of absolute silence: "En este territorio reina el silencio, infinito, tanto que cuando se apagan las voces exteriores [. The passing down of an enigmatic word from father to son, an expression that only the two of them can understand, can certainly be seen as a form of resistance, especially in a place where words are strictly prohibited: "[.
It is not a coincidence, then, that the other two occurrences in which the word is spoken are also moments of defi- ance. In the first example, Mauricio mutters the word while a soldier is pointing a gun at his head , and the second time he secretly communicates it to the prisoner in the neighboring cell, using a type of Morse code that they invented.
This second instance is where, with- out stating the word, its meaning is finally revealed to us.
In other words, the mysterious "palabra" is a welcoming gesture, an invitation to share the food and closeness in the family's home Lespada It is an ordinary gesture made under extraordinary circumstances, and herein lies its significance. Mauricio is comforted knowing that, even though the word might never again be spoken, its existence contin- ues , overcoming the barriers put up to prevent human contact and communication.
For Mauricio the word is a messenger of hope and courage, a way to experience intimacy in the midst of suffering and human depriva- tion. The novel, thus, ends on a positive note, affirming that love and communication cannot be eliminated, no matter what externai limitations are imposed on them. Rosencof indicates that in a world of wars and terror, humanity manages to preserve itself through memory and through "the word," in this case by writing letters that 50 Andrea Colvin were never sent: his relatives' and his own.
Mauricio finally realizes that even defeat can be turned into victory if one has the courage to tell liis story: "Fuerza, mi Viejo. It presents an alter- native to strictly mimetic accounts of personal or collective trauma by foregrounding the possibilities of fiction and demonstrating that stimulating the reader's imagination for example, through the use of the child's voice or fantastic encounters can be as effective, and per- haps even more powerful than offering realistic depictions of torture and suffering. If Rosencof were to debate Berel Lang, he surely would not only reject the idea that "facts can speak for themselves," but also question whether "reality" is about facts at all.
His novel suggests that writing a personal history has little to do with reporting "what hap- pened" and much to do with imagining and reconstructing that which is unknown, and which belongs to the realm of hope and fantasy. Rosencof shows that memories, though fragmented and insufficient, are the key to understanding one's past and one's identity, and that, paradoxically, our imagination can be a powerful tool in the struggle to cope with an unimaginably cruel reality.
So, if he were asked to respond to Adorno's dictum, Rosencof might just suggest that "after Auschwitz, the use of fantasy has become absolutely indispensable. The novel was written and published many years after Uruguay's transition to democracy in the mid s. The use of the word "fantasy" may be seen as problematic since it is a term which generates a wide range of interpretations and is used in a variety of fields, including psychoanalysis, literature, and film. However, in this article the words "imagination" and "fantasy" are used interchangeably to refer to things or events which are not based on concrete reality but which exist only in the narrator's imagination.
His fantasies help him cope with the absence of human contact as well as his limited memories. Use of the appellative "Viejo" is not a rare occurrence in countries such as Argentina or Uruguay where young people use it to refer to or address their father. In general, the word does not have a negative connotation. He coined the term "sites of memory" which has become widely used in the field of memory studies. Nora's goal was to study the construction of the French past in a manner more appropriate to the postmodern climate of the s, not by focusing only on historically important events and their causes and effects which is commonly done in linear historical narratives , but rather by turning his attention to what he regards as the most outstanding physical and symbolical sites of the French past.
These include such divergent entities as museums and monuments, dictionaries, people, and battles. Works Cited Adorno, Theodor W. Samuel and Shierry Weber. Agamben, Giorgio. Lo que queda de Auschwitz: El archivo y el testigo. Antonio Gimeno Cuspinera. Valencia: Pre-Textos, Carroll, David. Lang, Berel. Lespada, Gustavo. Nora, Pierre. Reiter, Andrea. Andrew Leak and George Paizis. New York: St. Martin's Press, Rosencof, Mauricio.
