The administration of the questionnaire 1. Do you feel dissatisfied with your body? Does weight influence the idea that you have of yourself? Do you think you should be dieting? How many diets did you start in the last year? Class distribution. Sex distribution. FED are particularly insidious at a time when contrast against weight excess can lead to the emphasis on less productive and often counterproductive therapeutic interventions.
The school's survey can guide children's eating habits and perception of their own body image in early adolescence, which, if they are altered, can represent a premonition to FED. De Luca G, Napoletani M. Premonitory symptoms of feeding and eating disorders in pediatric age. The history of Paediatrics at in Naples has its roots in the Greek-Roman teaching and a few centuries afterwards, in the figure of Frederick II who laid the foundations of the Medical School in Naples. The Holy Roman Emperor was the first to realise the strategic importance of Naples as well as its pivotal role in facilitating the cultural growth of bright young students and scholars so as to avoid unnecessary and expensive trips to other cities for study reasons .
When the formation of the modern Italian state was completed, Chairs in Paediatrics came up in different cities including Naples, where Francesco Fede became the first Professor in Paediatrics followed by Rocco Jemma , Luigi Auricchio and Giulio Murano This journal contributed to spread new ideas at a national and international level and helped to set new links within the academic field. Throughout the 19th century, infant mortality rates were huge and physicians considered "childhood diseases" to take up the biggest share in human pathology.
Consequently, the concept of "culture of prevention" emerged and Medicine entered a scientific era, which ultimately set the foundations of the "puericulture movement" subsequently known as Social Paediatrics and perinatal care. In , following these new concepts, a special fund for maternity and child welfare was created ONMI as well as new hospitals and Paediatric Health Institutes for rachitic children .
At that time the Italian Society of Paediatrics was also founded and several National Conferences took place in Naples, highlighting the intense cultural role played by the Naples Medical School. De Renzi S, Napoli M. In: Ripostes editor. Storia della medicina in Italia: la scuola di Salerno. Naples; Tinanoff N. Development and developmental anomalies of the teeth.
In: Kliegman RM, editors. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders; Auricchio L. The transition of patients with Inborn errors of metabolism IEM is a delicate matter; as the complexity of these disorders makes it difficult to identify a single specialist for the adult patient . In Italy, the transitional pathways are mostly constructed on a voluntary basis and with various approaches: we wanted to identify one possible path for patients with IEM.
Taking inspiration from the available literature, mainly related to Diabetes , 3 years ago AOU Federico II activated a transitional clinic with monthly appointments, involving 2 Metabolic Pediatricians, 1 Adult Physician and some support figures nutritionist, psychologist, organizational figure. It started with a month pilot project that involved only patients with hepatic glycogenosis, referring them to an internist expert of glucose metabolism disorders, with a paper and digital dossier summarizing the pathology and clinical history of the patient.
Through a guided interview and psychological support, we observed how the initial sense of mistrust and anxiety was reduced with incremental visits, while also improving autonomy. We concomitantly extended our network of consultants, now comprising: gastroenterologist, neurologist, rheumatologist, cardiologist and nephrologist. To date, 10 of these patients have been admitted to adult departments, 2 patients still hold periodic meetings in a joint outpatient clinic, 9 are still only in a joint outpatient clinic, although one patient has been admitted to the Medical Clinic. While for some IEM it is easier to find an adult patient specialist e.
We believe that the joint outpatient clinic can be an excellent strategy to help these patients in acquiring full awareness and autonomy in managing their own pathology and interacting with their attendant physician, and we propose to maintain and enhance this promising clinical structure by further enlarging the network of specialists while seeking greater involvement with doctors in the area. Inborn errors of metabolism: transition from childhood to adulthood. Rev Med Suisse. Transition to adult care for youth with type 1 diabetes. Curr Diab Rep.
Evaluation of a systems navigator model for transition from pediatric to adult care for young adults with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. PANDAS have not been accepted as distinct disorder; there are not specific tests or diagnostic biomarkers . Recently it has been performed a revision of diagnostic criteria and it has been proposed a new clinical entity, the Pediatric Acute onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome PANS to indicate a subtype of OCD with an acute and dramatic onset or exacerbation with multiple aetiologies.
Therapy consist in use of antibiotics, anti-inflammatory, intravenous immunoglobulin, plasma exchange, drugs for movement disorders and neuropsychiatric alterations, cognitive-behavioural therapies and tonsillectomy [1,2]. We found articles. We selected only articles in English language concerning diagnosis and treatment. Case reports were We selected randomized controlled trial RCT , systematic reviews, reviews, observational studies, clinical studies. We found 38 reviews and 4 systematic reviews. Comparative studies were 6.
We found 5 RCT, 3 about antibiotic therapy, 2 about cognitive-behavioural therapy. We found an observational study concerning surgery. Singles cases are reported concerning the resolution of symptoms after surgery. Diagnosis and treatment are debated topics and Literature data are controversial. Further studies are necessary to a better definition and management of this condition. Brain Res. Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with group A streptococcal infection: the role of surgical treatment.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. Bronchiolitis is an acute inflammatory disease of the lower respiratory tract. It is characterized by acute inflammation, edema, and necrosis of epithelial cells lining small airways, increased mucus production, and bronchospasm. It is the most common lower respiratory tract infection in the first year of life. Bronchiolitis is the first cause of hospitalizations in infants less than 1 year of age. Respiratory syncytial virus RSV is the most common etiologic agent of bronchiolitis.
The severity of RSV-related disease is worse than that of other viral infections. Most infants who contract bronchiolitis recover without sequelae; instead, some infants require intensive care and respiratory support. Younger infants and those with pre-existing risk factors prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, congenital heart diseases and immunodeficiency are more likely to develop a severe form of respiratory disease.
Despite the high incidence of bronchiolitis, confusion and controversies still exist about its definition and management. To date, there is no specific treatment for viral bronchiolitis, and the mainstay of therapy is supportive care. Typical bronchiolitis in infants is a self-limited disease that is little modified by treatment.
Many clinical guidelines have shown that corticosteroids and bronchodilator have little or no effect on the clinical evolution of the disease. Nebulized adrenaline may be sometimes useful in the emergency room, but in the hospital setting do not change severity of disease or length of stay. It is suggested that nebulized hypertonic saline may be useful in hospitalized bronchiolitis, making secretion less viscous and promoting their excretion. Antibiotics are not recommended unless clinical features or laboratory results indicate secondary bacterial infection [1,2,3].
The main points of the management of viral bronchiolitis are oxygen and rehydration support. Use of high-flow nasal cannula provides superior results to low flow oxygen delivery in moderate to severe bronchiolitis. High Flow Nasal Cannula HFNC therapy has emerged as a new method to provide humidified air flow to deliver a non-invasive form of positive pressure support.
This treatment can be used in pediatric ward and reduces transferring of infants with bronchiolitis in intensive care unit. Some studies suggest that HFNC reduces the need of intubation and the rate of mortality [4,5]. Clinical practice guideline: the diagnosis, management, and prevention of bronchiolitis. NICE guideline. Bronchiolitis in children: diagnosis and management. Accessed in June 22, Inter-society consensus document on treatment and prevention of bronchiolitis in newborns and infants.
Cunningham S, Fernandes RM. High-flow oxygen therapy in acute bronchiolitis. Use of the high-flow nasal cannula support in the emergency department reduces the need for intubation in pediatric acute respiratory insufficiency. Pediatr Emergency Care. Publishing in peer-reviewed journals is becoming increasingly competitive. Frequently, papers are rejected by journals because of poor data presentation. Consequently, it is now recognized that the formation of researchers and physicians should include specific training in how to write a biomedical article.
