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Bugenthal , Daphne B. Baldwin ed. Leiden: Brill. Camus , Albert , Le Mythe de Sisyphe , trans. Paris: Vrin. Fawcett Dordrecht: Reidel. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Cheney , Dorothy L. Christman , John ed. Christman , John and Joel Anderson eds. Clark , Peter and Wright , Crispin eds. Climacus , Johannes , Concluding Unscientific Postscript , trans. Hong and E. Hong Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Cohen , Gerald A. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Einleitung mit kritischem Nachtrag zu F. Dritte Auslage , in Hermann Cohen, Werke , ed. Helmut Holzhey Hildesheim: Olms, , 5. Helmut Holzhey Hildesheim: Olms, , 1. Danto , Arthur C. Bryden ed. Paul Patton London: Athlone Press. Brian Massumi London: Athlone Press. Dent , Nicholas , Rousseau London: Routledge. Derrida , Jacques a , De la grammatologie , trans. Cottingham, R. Stoothoff, D. Murdoch, and A. Kenny Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, —91 , vol. Miller and R. Miller Dordrecht: D. Reidel, Dews , Peter ed.

Rickman Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Selected Works , iii, ed. Makkreel and F. Rodi Princeton: Princeton University Press. Dostal , Robert J. Drummond , John J.

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Dummett , Michael A. Dussel , Enrique , Towards an Unknown Marx , trans. Yolanda Angulo, ed. Fred Moseley London: Routledge. Ekman , Paul , Hager , J. Ekman , Paul and Friesen , Wallace V. Williston S. Terrot as Principles of Biblical Interpretation , 2 vols. Edinburgh: Thomas Clark, —3. Phillips Oxford: Oxford University Press. Hegel: Critical Assessments , 4 vols. London: Routledge, , i. Dews ed. Heidelberg: Basserman; Frankfurt am Main: Minerva, Rasmussen ed. Forster , Michael N. Zalta ed. Welsch and K. Vieweg eds. Beiser ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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Foucault , Michel , Madness and Civilisation , trans. Howard New York: Pantheon. Alan Sheridan Harmondsworth: Penguin Find this resource:. Colin Gordon New York: Pantheon. Paul Rabinow New York: Pantheon. Hurley New York: Pantheon. Paul Rabinow Harmondsworth: Penguin. Franks , Paul W. Husserl, Philosophie der Arithmetik. Freud , Sigmund , Die Traumdeutung , trans. Joel Weinsheimer and Donald G. Marshall as Truth and Method , 2nd rev. Goshgarian Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Gibson , James J. Ernst Beutler Zurich: Artemis. Griffin , Donald R. Hacker , Peter M. Hardimon , Michael O. Hatfield , Henry C. Haym , Rudolf , Materialien zu Hegel's Rechtsphilosophie , i, ed. Riedel Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. Ewen Secaucus: Citadel Press. James P. Michael N. Foster Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, , — Foster Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, , 65— Bernard Suphan Berlin: Weidmann, , vol. Foster Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hirschman , Albert O. Holland , Eugene W. Hoy , David C. Selby-Bigge and P. Nidditch Oxford: Oxford University Press, Iggers , Georg G. Ilienkov , Evald V. Roth and J. Kaplan , E. Ann and Sprinker , Michael eds. Kern , I. Heiberg, V. Kuhr, and E. Torstling Copenhagen: Gyldendal. Koselleck , R.

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Kuhn , Thomas S. Lane , Jeremy F. Lear , Jonathan , Freud London: Routledge. Leiter , Brian and Sinhababu , Neil eds. Linsky , Leonard ed. Loux , Michael J. Lovejoy , Arthur O. Lowe , E. Oderberg ed. Anna Bostock London: Merlin Press. Livingstone London: New Left Books. John Rees London: Verso. Macherey , Pierre , Hegel ou Spinoza? Paris: Minuit. Mackie , John L. Maimon , Salomon —6 , Gesammelte Werke , ed. Verra Hildesheim: Olms. Martin , Michael G. O'Hear ed.

Marx , Karl , Selected Writings , ed. For the following two decades, the same index lists German-language essays on ethics, out of which refer to Kant and only 9 to Hume. A look at essays published in English also suggests a preponderance of Kant; the ratio, however, is far less striking: to for the period between and , and to since The ratio for books published in English in the same period is 63 on Hume and on Kant.