Las cartas que no llegaron. Montevideo, Uruguay: Ediciones Santillana, La escritura o la vida. Thomas Kauf. Barcelona: Tusquets Editores, Trezise, Thomas. Wachtel, Nathan. New York: Harwood Academic Publishers, Whitehead, Anne. Trauma Fiction. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, Young, James E. Y los frailes, quienes "violaban" el recinto sagrado teniendo sexo en el confesionario. En ambos casos la "voz" del soldado establece la conveniencia de su rango para atraer a una mujer y las ventajas que puede tener para ella este emparejamiento. Ello demuestra una moral "conveniente" que resalta ciertos factores de criminalidad y disminuye otros.
En la denuncia aparece una constante: en realidad son las visitas de los hombres al cuarto de la viuda lo que escandaliza al denunciante. Esta estrategia mantiene impoluta la conciencia del hombre quien, no obstante, enuncia una palabra obscena: la "saranguan- dinga. Los padres de la iglesia son literalmente padres de sus hijos.
Y si el pene de los soldados "violaba" a las villas con su presencia, el de los frailes "vio- laba" el recinto sagrado. Foucault advierte que "la memoria popular reproduce en rumores el austero discurso de la ley" En este sen- tido la performance al igual que la obscenidad refleja a la censura. Cada instancia ofrece fortalezas y fracturas. Sobre el "Padre nuestro" y los "Mandamientos. Foja Fojas La denuncia, las circulares administrativas, los testimonios y las ratificaciones se encuentran en el mismo expediente.
Edicto inquisitorial. Los cima- rrones esclavos en fuga establecieron quilombos, palenques y mocambos con los nombres de Mandinga, Matamba o Yanga. Denuncias, circulares, testimonios y ratificaciones en el mismo expediente. Foja 1. Indiferente Virreinal. Caja En la parodia religiosa: las "Bendiciones" , las "Boleras" y el "Bonete del Cura" Obras citadas Aguirre Tinoco, Humberto. Sones de la tierra y cantares jarochos. Bakhtin, Mikhail. Rabelais and His World. Cambridge: MIT, Bauman, Richard. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, Bierman, Judah.
Enciso Rojas, Dolores. Foucault, Michel. Urtext, Pierrot, Emmanuel. Le bonheur de vivre en enfer. Poole, Howard. La ciudad letrada. Hanover, NH: Ediciones del Norte, Hebrews 9. Yet, less tban seventy-two hours later, Rosa unexpectedly died of a beart attack in bis apartment in Rio de Janeiro. As a result, only four days after tbe autbor's induction, a third speecb would take place. To borrow from the memorialist Maureen Murdock that "[a]n individual memory becomes the repository of a familial or cultural memory" , these three works dredge deep currents within Brazilian history, geography and identity as they seek to find suitable national symbols for representing death in the ABL.
The ABL envisioned itself as a society capable of classifying the parameters by which literature and language could accompany politicai and economic developments. Along with being founded contemporaneously with the organization of the First Republic, the early members of the ABL also witnessed the unprecedented economic growth of, and immigration to, southeastern Brazil. Thus, it was proposed by its founders that, aithough the ABL should be a function of the national project, it should not be subject to coeval politicai troubles.
Bhabha, Machado suggests that the ABL should not be grounded in any specific literary school or politicai movement, but be grounded in the "nation as a symbolic force" 1. This symbolic role of the ABL in proposing an immutable con- stancy in the face of politicai change is no more evident than in the manner by which the institution has glorified its deceased members while maintaining control over the admission of new ones. In the ABL, there is a constant membership of forty Brazilian writers, correspond- ing to an equal number of available chairs.
In order for a new writer to be elected into one of the forty chairs, a current one must first pass away. The seat then becomes available for a successor to assume occupancy and take his place in the literary society. For this reason, he was deemed by the ABL as Machado's appropriate suc- cessor. Lafayette accepted the invitation, but for unknown reasons he refused to deliver the traditional "Discurso de posse" that would have praised Machado's Ufe and work.