This presentation focuses on the issues faced by non native English speakers when writing scientific articles for peer-reviewed journals. The presentation is divided into two main parts. A good title and abstract will favorably impress the journal editor, the reviewer and readers. The items to include or most importantly, not to include in each section will be briefly illustrated. The seminar will provide tips to help you to avoid the most common pitfalls and mistakes made by Italian investigators when writing in English.
As the recent revolution of transformative communications technology now connects individuals to the entire world, remote communications are progressively replacing face-to-face meetings. The use of social media networks has not only become increasingly popular, but also been associated with the enhanced well-being and social support of individuals with chronic disease [1, 2]. As using mobile phones for telephone calls declines, using them as smartphones—low-cost devices with the potential for continuous Internet access—is on the rise.
For adolescents facing physical and psychological changes, along with typical difficulties of peer integration, communications via SMS and chat platforms, which allow delayed responses, do not require face-to-face interaction, and permit them to present themselves differently from their real-life selves, have become a highly popular way to keep in touch with friends. Stoppoloni" in Naples Italy adopted new communications systems for educational purposes in by opening a chat line for adolescent patients. Using the chat line, accessible by personal computer during certain hours every week, adolescents discussed their chief concerns regarding T1DM and shared aspects of their daily lives.
Patients joined the virtual community by using aliases that allowed them to anonymously express their fears and problems. In , to offer a more attractive opportunity of virtual contact, the Diabetology Centre proposed an updated version of the chat line downloadable as a smartphone app. Interestingly, participants no longer preferred to use aliases, but often use their real names, even when discussing personal issues.
They are becoming protagonists in their life stories, even to the extent that they have recently proposed to start a blog to share their experiences and organize meetings with teachers and classmates at school to explain important problems related to their struggles with T1DM. Stoppoloni" in Naples Italy. Using computerized text analysis to assess communication within an Italian type 1 diabetes Facebook group. Health Psychol Open. What relatives and caregivers of children with type 1 diabetes talk about: Preliminary results from computerized text analysis of messages posted on the Italian Facebook diabetes group.
Cham: Springer International Publishing; The chatline as a communication and educational tool in adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes: preliminary observations. Chat line for adolescents with type 1 diabetes: a useful tool to improve coping with diabetes: a 2-year follow-up study. Diabetes Technol Ther. Since the licensures of anti-HPV quadrivalent QIV and bivalent vaccines in , their indications have been progressively extended and the schedule indicated to pre-adolescents was modified [1,2].
In , the Ministry of Health published the first national recommendations, identifying pre-adolescent females as primary target. All the Italian regions immediately adopted them . Nevertheless, seven regions and two local health units previously introduced the recommendations for pre-adolescent males and four regions for at risk subjects. The most recent data about national VC obtained in the primary target showed a decreasing trend from At a regional level, a wide variability of VC was observed both in the primary and in the secondary target.
The alarming decrease of VC have to be hindered through strategies that address the vaccine hesitancy VH. The main interventions to address VH are listening to doubts and concerns of pre-adolescents and their parents, building trust in health care workers and institutions, the education of both target subjects and primary care physician and logistical interventions [9,10]. Available evidences demonstrate that licensed HPV-vaccines are efficacious and safe [1,2].
Nevertheless, the dynamic evolution of indications, schedule, and immunization strategies may have contributed to suboptimal VC obtained both in primary and secondary target. The implementation of interventions to address VH is crucial to reach the objectives set by the NIPP, in order to improve equity and accessibility in the prevention field. European Medicines Agency website. Accessed May 10, Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri. Conferenza permanente per i rapporti tra lo stato, le regioni e le province autonome di Trento e Bolzano. Ministero della Salute.
J Clin Oncol. Update on barriers to human papillomavirus vaccination and effective strategies to promote vaccine acceptance. Curr Opin Pediatr. Strategies for addressing vaccine hesitancy - A systematic review. Acute asthma attack is a frequent condition in children. It is one of the most common reasons for emergency department ED visit and hospitalization.
Appropriate care is fundamental, considering both the high prevalence of asthma in children, and its life-threatening risks. The multidisciplinary panel of Italian Society of Pediatrics ISP recently issued a new guideline on the management of acute asthma attack in children over age 2, in ambulatory and emergency department settings. Early use of steroids is associated with reduced risk of ED visits and hospitalization.
A day course of oral prednisolone is preferable in children able to retain drugs orally. Leukotriene receptor antagonists should not be used. Weak evidence supports its use in life-threatening attacks. Heliox could be administered in life-threatening attacks despite previous treatment. This Guideline is expected to be a useful resource in managing acute asthma attacks in children over age 2. On the one hand, promoting citizens, patients, professionals, organization and community empowerment within the regional healthcare services . On the other hand, monitoring quality, equity and efficiency of the healthcare system.
Two State-Regions Conference Agreements December 20 th and February 2 nd , which defines patient centeredness as one of the 8 requirements for the new National Accreditation System. Agenas has been promoting since a program aimed at improving quality of healthcare through the participatory assessment of patient centeredness in hospital facilities, carried out in cooperation with the Active Citizenship Network and the Italian Regions ..
The 4 areas assessed are :. Person-oriented organizational and care processes. Physical accessibility livability and comfort of care facilities. Access to information, streamlining and transparency. The first participatory assessment, carried out in , saw the voluntary participation of professionals from hospital facilities and about patient associations. A new edition is currently underway, with the aim of extending the assessment to all the hospital facilities. Of the items included in the checklist, 16 are aimed at verifying the commitment of the health facilities on issues regarding patient centeredness of healthcare services for children and adolescents.
Uno strumento per valutare il grado di umanizzazione delle strutture di ricovero. Caracci G, Carzaniga S. I quaderni di Monitor ; However, even if safety concerns about vaccines are proved to be unreasonable and their efficacy has been widely confirmed, many children do not get vaccinated . Moreover, lately social media have had purported role in spreading anti-vaccine attitude and advocate risk becoming a global phenomenon that could impact immunization .
Preterm infants are especially vulnerable to infectious diseases, but this population often experiences delays in vaccinations [4,5]. The successful implementation of vaccines depends on many factors. In relation to this aspect, neonatologists are directly involved, regardless they work with term babies or premature infants.
Hence, we believe that a close cooperation between scientific societies and pharmaceutical industries could fill this gap. To conclude, the role of physicians seems to be crucial in providing a widespread vaccination educational campaign, and neonatologist are involved from birth. In addition, an adequate training for doctors should be provided periodically and with easy access.
There is an urgent need for future research on vaccinations in preterm infants to further reinforce the safety and efficacy of vaccines and for an effective policy to implement the adherence to vaccinations national program. Bland J, Clements J. Protecting the world's children: the story of WHO's immunization programme. World Health Forum. Parental attitudes, beliefs, behaviours and concerns towards childhood vaccinations in Australia: A national online survey. Kata A.
A postmodern Pandora's box: anti-vaccination misinformation on the Internet. Cuna A, Winter L. Quality improvement project to reduce delayed vaccinations in preterm infants. Adv Neonatal Care. Apr 3. Immunisation practices in infants born prematurely: neonatologists' survey and clinical audit. J Paediatr Child Health. Vaccination of special populations: Protecting the vulnerable. Physical activity is one of the three main pillars of type 1 diabetes T1D therapy, and if practiced since the early years of life, the child can gain control of his muscular movements, develop strength, and self-confidence.
