Objective : The main objective of this work is to analyse the histories of filicidal women who are unimputable due to mental illness, and also to determine if there is a characterization in this group of women, if there is a meaning to the act, and if it fits in personal and family histories. Eight cases are analysed from to Personal interviews, audio taping and further categorisation by deductive and inductive methods was performed.
Cases are shown with clinical vignettes, general data and qualitative analysis. Imputable women or cases not yet judged were excluded. The women signed an informed consent form, and data was kept confidential and will not be used in the legal process. The concern about the limited opportunities for women has also become apparent among professionals in the audiovisual sector.
The underrepresentation of women in major positions within the cinema industry and in festivals and awards, their strong presence in cinema occupations related to aesthetic appearance hairdressing, make-up, costumes and the lower funding available for productions directed by women are some of the dynamics that characterize audiovisual industry in Spain Cuenca, Institutions such as CIMA Association of Women Filmmakers and Women in Audiovisual Media , which gathers some of the female script writers responsible for the fictional products to be studied in later sections, are working to make women more visible in this industry.
This was symbolized by the red fans that presided over the auditorium in the cinema awards ceremony, as black dresses did in the Golden Globe and white flowers, in Grammy ceremonies, respectively. However, they do not only mobilize through the media; their daily activity can also be useful to improve the situation of women. More specifically, as producers of messages, they have the opportunity to promote a new image of women, whereby they can achieve greater power and a better position, and develop more modern social imaginaries.
The next section discusses the latter aspect. This study analyzes three historical drama series made for television, which were scripted with a female audience in mind. They have all been broadcast by the main public television channel TVE1 , share narrative and semantic concepts and help to bring history closer to the viewer, albeit in its most reductionist and fictionalized form. Their analysis will identify the variables that, according to these fictional works, explain the development and the subsequent socio-political and economic stagnation in Spain during that period.
The review will be performed following the order in which the series were broadcast: starting with the earliest and ending with the most recent. This decision follows the evolutionary approach of this study, as it also allows for the reconstruction of the process used by TVE1 to provide its viewers with the pieces of the historical puzzle. The three texts will be analyzed from a qualitative perspective, incorporating an interpretive reading and qualitative content analysis Fiske and Hartle, ; Castello, Firstly, the formats of these television series will be identified: on the one side, television melodrama, as an eminently feminine sub-genre; and on the other, historical fiction, which recreates scenarios from a different period.
Secondly, each of the formats will be described, identifying its main production characteristics, as well as information relating to how and when they were broadcast and also their audience ratings.
Subsequently the analysis will focus mainly on the narrative characteristics of each production, with particular emphasis on the strategies used to represent history Marcos, , the resources employed to add informative features to the product, and its semantic aspects Montero and Paz, More specifically, the main female characters will be evaluated, indicating both their sociodemographic and narrative features, as well as the gender roles that they assume.
A number of analytical categories devised by the author will be used for this purpose. Emphasis will be made on the postfeminist dimension of these characters. They state that classic feminism limits the ability of women to make decisions and imposes male models, disparaging old roles such as child-rearing and housework. They argue that marriage, romantic love and motherhood are legitimate goals but should not involve renouncing freedom and social promotion.
From this standpoint, they claim that there are no universal gender models or recommendations, but different ways of exercising femininity, and so are there various intra-gender power differences. The relative absence of categories of analysis and valid methodological tools for this object of study explains why there have not been more studies in this field Mills, ; Geraghty, Their structures rely on intertwining subplots, in which the storylines develop with no clear denouement and unresolved conflicts Kuhn, They often feature matriarchal figures with deep emotional qualities, capable of surmounting all kinds of conflicts and adversities.
These characters display extraordinary skills and abilities beauty, great ability to learn, emotional intelligence, perseverance, determination, communication and social skills, problem-solving ability, high self-esteem, etc. From a thematic perspective, romantic love and family relationships serve as the dramatic core, lending an emotional tone to the story. But this emotional perspective is also used to refer to social concerns that affect female viewers. Divorce, abortion, life and work balance, the difficulties of promotion for women at work, shortages, and economic crisis and unemployment are some of the issues typically addressed, on which guidelines for action and resolution are provided.
Moreover, even if the main themes do not directly tie in with these concerns, they are approached from a critical and reflexive female viewpoint Mankekar, Within these formats several recognizable sub-types exist. There are some stories that seek to entertain through the recreation of attractive and desirable lifestyles. They invited viewers to project their dreams and desires for luxury and sumptuous consumption, power, social success and romance onto the characters. For instance, attitudes toward the well-known soap opera Dallas , CBS have been widely researched.
It was rich in sentimental capital and obtained the emotional commitment of its female followers by recreating the personal and family universe of the Ewings through various social rituals births, marriages, deaths, intimacies, disappointments, jealousy.
The evocation of conflicting situations, behavior and feelings love and hate, loyalty and betrayal, happiness and compassion, hope and hopelessness led viewers to play an active role and make different readings of the story Morley, In soap operas such as Dynasty , ABC , viewers obtained gratification through the use of melodramatic pleasure through identification with characters and situations , and ironic pleasure by enjoying the story from a distanced and intellectually superior position Ang, Its aesthetic and narrative excesses made this a revisionist and reflexive production, which criticized and took the rules of the genre to the extreme in order to parody it, and offer a much more distant and less emotional narrative Ang, Melodrama also encompasses stories that are much closer to everyday life and simply deal with more intimate, subjective issues marital conflicts, separations and divorces, personal insecurities, dreams, goals, frustrations, etc.
More recent soap operas have added less common registers to these stories. Some productions specifically aimed at female audiences have opted for irony, parody and the absurd as a way to present the concerns and conflicts of women Ally McBeal , , Fox; Sex and the City , , HBO; Desperate Housewives , , ABC. The use of dramedy as a versatile fiction structure, in which mockery is combined with melodramatic elements in a bittersweet mix, has shown to be a multi-purpose, suitable narrative device Ang, There have been numerous melodramas produced in Spain.
Both their realistic outlook and their ability to evoke and connect with national and regional cultural identities seem to have been the keys to their success in adapting to the Spanish audience Chicharro, and By merging with costume drama a story can be crafted that, in addition to the usual dose of excitement, offers hints of nostalgia.
Furthermore, through costume drama, especially during the s, the values and images of the cultures in which the narratives were located were respectively imported and suggested, which contributed to historiographic imagination de Groot, Some particularly realistic British productions are clear illustrations of this. They tend to cover and bring to the fore broad social concerns, ranging from homosexuality to multiculturalism and immigration Geraghty, and They also may venture into their respective recent histories, using the family and the community as core elements and presenting strong, efficient and diligent women Ty, Historical melodrama has had a strong presence in Spain since the early s.
Mary Nash (historian) - Wikipedia
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