Geoffrey Hawthorn Princeton, NJ, , pp. Levy and George Kateb. Instead, I am particularly interested in what happens when we call into question the distinction between morality, often associated with restrictive if not repressive regimes of bourgeois or petty bourgeois morality, on the one hand, and the allegedly more respectable and dignified realm of ethics, on the other.

What I encourage is therefore not an analysis of abstract ethical ideals but an exploration of the entanglement of, and the shady areas between, on the one hand, manners and civility, and on the other, sociability and the political. Historians, in other words, need not turn into philosophers; instead they have something to offer to the minority Downloaded from gh.

This is known as normative reasoning. Another attempts to describe the morals, ethics and evaluative procedures that individuals and occasionally communities in fact adhere to, putting aside the question of whether those values are really worth having. This line of reasoning is descriptive rather than normative. Although this distinction between normative and descriptive ways of reasoning appears to be self-evident, the boundaries are often blurred. Close to three centuries of reflections on not just the inevitability, but the necessity of inherently subjective viewpoints and vantage points for any form of historical knowledge suggests that this is impossible.

Andrews and Carl A. Marsden eds , Tomorrow in the Making New York, , pp. Peter Ley Stuttgart , pp. Clumsy Democrats: Moral Passions in the Federal Republic fantasies and fears, desires and demons that emerge out of the moral dramas and moral incommensurabilities of our present rather than putting them aside when we write the history of moral passions in postwar Germany. To study the entanglement of democracy and intimacy in postwar Germany from the vantage point of moral history seems particularly compelling in the light of the fact that historians have begun to reject interpretations of Nazism and of fascism and Stalinism as amoral and barbaric.

Unless we acknowledge the moral foundation of Nazism we cannot begin to understand the twisted paths Germans took as they came to embrace democracy as a way of life. The essay first appeared in Heinz Haller et al. Frankfurt, , vol. True, by , a general disenchantment with the idea of liberal democracy could be found all over Western Europe as well as in the United States.

Both countries voluntarily dismantled representative government, the rule of law and liberal institutions generally Downloaded from gh. Jean Hytier Paris, , pp. Italien und Deutschland — Berlin, , pp. Clumsy Democrats: Moral Passions in the Federal Republic If some of the following arguments are relevant for a more general understanding of liberal democracy, there are also elements to the story that are peculiar to postwar Germany.

Unlike other postwar Europeans, West Germans could not invoke a rich memory of popular resistance against Nazism in order to salvage national traditions.

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As a result, their sense of moral catastrophe and rupture was more pressing. Take the Polish writer Tadeusz Borowski, who survived more than two years in Auschwitz and other camps. They had come like the crusaders to conquer and convert the European continent, and after they had finally set- tled in the occupation zones, they proceeded with dead seriousness to teach the distrustful, obstinate German bourgeoisie the democratic game of baseball and to instil in them the principles of profit-making by exchanging cigarettes, chewing gum, contraceptives and chocolate bars for cameras, gold teeth, watches and women.

Adorno, Problems of Moral Philosophy, ed. Thomas Schroder, trans. Rodney Livingstone Stanford, , p. At the time, Borowski was at work on his book, This Way for the Gas, Ladies and Gentlemen, short stories about daily life in Auschwitz. We said that there is no crime that a man will not commit in order to save himself.

And, having saved himself, he will commit crimes for increasingly trivial reasons; he will commit them first out of duty, then from habit, and finally—for pleasure. We told them with much relish all about our difficult, patient, concentration-camp existence which had taught us that the whole world is really like the concentration camp; the weak work for the strong, and if they have no strength or will to work—then let them steal, or let them die.

The world is ruled by neither justice nor morality; crime is not punished nor virtue rewarded, one is for- Downloaded from gh. The world is ruled by power and power is obtained with money. To work is senseless, because money cannot be obtained through work but through exploitation of others.

And if we cannot exploit as much as we wish, at least let us work as little as we can. Moral duty? We believe neither in the morality of man, nor in the morality of systems. In German cities the store windows are filled with books and religious objects, but the smoke from the crematoria still hovers above the forests. In a public lecture of February , she based her reflections on moral philosophy on the insight that both Nazism and Stalinism had called into question the apparently self-evident distinctions between right and wrong.

The dazzling riches of the economic miracle could not exorcize the ghosts this moral cataclysm had engendered. Abigail Pollak, New York, And yet this inversion of morality had happened, and it is therefore hardly surprising that moral doubts, fears and questions were at the heart of larger postwar European obsessions of how to establish stable democracies and avoid repeating the political breakdowns of the interwar period. As a point of departure I think we need to abandon these concepts.