Exercise enhances the hypoglycemic effects of insulin therapy, decreasing the daily insulin dosage, promoting blood pressure control, increasing glucose utilization, improving quality of life, prolonging life expectancy and psycho-physical well-being of the child and adolescent with T1D.
It is important to make distinctions between what is meant by physical activity, sport, and exercise, because management is different. Physical activity is all about the body movement produced by the skeletal muscle contraction and which requires excess energy expenditure compared to the restive energy expenditure. For sports it is all about the programmed, structured and repeated body movement in order to improve one or more components in good physical shape. For sport, however, is meant everything that implies both fun and agonism. All management will be a constant balance dependent not only on the type of activity but not by agonistic or agonistic, whether aerobic or anaerobic, but also by many other factors such as the type of therapy the patient practices eg multiinjective or microinfusion , the duration of physical activity and especially the type of diet that the patient follows.
It is the team's task to always give precise and safe messages and especially practical advice such as:. The topic of adolescence in international adoptions has been dealt with in the past on a few specific occasions, but it emerges now strongly from the combination of over 50, adoptions realized from until today and from an average age of children adopted by now around 6 years old.
We will highlight this topic with a triple visual look. First of all, a short overview of the training at national level for practitioners dealing with international adoptions, in which specific issues related to adoptive adolescence have been developed . Finally, it will be briefly illustrated in its main results the most recent and extensive living survey — on European level - on the topic of adolescence and international adoptions . The conclusion will be referred to the centrality of the adopted children and the importance of listening.
Macario G. In: Macario G, editor. I percorsi formativi del nelle adozioni internazionali. Firenze: Istituto degli Innocenti; Cyrulnik B, Malaguti E. Costruire la resilienza. Trento: Erikson; Cyrulnik B. I compagni, tutori di resilienza. In: Cyrulnik B, editor. Autobiografia di uno spaventapasseri. Milano: Raffaello Cortina Editore; Bianchi D, Di Gioia G. Adolescenti e adozioni internazionale. Firenze: Istituto degli Innocenti-Carocci Editore; A complex situation has developed around vaccination practice in Italy in recent years. This trend has induced health institutions to take defensive measures, such as vaccination prior to registering for school, required in some regions, or sanctions for doctors who are against vaccinations.
It is widely believed that the doctors who are most outspoken against vaccinations are those practicing complementary and alternative medicine CAM , especially homeopathy. Homeopathic prophylaxis of infectious diseases is based on two different methods, homeoprophylaxis and isoprophylaxis also known as isotherapy , but neither of these has been confirmed as effective .
Investigation of these aspects in relation to the attitude of homeopathic doctors towards vaccination reveals some interesting information. Eizayaga and colleagues found, through use of an online survey, that The present study aimed to assess the attitude towards vaccination of paediatricians using CAM. We distributed the questionnaire used by Eizayaga, partly modified to meet our needs, to a group of 30 paediatricians using CAM and a group of family paediatricians who do not practice CAM.
The questions were designed to establish their attitude towards vaccinations. Only 3. The remaining Only a small percentage of paediatricians practicing CAM are against vaccinations. The remainder are favourable, indicating a priority in line with the relevance of each infectious disease. Teixeira MZ. Isoprofilaxis is neither homeoprofilaxis nor homeopathic immunization, but isopathic immunization unsupported by the homeopathic epistemological model: a response to Golden.
Int J High Dilution Res ; Eizayaga JE, Waisse S. What do homeopathic doctors think of vaccines? An international online survey. Homeopathy ; Preparing an effective oral presentation may represent a difficult and time-consuming challenge even for the most experienced speaker. One of the main aspects to take into account is that each presentation, even on the same topic, is different and deserves a careful and specific evaluation. First, it is important for a speaker to know his or her audience.
Biography - Ilya Glazunov
A talk given to a team of experts in the field will obviously start at a more specialized level than a presentation conceived for a group of students, that will require a more general introductory background. Eye-contact with the audience and clear speech are among the main qualities of a good speaker, even though not exceeding the time scheduled for a talk, possibly keeping a few minutes for questions, is probably the most important.
Nevertheless, varying the visual look of the slides by mixing text, tables, and figures will avoid a bored audience and may turn a simple sequence of data in an attractive story. Criteria to build a successful poster mostly coincide with those used for an attractive scientific talk, even though a key issue in posters is being concise, using figures instead of words whenever possible.
All efforts must be made in order to obtain a poster which is attractive and essential at the same time: a good title will get people to stop, but few clear figures with concise captions will be needed to keep their attention. A synthetic introduction, a clear take-home message and a brief methods section generally represent all the text necessary into a poster. Both scientific talks and posters are not intended to be second-class solutions to communicate your data, and represent valuable opportunities to present your research.
In order to achieve success it is crucial to dedicate time to their preparation, trying to communicate information in a synthetic, attractive and understandable way . Hites RA. How to give a scientific talk, present a poster, and write a research paper or proposal. Environ Sci Technol. Examples of strategies for analysis of Humanization Degree. The analysis of the respect of children rights in hospital was tested by a specific tool for children and adolescents, in line with task force of International Network of Health Promoting Hospital HPH.
Preliminary data results permit the identification of implementable areas, some of which are common to various pediatric settings including: child-friendly spaces, linguistic mediation, simplifying access to health care, continued care, training course, school continuity plans, patient and family centered care programs. Noteworthy, the existing Humanization Degree is different from those perceived by the operators and the users, and -in the latter- between family and patient himself, with considerable distinction also by age.
Agenas-Agenzia Nazionale per i servizi sanitari Regionali. Listening to people to cure people: theLpCp - tool, an instrument to evaluate hospital humanization. Nati per Leggere NpL , website www. The aim of NpL is reading aloud promotion in families with children from birth to 5 years of age . Primary care paediatrician, together with other primary care paediatric professionals nurses are trained to promote such intervention in their clinical practice, with specific regards to disadvantaged families .
Nati per Leggere has in the last 20 years an active collaboration with Reach out and read, website www. AAP has included Reach out and Read together with similar programs, as a best practice that paediatricians should promote in primary care. The Italian experience is described, its similarities with other international programs as Reach out and Read, Bookstart, Stiftung Lesen, and other programs in Spain, Croatia, Switzerland,together with the scientific evidences supporting such intervention in primary care.
The role of primary care paediatrician is underlined as influential in promoting early child development ECD. The precocity of the intervention is remarked as fundamental in order to produce a change in child development trajectory. Nati per Leggere is considered a scientific based intervention which strongly influences well-being, competence in literacy, language and cognitive domains of development, and parenting support. The aim of this discussion is to inform primary care paediatricians and other health care providers on the importance of reading promotion, especially in disadvantaged families.
NpL should be included, within the best practices for Early Child Development, also in the training of pediatric residencies . Hospital humanization should include and implement this intervention in order to support parents during hospitalization and to reinforce the information given by other primary health care providers. The early child period is considered the most important phase throughout the lifespan.
Tamburlini G. Lettura condivisa in famiglia e sviluppo del cervello nel bambino. Medico e Bambino. Strumenti per i pediatri delle cure primarie. National scientific council on the developing child. The science of early child development. Center for the Developing Child, Harvard University; Accessed in July 13, Kawasaki disease KD is an acute, systemic vasculitis [1,2]. KD is a self-limited disease with unknown, probably multi-factor, aetiology, which primarily affects infants and children under five years.
Diagnosis of Kawasaki disease is clinic, based on diagnostic clinical criteria, supported by the results of blood and instrumental exams. This presentation aims to highlight news in guidelines than those published in We will evaluate the differences in the definition of different forms, new instrumental techniques echocardiography, CT Angiography, MRA , updates in therapy both in responder- patients eg. Finally, we will reevaluate the times for follow-up in the different risk classes.