Years later in , the Academy would still feel that too little had been done to memorialize their first president. In the words of Jeffrey D. Needell, the predominant concept among the members of the Academy at its founding was that "national literature was the nation's soul, memory, and conscience" As demonstrated by this example with Machado, when a member of the ABL dies, the society attempts to affirm through sym- bolic discourse the assurance of that writer's place within the national canon of literary "immortals.
Not only would Rosa be glorified through Athayde's speech just after his death, the whole affair was shrouded in death-both symbolic and real. Death, in this sense, instead of being the antithesis of hfe, represents the final step in a social process by which one's life takes on coUective significance for the survivors. Four days later, Athayde's speech would be no less symbolic. In order to provide "proof" of the writer's immortality, the com- memorative speeches surrounding Rosa's death align themselves with important national symbols.
Although its construction is most directly associated with the Kubitschek presidency, Brasilia is a national symbol that is greater than the period in which it was created. Brasilia, similar to the empty chairs in the ABL, is a physical location continually re occupied by successive politicai representatives. Death brings to the forefront this paradox since, according to Derrida, it is an ambiguous cultural and biological event that imposes a limit The limit imposed by death is reflected at the borders of nations and cul- tures.
As those who write the nation cross the border of death, there is space for what Derrida calis the "possibility of the impossible" And the question of limits articulated [. In this way, writing becomes an "unfinished" act that, like death, has limitless rhetorical possibilities. This erasure of borders is needed to express a parallel between the "absolute" individual and the infinite nation. Muita coisa [. As these writers transform themselves discursively into "efeitos regionais," Rosa's speech not only proposes an eternal connection between writing and Brazil, but also elides the politicai, cultural, and even geographic differences found within its territory.
As they become the loci for national metonymy, Rosa and Neves amass cultural weight transformed from writers of the nation into writers-as-the-nation, replacing Brazil's physical borders with a limitless metaphysicality. Or rather, as long as Rosa and Neves remain "perene," so does Brazil.
This mythical 80 joshiia Alma Enslen narrative process is linked with the sociality of death to the degree that Diadorim's heroic yet violent death becomes capacitated to transform the Hving. Thus, for Arinos, writing death "unifica a diver- sidade e assegura a continuidade" Erasing the inequalities not only between nations, but also between "men" and "women" everywhere, the symbol of death multiplies the image of Diadorim into an endless expression however imaginary it may be of the eternal solidarity of ali humankind.
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This relationship between the religious and the literary evokes a Romantic image of "artists as special people and art as sacred" Kernan Joaquim Nabuco, in his "Discurso de Posse" at the ABL's inaugu- ral session on the 20th of July, , declared: As Academias, como tantas outras coisas, precisam de antiguidade. Thus, in order for the nation's scholarly dead to be transfig- ured into national symbols, these discourses must impose upon their bodies metaphysical attributes of religious, topographic and literary entities for which death poses no threat of dissolution.
As a prophet for the nation, Athayde expresses the author's "absolute" greatness while also embodying the infinite greatness of Brazil, depicted as a personified being mourning the loss of one of its most celebrated authors. Years before the founding of the ABL, Machado de Assis had already contemplated the importance of writing in sustaining a national project when in "Instinto de Nacionalidade" he suggested how, through criticism, Brazilian literature "[. Death is an important mechanism by which the ABL has asserted the national importance of literature. Where the politicai borders provide the blueprint, these speeches surrounding Rosa's induction into "immortality" provide the suitable magma for expression.
In particular, these three ABL speeches set the nation into perpetuai motion as they write and rewrite Brazil's eternal rejuvenation through symbolic dis- course and death. All antiquated Portuguesa orthography has been modernized. Although this article deals primarily with the articulation of death as it proposes the ABL's imagined infiniteness as a parallel with that of the nation, many of the ideas herein on the role of writing in constructing an "eternal" nation are indebted to Nation and Narration edited by Homi K.