Diagnosis, treatment, and long-term management in Kawasaki 4disease: a statement for health professionals from the committee on rheumatic fever, endocarditis and Kawasaki disease, council on cardiovascular disease in the young, American Heart Association. Pediatrics ; Malattia di Kawasaki: Linee Guida italiane. Prospettive in Pediatria. Arthritis Rheum. Disease-opportunity: in the light of the prevailing guidelines in our culture, juxtaposing the two words has more the meaning of an oxymoron two opposite concepts than of a possible paradox.
The dominant paradigm in medicine is the bio-medical, centered on disease rather than on the patient with its complexity of needs. The disease-opportunity concept goes back to some of the great philosophers of ancient Greece Heraclitus: "is disease that makes health pleasant and good". Over the centuries, the concept was reiterated by philosophers, poets, scientists: "I learned from disease a lot of what life would never be able to teach" Goethe.
From the late s the Positive Psychology appears in the scientific landscape, facing the new concept of well-being as full-functioning of the person and not only as absence of illness or negative events. The research was focused on assessing the subjectivity of the patient, exploring the constructive, creative and propositional aspects of individuals and groups.
Hoping that this precious contribution of Positive Psychology will be better known by physicians, pediatricians and healthcare professionals, I will describe the professional pathway of over 40 years in the treatment of leukemia and what I have learned about the disease-opportunity relationship. I refer in particular to ALL and to the great progress achieved since the late s. For many years prevailed the concept that Post Traumatic Stress Disorder should develop after such a serious illness.
In the early s, I met Mark Chesler, the author of a fundamental article  documenting that cancer is a catalyst for growth in most young-adults successfully treated for cancer or leukemia in their early years. Similar studies are reported in subsequent years and the prevalence of Resilience and Post Traumatic Growth is increasingly documented. We conducted qualitative studies in Monza , Nicaragua and other Latin American countries. Conclusion: yes, the disease can become an opportunity if it is faced with the awareness that after a traumatic event a person is no longer the one it was before: it could face distress, depression and other negative consequences, but more frequently develop growth, allowing to discover new positive values.
Seligman ME, Csikszentmihalyi M. Positive psychology. An introduction. Am Psychol ; Masera G, Delle Fave A. La resilienza: una risorsa da valorizzare. Medico e Bambino ; Parry C, Chesler MA. Thematic evidence of psychosocial thriving in childhood cancer survivors. Qual Health Res ; Masera G, Jankovic M. Noi ragazzi guariti. Milano; Ancora Editore; The management of any chronic condition during adolescence, a time of rapid growth and physiological changes accompanied by important individuation and socialization processes, constitutes a challenge for the individual and his family.
Identity, self-image and ego development are affected by chronic diseases in a generic fashion , even when the disease leads to the use of devices. This is especially true when the illness is more severe and intelligence quotient is higher , because of a major sense of awareness. Because of this, adolescents can easily reject their diagnosis and the correct use of a device, determining the disease worsening.
Body image and the development of a sense of sexuality may also be impaired using devices, which distort the physical body either e. The simplest and most efficient way to investigate these aspects is to ask patients about how well they manage to use the device and how they feel about it. On the contrary, the choice of involving adolescents in using their device can be a chance to make them more responsible, explaining that having a device does not necessarily mean giving up any experiences such as adolescents with diabetes, setting their insulin pumps during parties or school trips.
If adolescents learn how to control their condition using devices, they progressively get a sense to be able to change positively or control their situation [3,4]. Furthermore, active participation in the negotiation of device use helps young people to get some ownership and control of the disease back from their parents. In the fall he starts attendance at the secondary school in the neighboring village of Kabozh. During that period his uncle, Mikhail Fyodorovich Glazunov, is named chief anatomical pathologist of the Soviet Army.
During this period he devotes much of his energy to drawing. He continues to attend school in Kabozh. He reads the works of the Russian classic authors and monographs on Russian history which his maternal aunt Agnessa Konstantinovna and her husband Nikolai Monteverde send him from Leningrad. Nechvolodov, and books about the lives of great military commanders.
He considers enrolling in the Suvorov Military Academy. On May 31 he accompanies his uncle Mikhail Fyodorovich to Moscow, and spends the summer there.
ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS
He resides at the Novomoskovskaya Hotel across from the Kremlin. He witnesses the daily salutes in honor of the victory of the Soviet Army and the march of German prisoners of war through the streets of Moscow. May 9 - Day of Victory over fascist Germany.
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He spends the summer sketching the Leningrad environs and the villages of Lavriky and Kavgolovo. Within the halls of the I. Glazunov studies under Maria Yakovlevna Perepelkina. He spends the month of July at a young pioneer camp in the town of Siverskaya, near Leningrad, where he works long hours on studies. He paints a portrait of his uncle, Mikhail Fyodorovich Glazunov, a renowned medical researcher and collector of paintings from the Silver Age.
In the winter he visits Tallin. During the summer he works on sketches in the village of Betkovo, near Luga.
He stays with Liliya Yefimovna Yakhontova. From Moscow he travels to Kiev. During a visit to the Kiev Pechersk Lavra he feels a calling to enter into monkshood. Following his exams in the winter he travels to Luga, where he works on studies. During the spring break he visits the town of Uglich. Zhdanov Palace of Young Pioneers. He spends the summer in the village of Betkovo, near Luga, where he continues to work on studies. Later he joins student brigades from Leningrad University to work on construction of the Pozharishchensk Hydroelectric Station on the Karelian Isthmus.
Glazunov studies at the I. He meets and marries Nina Aleksandrovna Vinogradovaya-Benois. Glazunov forms an acquaintance with L. Obolensky, talks with whom spark an interest in the personality of Dostoyevsky and early Russian painting. Glazunov works during the summer in Betkovo, near Luga. He takes a trip along the Volga River, and remains for two months in Plyos, where he works on landscape and portrait studies. Glazunov graduates from art school and enrolls in the painting department of the I. He shows his works to Mikhail Georgievich Platunov, professor of the department of drawing and one of the last students of Pavel Petrovich Chistyakov.
In the summer he takes his first student field practice in the town of Yukki at one of the cooperative farms in the Leningrad region, where he gathers material for the theme of cooperative farm life. In the winter he travels to Kiev to study St. In March he travels to Moscow for the funeral of Joseph Stalin. He creates portrait studies of prisoners working at the site. There he spends many hours painting en pleine air. In the fall he is assigned to the studio of Professor Yuri Mikhailovich Neprintsev, but sends a request to work under Boris Vladimirovich Ioganson, a student of Konstantin Alekseyevich Korovin.
In the spring he takes a trip to Kizhi with his wife. He carries out his summer pre-diploma work in the Siberian town of Krasnoyarsk, birthplace of V. Surikov, and Minusinsk. He meets actor Leonid Leonidovich Obolensky, discussions with whom ignite an interest in Fyodor Dostoyevsky and early Russian painting. The newlyweds spend their honeymoon in Staraya Ladoga. The exhibition consists of nearly eighty works, both in oil and other mediums. On February 5 a public discussion about the exhibition is attended by over one thousand persons. The minister of culture, Nikolai Aleksandrovich Mikhailov, visits the exhibition twice.
In May his request for studio space in Leningrad is rejected by the executive committee of the Leningrad City Council Lensovet. Glazunov graduates from the Institute of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture, completing his apprenticeship under Boris Vladimirovich Ioganson. Glazunov takes up work as a teacher of drawing and trigonometry, first at the Izhevsk Trade School, and later in Ivanovo.
When it turns out that there are no openings available there, he departs for Moscow, where he stays with friends. That summer, during the IV World Festival of Youth and Students, he takes part in the work of the international art studio in Gorky Park, and displays his works at the International Exhibition of Decorative and Applied Arts that was running concurrently as part of the festival.
In the fall he moves to a dormitory room at Moscow State University, and earns money working as a loader at the Riga Station. Their quarters consist of a 4-meter-square space used as a storage room by Spanish sculptor Dionisio Garcia. At the same time he rents a one bedroom apartment on Kutuzovsky Prospect, where he begins giving art lessons to the wives of diplomats posted at the USSR Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Through his paintings he expresses his understanding of the Old Russian historical and cultural legacy. He travels to Italy at the invitation of honored Italian workers of culture. He works on illustrations to the works of Kuprin, Lermontov, and A. He visits and holds exhibitions in Copenhagen, Paris, and Laos.
Exhibitions of his work are held that summer in three cities: Warsaw, Krakov, and the mining town of Katovitsa. He meets writer and poet Vladimir Alekseyevich Soloukhin, who requests that he design the cover of his book. At the request of the Ambassador to Israel, he draws a portrait of Anne Frank. In the winter he travels to Kharkov with Sergei Vladimirovich Mikhailkov to pay a visit to psychiatrist and psychotherapist Kazimir Markovich Dubrovsky, renowned for healing patients suffering from stuttering disorder. Glazunov draws his portrait. The portraits, completed in the span of just two hours, are received with delight, and the artist receives an invitation to visit Rome.
Later that autumn he visits Nizhny Novgorod, Gorodets, Semenov, and other towns connected with the legends about the town of Kitezh. On December 26 he speaks before a gathering of young artists held in the Central Committee of the Communist Party, where he formulates his thoughts on the creative process and the state of contemporary art, and speaks of the critical need for efforts to be made for the preservation of monuments of Russian culture.
In order to spread the word of Old Russian culture, he begins working on the creation of a patriotic club around which he hopes to unite Soviet youth. He receives the backing of sculptor Sergei Timofeyevich Konenkov. In press conferences Glazunov sharply criticizes abstractionism and modern directions in art, underlining the significance of the rich legacy of Christian civilization. He paints a portrait of M. This trend of clarifying and expanding the symbolic content of Renaissance Arks also caused the addition of reliefs on doors.
Decorated Doors of Renaissance Arks from Synagogues in Kazimierz Several surviving doors, which originated from the synagogues of Kazimierz are adorned with low metal reliefs placed on their inner side. The doors from the Israel Museum collection are rectangular wooden panels each measuring x 33 cm ill. The outer side of these doors is decorated with intersecting diagonal wooden boards forming rhomboids.
The relief on the inner sides of the doors is made of separate pieces cast in a lead and tin alloy in various proportions that were hammered, cut out and nailed to the background. Tiny traces of the original gilding from both sides and of silver leaf on the inner side, and fragments of colour are still discernable on the doors. As we saw, for example, in the minor stone frames in the Remah Synagogue ills. Thus the wooden panels and the reliefs may be attributed to the same period. A vine leaf occupies the top center of the door ill. Between this inscription and the menorah, the first words of Psalm are set in a narrower row above the menorah, whereas the following seven verses are inscribed along its branches.
This alludes to the symbolic correspondence between the seven-branched menorah and the seven verses of this psalm excluding the first verse , which consist of 7 x 7 i. The symbolism of the seven-branched menorah continued to occupy the mind of Jewish scholars in 16th-century Poland. This verse may have been chosen not only for its meaning, but also because of its numerological symbolism. The sum of the number of the chapter and that of the verse i.
This phrase, repeated six times in Psalm , , thus evokes the idea that the menorah radiates not only Divine Light, but also the Divine Voice. Ela of blessed memory, for their son, the honourable Rabbi Rav Isaac Yekeli[s], may he be raised to study the Torah, and to the Huppah to a wedding and to good deeds, amen. It is probable, that the lower side of the niche was elevated in the second half of the 19th century, when the dedication tablet of the gabbaim was inserted between the bases of the pilasters ill. I thank Mr. The inside of the other door is decorated with a triangular pediment set above the table of the shewbread ill.
The pediment contains a great rosette, and in the spandrels there are three-petalled flowers growing from something that looks like a fruit with small bead-shaped seeds inside. Although both flowers are now absent, their traces on the backround have a shape similar to that of the flowers attached to the S-shaped standing volutes of the window from in the monastery at the Corpus Christi Church ills. On the table, the twelve loaves of the shewbread are arranged in two columns of six. The spatial effect constructed on parallel lines indicates that the maker had no professional knowledge of Italian linear perspective.
In Poland, such Torah binders were not decorated, whereas other Ashkenazi communities widely practiced the custom of embroidering images on them. This inscription alludes to a symbolic parallel between the people who made the Biblical Sanctuary and the makers of the doors for the synagogue Ark. Schnitzer, i. However, the lack of prepositions and periods between the names and several characters that have not survived do not allow us to read the names in an unequivocal fashion.
The technique of low tin reliefs composed together on a wooden panel may be unique to the synagogues of Kazimierz, as no other example survived elsewhere. Even if there were more such Ark doors in Poland, the demand for them would not have been constant, so that it is unlikely that there was a workshop specializing only in this type of production. The supposition that the same person participated in making both pairs of doors ills. Several features of the two reliefs are however different: in the doors from the High Synagogue, the elegant and smooth branches of the menorah bear no inscription, the bottom section of the menorah is interpreted as an inverted cluster of grapes placed between two vine leaves so that it resembles an amphora with handles, and two more such leaves flank the base.
The drawing of the table of the shewbread, though an untrained attempt at perspective, demonstrates a more advanced artistic sense of the use of parallels in a regular design; and on the table, the loaves of bread are arranged on short staves in two separate groups of six with each group set between two baluster-like supports. Since the patron of the Ark doors in the High Synagogue, like the craftsmen, was less versed in these matters, he preferred the menorah without inscriptions in the branches, and approved the shorter citations without checking their wording in the standard Biblical text.
The general impression of the Remah doors is much heavier and seems earlier than the elegant and light design on the High Synagogue that seems to be based on it, just as the High Synagogue Ark was in general based on the type of Ark introduced in the Remah Synagogue. If so, the new doors were attached to the High Synagogue Ark when it already had the Baroque cornice with three finials ill.
Later, probably after the zoomorphic images were added to the new attic in ill. Despite the differences, both pairs of doors are modelled on the same ——————————————————————————————————— Cf. The biblical citations that serve as captions to the reliefs on the doors, stress this association. In some of these illustrations e.
I thank Mrs. Amar who clarified that the pediment relief is an integral part of the synagogue and therefore it must also date to cf. Quoting biblical and exegetical passages that create parallels between vines and olive tree, Amar supposed that there was also an unknown visual tradition possibly originated in Spain. This tradition was probably derived from the representations of the Tree of Life as a vine tree with clusters of grapes in medieval Jewish art, both Sephardi and Ashkenazi.
The closed triangular pediment containing a rosette has been shown above to be a traditional symbol of the Sanctuary in Jewish art e. Although in the known depictions of the Temple implements in Hebrew manuscripts, the pediment topping the table of shewbread cannot be found, in the Copenhagen Catalan Bible ill. Thus a page divided into two vertical panels consisting of the winged pediment, the Holy Ark and the table of shewbread on the left and the menorah on the right, such as that in the Copenhagen Bible ill. Moreover, these pictures may have influenced several other features of the reliefs on the Ark doors: for example, the Temple implements depicted in the Harley Catalan Bible of the third quarter of the 14th century could serve as a model for the shape of the menorah ill.
The panels from the Copenhagen Catalan Bible of ill. The particular shape of the loaves in the reliefs ills. These doors, like the Ark of the Kupah Synagogue, exemplify the folk art trend in the development of the Renaissance model of the Ark. To maintain the Ark as a structure clearly conveying important religious messages, new, more apprehensible symbols were added to the Renaissance imagery that had become obscure. The new elements — for example, the form of the cartouches and of the table on the Remah doors — were modeled on contemporary Baroque patterns.
Conclusions The intellectual and social elite of the Jewish community that introduced the Renaissance style into synagogue art in Kazimierz, developed traditional Jewish symbols into a new programme of synagogue decoration and encoded it in the objects commissioned from the Renaissance artistic workshops of Cracow. The efforts of the patrons of Renaissance synagogue art concentrated on the Holy Arks. The Arks of the Remah and the Old Synagogue and the proposed reconstructions of the Arks in the High Synagogue and Kupah Synagogue are versions of the same scheme, consisting of an architectonic frame around the niche for the Torah scrolls, an entablature bearing an attic set between standing volutes, the crown of the Torah and the citation from Proverbs , and a pediment with a plant relief.
Israel Isserl and the Remah had to instruct the Christian artisans they commissioned and might have advised the patrons of the other new Arks that were constructed in synagogues of Kazimierz during the following years, but the sophisticated programme of the Ark design was obviously never written down and as a result, the imitation of the model without a detailed explanation of its symbolism caused a loss of the more complex and unique semantic motifs of the original programme.
Whereas in the Remah Synagogue this scheme was built up of parts made in different styles and from different periods, in the Old Synagogue, the Italian sculptors combined these parts into an integral composition. Soon afterwards the stone carver from the same circle of Italian artisans reworked the model from the Old Synagogue into the more standard architectonic forms of contemporary art in the High Synagogue. However, the process of partial loss of the original Renaissance interpretations did not change the attitude of Jews to synagogue decoration.
It continued to be used as a visual medium expressing their ideas in symbolic form, and new meanings and symbols were added to Renaissance Arks both during the various reconstructions of the Arks and by adding the door reliefs. The Renaissance Ark of the Old Synagogue continued as a standard model even ——————————————————————————————————— The High Synagogue is the only place that this inscription is not found.
The contacts of ordinary Jews with contemporary Polish art were negligible, so that when establishing the Kupah Synagogue in the s, they commissioned the Ark from folk artisans who were instructed to copy the Ark of the major synagogue of Kazimierz, although the no longer comprehensible image in the pediment was replaced by a more familiar symbol. The Renaissance style also influenced the new design of the smaller stone fixtures in the synagogue interior. From on, stone dedicatory tablets and alms boxes were designed as Renaissance church epitaphs or lavaboes and repositories for the sacrament e.
The main distinctive trait of these carved frames in the synagogue was the Hebrew inscriptions engraved on them. In a similar way, the monumental frame of the entrance to the prayer hall — the traditional motif known from medieval synagogues — was interpreted in the Old Synagogue as a Renaissance portal ill. The door with a Jewish emblem and Hebrew letters in the High Synagogue ills. This later became accepted practice. The Renaissance impact on the synagogues in Kazimierz caused the formation of new principles of synagogue art in later periods.
Such birds and animals would later become common to the synagogues of Eastern Europe and beyond. During the Renaissance period in Kazimierz, new compositional models were adopted in synagogues instead of the medieval elongated rectangular plan. Whereas after the first attempt to accept the square room resembling a Renaissance chapel in their synagogue, Israel Isserl and the Remah rebuilt it on the traditional elongated plan, about a decade later Felix built the prayer hall in his High Synagogue as an almost square Renaissance room, and then this model spread through Poland.
In the next period, the Baroque style penetrated into synagogue decoration, but the basic design remained mainly modelled on those created in the Renaissance. Although in , Isaac Yekelis-Jakubowicz built his synagogue in the contemporary Baroque style, he had his artisans copy the centralized Renaissance bimah with the Serlian emblem of light at its top from the Old Synagogue ills. The spanned dodecagonal grille in the Old Synagogue also inspired the design of bimahs in Polish synagogues as polygonal or round pavilions of wrought iron, stone or wood, that were often domed.
Gli ebrei in Italia dalla segregazione alla prima emancipazione. The town belonged to the crown, and served as a temporary residence for the Cracow court, which at that period often wandered from place to place. In the same period, the municipality built the town hall destroyed in , as well as the church and the hospital of the Holy Spirit now in ruins. Jerzy Z. The continuous migration of Jews and their family relations created various opportunities for the circulation of customs, and the rabbis who usually wandered between different places could have spread various traditions of synagogue architecture and decoration.
Thus, for example, Rabbi Joel ben Samuel Sirkes ca. Four tall windows are set high on the wall in the lunettes on both long sides ills. A small round window was originally in each of the three lunettes on the western wall ills. On the exterior, massive two-tiered buttresses appear between the great windows and diagonally in the corners to support the vault ills.
The building is placed on land that inclines downwards towards the north, so that the floor of the prayer hall is lower than ground level on the south side of the synagogue ill. As a result, from the outside, the wall and buttresses on the north side are higher than these on the south ill. The southern side of the building faces a square, the former market place of the Jewish community, and there is an entrance into the southern side of the annex ill. Another smaller door at the east corner on the northern wall opens directly into the main hall ills. The synagogue walls rise to form a crenellated parapet that screens the roof.
On the eastern side of the building, three arched openings are cut into the parapet ill. Two gutters were attached to the openings on the sides ill. The central slope of the tripartite roof seen on the cross-sections and photographs of the synagogue from the first decades of the 20th century blocks the central opening at the top of the eastern wall, and slightly rises above the crenellated parapet ills. Presently, there are windows only in the lateral lunettes, and the third walled-up window is discernable in the photograph from the s or s ill.
In the second half of the 19th century, the annex was lengthened and the upper storey was rebuilt in masonry ill. During World War II, the masonry annex was partially destroyed, and its reconstruction as a composite structure in ill. Penkalla thus concluded that the synagogue was built between and Various combinations of Gothic building techniques and Renaissance features were characteristic of Bohemian and Polish architecture of the second quarter and midth century.
The single-hall buildings of the Pinchas Synagogue in Prague, the Remah Synagogue as well as the reconstructed two- nave Old Synagogue in Kazimierz are examples of such a transitional type of synagogue architecture from that period. In contrast with the traditional medieval synagogue plan in which the entrance portal was situated in the western section of the longitudinal wall e.
The doorway is to the left of the central axis because of the buttress attached to the exact center of the western wall from the outside ill. The center of this wall on the interior is marked by a pair of boldly protruding brackets that flank a small niche ill. The elongated proportions of the ground plan, the massive buttresses on the walls and on the corners of the building and the dense crenellation evoke a medieval structure.
The centralized spatial effect as well as the low-arched shape of the door and the architectonic frames of the windows imparts a Renaissance quality to the synagogue. This would account for the identical protective parapet in the castle and synagogue. It would also explain the vaulting system. Although the vaults of the two-storeyed palace were already in ruins in , one may learn of the types of spanning used in contemporary royal castles through the example of the Wawel Castle in Cracow, built from to Since in Szyszko- Bohusz could see the synagogue functioning, I prefer his opinion to other possible suppositions that the niche contained a washbowl cf.
The stone parts of the Ark, the alms box near the entrance and the architectonic carvings on the walls and vault are extant ills. The photographs taken before ills. During World War II, the stone bimah, also known from several old photographs ills. The carved stone frame of the Holy Ark encloses the elevated niche for the Torah scrolls in the center of the eastern wall ills.
This type of forestructure is medieval and may be traced back at least as far as the Altneuschul in Prague ill. The forestructure supports a pedestal consisting of a central part protruding from two lateral sections, all decorated above with a cornice whose moulding is composed of petals ill. These pilasters have a base on a plinth, and a shaft designed as a tall frame enclosing a relief of a symmetrical plant growing from a small amphora and topped with three small flowers ills. The Ionic capitals have a pattern of petals on their lower half and a protruding convexity instead of the usual egg-and-dart design between the volutes ills.
The spiraling part of the flanking volutes ill. Another flower grows from the inner part of the volute towards the Ark. The carver removed the surface from around the letters, creating sunken rectangular panels as a background for the flat relief of the inscription. The design is somewhat unbalanced: the words are set closer to the right side of the panels, and a blank space remains on the left of each row. The irregular character of the inscription is in contrast with the precise symmetry of the architectonic frame, implying that a folk carver of Jewish tombstones was invited to produce the Hebrew inscription on the Holy Ark.
The central capitals support the protruding parts of the architrave and frieze ill. In contrast, the central section of the cornice is designed as an unbroken beam. A relief of a five- petalled flower decorates each of the projecting parts of the frieze, and that of a crown, with two volute-like leaves emerging symmetrically from inside it, fills the sunken central part of the frieze. The crown consists of a circlet with finials and a semispherical top and it is depicted in raised relief seen from below ills. The cornice decorated with dentils supports a superstructure consisting of a large, tall triangular pediment flanked by small square bases that are topped by Ionic volutes ills.
A relief of a great symmetrical plant growing from a pair of recumbent volutes occupies the triangular pediment. There are three massive leaves on either side of the plant, a flower seen in profile is set atop it, and a finial consisting of a ball resting on an annulet above an inverted three-petaled flower covers the apex of the triangle. As a result, several details, such as the carvings on the ball, are barely visible. A fragment of this other base and its Ionic volute is discernible directly behind the darker base in ills.
It looks as if the stands in front of the pediment in the photographs are from a later date, and the left base was restored, probably in the late s or s, as it is seen in the later photographs taken after the walls in the prayer hall were whitewashed ills. The original bases would have stood directly over the central pilasters. The resemblance suggests the attribution of both sculptures to the same workshop. Some researchers suggest that Santi Gucci visited Rome and that several features of his funeral effigies were influenced by the works of Michelangelo and his circle.
Santi Gucci managed a great workshop and parallel to his works at the royal court, he executed numerous commissions for the high and middle classes throughout Poland. Thus the combination of the protruding central supports and flattened outer pilasters that may be traced in Poland back to the works of Berrecci at Wawel ills. Although standing volutes are a common element in the Polish Renaissance and appear in the Renaissance Holy Arks from Kazimierz ills.
The scheme of these volutes ills. A similar protruding closed crown appears on the coat-of-arms in the pediment of the tomb of King Batory made by Gucci in the Sigismund Chapel in ill. Similarly, the plant with seven heavy leaves and a trunk formed by two pairs of joined leaves in the pediment of the tomb of Piotr Tomicki ill. The stone architectonic frame with dissimilar paired supports on each side creates a three-dimensional effect, thrusting the main pilasters and the upper cornice and crown forward into our space. The one-piece central section of the cornice contrasts with the broken architrave and frieze to turn the whole composition into a steady support for the high triangular pediment with its heavy forms.
In this Ark, the attic panel is absent and the elements usually placed on them are moved now to other places: the great volutes flank not an attic, but the lower part of the pilasters, and the Hebrew inscription appears below the entablature. As in the Remah ark ill. The strongly emphasized and tall triangular pediment cannot be explained only by the new Mannerist taste, but was made to express a new message, whose meaning can be revealed through the use of high pyramids with a spherical finials in Renaissance tomb sculpture.
This type of pyramidal tomb was designed by Raphael between and for the Chigi Chapel in St. Maria del Popolo in Rome ills. In Italy, the tall Roman pyramidal tombs from the last decades of the 1st century B. See also ill. The spherical finials that Raphael set on the tombs are characteristic of the Egyptian obelisks he saw in Rome. In the Chigi Chapel, the triumphal arch is suggested by the design of the walls behind the tombs ill. This type of chapel later became widespread in Polish sepulchral art, and in the midth century, Georg Joachim Rheticus introduced the solar symbolism of the obelisk into Poland.
In the tombstone of Hieronim Koniecki from ca. As we saw, these symbols of fire and light may also have influenced the design of the pointed roof above the bimah in the Old Synagogue of Kazimierz ill. This attribution of the Guicciardini tomb is not persuasive because it does not explain the contrast between the delicate forms of this tomb and the more massive style of carvings that is common in the other three tombs. In terms of composition, this idea is implemented in the dynamic rise of the triangular pediment to the spherical finial, a rise that is accented by the heavier forms and large standing volutes in the lower part of the Ark.
The new motif of the sphere above the tall triangular pediment was grafted onto the programme originating in the Renaissance Arks of Kazimierz that represent the Tree of Life, spiraling branches and volutes, the crown and the phrase from Proverbs as emblems of the Torah and its triumph in the messianic future.
Waldemar Deluga and Mrs. Rabba His seed shall endure forever, and his throne as the sun before me. Rabba, Petikhtot, 23; Eccles. Rabba, 7. For example, the classical motifs of the flaming amphorae and the vases with plants are found in the Holy Ark of from Mantua ills. The spiraling volutes resembling the scrolls of the Torah — a Renaissance version of the motif originating in ancient Jewish art e.
As in the portal of the High Synagogue of Kazimierz ills. In the Exodus illustrations of the printed Venice Haggadah from ,45 both tall pyramids ill. Such triangular structures are seen behind the taskmasters who hit the workers producing bricks ills.
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One of the three parallel editions of this Haggadah that included a translation of the Haggadah text to Yiddish circulated among Polish Jews. XXXVI no. LI no. LXX no. Thus the additional meaning of the tall triangular pediment may be based on the Jewish concept of Egypt as the symbol of slavery in exile, contrasting with the Exodus followed by the giving of the Law, which is a forerunner of the messianic Redemption which will lead to the rule of the Torah, the true Tree of Life.
The photographs of the Ark taken before show that an additional wooden portal-like structure was found between the stone pilasters, closing the niche for the Torah scrolls ills. Two round columns resting on corbels that are each decorated with a palmette, flank an arch containing two doors. The columns support a broken entablature ill. The wooden columns and entablature were attached to a flat section of the stone frame delimiting the niche cf. The bottoms of the corbels were cut to match the profile of the already existent stone parts around them. The unadorned wooden bar that partially covers the inscription engraved on the Ark was obviously placed on the lintel of the carved frame ill.
The combination of the stone structure with a protruding wooden section does not create an integrated composition. These mismatches prove that the wooden frame was set in place long after the stone Ark was completed. As we saw, new doors for existing Arks were also donated in the synagogues of Kazimierz. The wooden frame is richly elaborated: strapwork adorns the high round base of ——————————————————————————————————— Egypt. An early mention of the ancient buildings in Giza is found in the itinerary of Rabbi Benjamin of Tudela, who visited Egypt between and It is likely that in the course of time they were associated with the treasure cities built for Pharaoh by the Jews Ex.
The acanthi on the protruding sections of the frieze resemble those on the composite capitals of the columns directly below them. Similarly softly outlined symmetrical plants decorate the frieze and the spandrels above the double doors. The text on the right door is a compilation of biblical verses recited in the synagogue before the Torah scroll is removed from the Holy Ark,49 and the verses inscribed on the left door are declaimed when the Torah is placed back into the Ark. The vine, one of the oldest symbols continuously used in Jewish art, was carved on the columns of the Holy Ark of from Mantua ill.
The ——————————————————————————————————— 48 The dark area in the center of the frieze ill. For the sake of David, Your servant, turn not away the face of Your anointed one [Ps. Although colonettes decorated with spiraling vines around their entire shafts may be found in the stone sepulchral sculpture produced in the Gucci workshop,52 the combination of the entwined shaft with the strap- work pattern and the use of ornamented spandrels here are closer to the wooden altarpieces produced in Poland in the first third of the 17th century.
The motif of the gate to the Lord implemented in the stone Ark was now translated into Baroque patterns in wood. Although the wooden frame clearly protrudes here against the stone pilasters, it may be accepted as a symbol of the inner part of the Sanctuary as we had supposed was true of the inner, receding pilasters in the Renaissance Arks in Kazimierz. This is reinforced by the inscriptions on the door referring to the Ark of the Covenant that was housed in the Holy of Holies. However, we do know that the vault design and supports in the late 13th- century Altneuschul and the Pinchas Synagogue ill.
For example, to the left of the Holy Ark, a rib connects the left edge of the corbel on the wall with the large rosette on the central axis of the ceiling, but the corresponding rib to the right of the Ark rises from the rib of the lunette rather than from the edge of the corbel ill. Only part of the ribs on the ceiling outline the lunettes, while the others have a merely decorative function, completing a network consisting of triangular patterns near the lunettes and in the corners, transverse ribs on the barrel vault and a square in the very center ills.
The design of the ribs on the vault of the synagogue belongs to the transitional type of ceiling decoration in Polish sacral architecture, which developed from the stressed ribs in Late Gothic vaults to Early Baroque networks of ornamented stucco moulding on the ceiling e. A twin corbel of the same design is found in the four corners of the hall e.
The corbels play a merely decorative role in the structure of the spanning, as they do not support the lower edges of the vault, but are placed immediately below them ills. The stone rosettes and the corbels bearing Ionic capitals adorned with acanthi ill. Presently, there is a hole in this spot from which a lamp descends over the bimah as it did before World War II ills.
The non-functional use of the corbels suggests that they were attached after , when the synagogue spanning was constructed, and the style of the ceiling decorations can be dated to the early 17th century, the time when the Ark was created. It is also probable that during that reconstruction, the vault itself underwent some alterations, which caused the asymmetric position of the great windows within the lunettes.
The situation known to us from the Remah synagogue, where the carvings had been commissioned from a professional workshop and than set in place by a mason not proficient in architectonic sculpture may explain the contrast between the higher artistic qualities of the carved stone rosettes and corbels and the uncertain course of the ribs and irregular situation of a few of them, indicating the hand of a mason inexperienced in monumental decorations.
The addition of these stone non-functional carvings and the net of ribs impart to the midth century prayer hall a more up-to-date Early Baroque style. Setting the rosettes on the ceiling may also have followed the traditional symbolic interpretation of plant images in synagogue decoration, alluding to shoshanim.
This box ill. The segment of an arch surmounting the niche frames a relief depicting the blessing hands of the Cohen. Surrounding this and paralleling the structure of the arch are Hebrew inscriptions set into two slightly sunken panels. The technique of the flat letters standing out against a sunken background and the placement of the words closer to the right side in the two upper rows resembles the Hebrew inscription on the Holy Ark. The top of the arch is adorned with a short base seemingly topped by Ionic volutes as on the Ark, and flanked by two sets of paired S- shaped volutes that support a small palmette between them.
These parts are combined together so that the lower curve of the central S-shaped volutes are at the same time the Ionic volute of the base in the center. A similar pattern is found on an anonymous tomb of ca. Under the niche, there is a V-shaped pattern consisting of narrow leaves at the sides and a four-petaled flower in the center that can also be a simplified version of the much more complicated corbels supporting architectonic reliefs such as that, for example, in the Czerska tomb dated after ill. The unpretentious style of the reliefs suggests their attribution to the Jewish stone carver who produced the Hebrew inscription on the Ark.
On the panel below the plinth under the niche for the Eternal Light ill. The condition of this inscription is so bad that it cannot be read. The brackets that rest on this plinth boldly protrude forwards from the wall and support a heavy cornice ills. They are a simplified and undecorated copy of volute-shaped Baroque corbels such as those above a door of ca. Two small panels with slots near the niche of the Eternal Light, which are seen on the old photograph of the west wall ill.
The enclosure consisted of two storeys: stone pillars, originally a broad V-shape in plan ill. There were drop-shaped finials on small rectangular bases above the pillars between the arches. In the lower tier of the enclosure seen in an old photograph ill. On the right side of the second pillar from the left, the frame partially overlaps the upper disk of the ornament. The photograph does not allow us to state whether a part of the original carvings was plastered or replaced during later repairs of the bimah, or whether details of the ornamentation originally had intentionally not been completed as a sign for remembrance of the destroyed Temple in Jerusalem.
Two massive pillars and four turned wooden balusters supporting a stone handrail flank six steps leading to the south and north side of the bimah. On the cornice above the balustrade, the pillars continue upwards as smaller pillars with a simple base and impost. The decoration carved on the outer sides of the pillars on the platform allows us to attribute the bimah to the same masons who made the other stone carvings in the synagogue.
The new material caused the arcade to be heavier and did not allow the sculptor to imitate the openwork pointed roof in stone, and this ——————————————————————————————————— 59 The same photograph also testifies that at the period, some wooden balusters of the bimah were lost. Since the arcade is identical in its height while the spans are different, on the long sides of the bimah the arches are semicircular, whereas on the narrow sides, the rounded arches are of more elongated proportions.
The simplified octagonal plan here is connected to Renaissance architectural theories that envisaged an ideal sanctuary and an ideal city built on an octagonal plan. The development of the octagonal sanctuary in medieval Christian architecture and painting in the West was inspired by medieval Christian pilgrims to Jerusalem who associated the octagonal Dome of the Rock with the Biblical Temple. Churches and chapels built on an octagonal plan in Italy in the late 15th and the early 16th century are listed in Burckhardt, The Architecture of the Italian Renaissance, The picture of the gathering of the dispersed Jews in the days of the Messiah ill.
Note also the diagram of the winds depicted as sixteen rays spreading from the center of an octagon in a Vitruvian treatise in London, British Library, Manuscripts Department, Ms Harley , fol. This hexagonal building resembles contemporary Gothic images of the Temple recalling the Dome of the Rock that have a hexagonal rather than the original octagonal form e. A temporary wooden barrier around the high altar in the Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore, attributed to Brunelleschi, is seen in the medal produced by Bertoldo di Giovanni ca.
The enclosure consisted of eigth columns connected by a parapet and supporting a cornice, and each column was topped with a finial that ends in what seems to be flames. On the medal, see Carolyn C. The complicated content of the sculptural decoration must have been developed by a person of stature who was well-versed in Jewish exegesis, knew the symbolism of the Arks and bimahs in Kazimierz, was aware of the art in the Christian milieu, and was able to have realized his ideas in the communal synagogue. The likeliest candidate is Rabbi Joel Sirkes.