Thank you for your continued support at home,. This term seems to be flying by. The children have been working really hard in all areas of their learning. Well done Year 1 crew, keep up the good work at school and at home. It is great to see children recognize the sight words straight away when I introduce them because they have been learning them at home. The children need to know how to spell the number names to 20 so over the next two weeks these will be our key words to learn.
I would be very grateful if you could practise reading and spelling these words with your children. This week we have been learning to measure. We started with non-standard units multi-link cubes to measure objects and then moved to using standard units cm to measure accurately. We challenged ourselves by using metre sticks to measure how far we could throw a beanbag. The longest distance was 14m 26cm.
We used chalk to mark the end of the metre stick before we moved it. We learnt that there are cm in one metre. In English we have been learning to write a fact file and a diary. On Tuesday we researched information on the computer about earthworms to find out more interesting facts to use in our fact file. We are making a non-fiction book to give to Busy Bees so that they can learn all about earthworms and their habitat too. The children then had the opportunity to write their draft diary entry on their tummies, some chose to write underneath the table so they felt like they were underground.
Their diary entries were marvelous and showed how much they now know about an earthworm. A lot of the children wrote about how dangerous it is to be an earthworm because of all their predators and how it is only their tail that can grow back. They also found it fascinating that worms do not have any eyes but they do have five hearts.
In Art we used our measuring skills to attach the correct length of stem and petal to our sketches of flowers. We then used these parts in our art. We had seen the beautiful artwork produced by Year 2 and wanted to try it for ourselves. The results were amazing. Through this book we have been reminded how to use different punctuation, including question marks, exclamation marks and even speech marks.
We have also found out lots of interesting facts about worms and held some worms too. Did you know that under a square metre of grass there are approximately 14 worms? After a heavy shower of rain we marked out a square metre on the school field and waited patiently for about 5 minutes, then worms started popping up to get some air. After heavy rain their tunnels flood and they need to come up for air.
In Maths we have had another week working on place value. We used packs of Chewits to help us understand the tens and ones column. There are 10 single Chewit sweets in one pack of The children were then given 5 single digit cards 2, 9, 5, 3 and 7 and asked to make the smallest and biggest 2-digit number they could. The biggest number they made was 97 and we needed a lot of Chewits to represent this number on the whiteboard. They used an interactive square to help them. The group could only ask 10 questions so their questioning became more efficient. This is a great game to play at home to really embed place value.
The children loved it. In RE the children have been discussing and painting their favourite Bible story and learning why these stories are special for Christians. In Science we have been observing the results of our plant experiment to conclude what liquid is best for plants to drink. We found out that a plant just needs plain water to thrive as this was the only rose that really opened up.
The white rose in the red food colouring had pink lines within the petals and the white rose in the blue food colouring had turned slightly blue too. The white rose in the vinegar had a burnt stem and had not opened and the rose in the oil had gone flat. Over the next couple of weeks we will be doing some more experiments to find out what else plants need to grow.
We have many budding scientists in Year 1. When reading with your child please ask them to look out for these special friends within words. On Monday the Year 1 crew went on a Winter walk to collect adjectives and nouns to make their own word bank to help them write a group poem about Winter. The group then performed the poem to the rest of the class with actions to help them remember it. In Maths we have been looking at place value and ordering numbers to We have been trying to find 10 more and 10 less than a number by focusing on the tens column.
We have investigated what seeds and bulbs need to grow.
We planted a daffodil bulb in a clear plastic cup to watch the roots turn down to reach the water. This happened overnight. We made a sleeve to cover the clear plastic cup because we read that roots like to be in the dark. We have also performed simple science experiments to find out what plants prefer to drink. We put 5 plants in different liquids: water, red and blue food colouring, olive oil and vinegar.
We made predictions about what will happen to the plants and in particular the white flower. In PE we have been learning to play tag rugby. Please can you ensure your child has their PE kit in school. They will need long trousers and long sleeves because we will continue to have PE sessions outdoors.
Please continue to look for these special friends when reading with your child. Please also practise the two, five and ten times table and help your child to understand how many tens and how many ones there are in numbers to The children were particularly interested in the carnivorous plants, especially the Venus Fly Trap.
A fly it was dead was carefully placed inside the Venus Fly Trap and we watched the leaves close tightly around its meal. Some plants are slippery and the insects fall into a well of water and drown and are then digested. The children became these plants by using straws and raisins and honey and rice crispies see photos below before designing, labelling and making their own carnivorous plant. They thought creatively about which of the traps they would use if they were a carnivorous plant and the results were fantastic. They caught a lot of insects!
Next week we are learning about place value in Maths by ordering numbers and finding 10 more and 10 less than a number to During phonics we will be recapping the following sounds: ay, ai and a-e, igh, i-e and ie, oi and oy, or, au and aw, ow and ou to learn that there are several ways to write the same sound. When reading at home with your child please could you ask them to spot these special friends in words. The children were absolutely amazing during both Nativity performances at St. They were rightfully very proud of themselves and were buzzing for the rest of the week. This week the children have taken it in turns to be the shopkeeper and the customer in our Christmas shop.
They have bought tinsel for the tree, carrots for the reindeer and presents for their friends. They worked with 1p and 20p coins to add up their purchases and give change. Each class taught the other class how to make a craft. They then worked together to add links to make a paper chain to decorate the hall for the afternoon disco.
It was lovely to see how quickly all the children made new friends. The children enjoyed playing outside on the trim trail and scooters before settling down to a traditional Christmas dinner together. Our phonics sounds for next week will be oe and o-e. We will be learning to spell the days of the week and number names one to twenty. Thank you for continuing to read at home with your child, it is having a huge impact.
If you have any time over the holidays to practise spelling the days of the week and number names: one, two, three etc to twenty with your child that would be great. We are continuing to learn our two, five and ten times table too and recognising numbers to This week we have been learning about 2D and 3D shapes in Maths. The children drew, then cut out 2D shapes to make their Christmas cards. We had many interesting designs, Christmas trees made with triangles, squares and a pentagon star and snowmen made with circles, with a triangle for the nose.
We have been on a 3D shape hunt around the school with our clipboards too. We went outside and looked for sticks to make our own stick men. On Wednesday we had a PE coach in to teach us how to play handball. To warm up we had a game of sharks and fishes. Thank you for all your efforts to source costumes for your child for our Nativity performance. We are looking forward to seeing you at St. Please do not park on the driveway up to the church as this needs to be kept clear for access for emergency vehicles.
Next week we will be looking at how Christmas is celebrated in the UK and the history behind some of our familiar traditions. Our sounds will be ay play , ai rain and ar park. We have used, and built on, our mathematical knowledge this week. We have used different resources to help us, including bead strings, tens frames with counters, Numicon and Unifix cubes to name but a few. At home you could use buttons, dinosaurs or any object to help represent the numbers involved in either addition or subtraction problems.
The children have learnt the composition of numbers 6 — The children represented the number 8 in several ways, using a five and three ones. We then moved on to number bonds to 10 and played popcorn, where one child said a number from and their partner had to jump up and say the other number of the pair to We also played grow, show and throw to help us practise our number bonds to Perhaps you could ask your child how this works and help them practise their number bonds pairs to Thank you for helping your child to learn their 2, 5 and 10 times tables.
We are practising these tables every day in school as well. This week in English we have been making sure that the children know how to break their writing into sentences and use the correct punctuation. We have had a fidget spinner sight word challenge where children had to write as many sight words from memory as they could before the fidget spinner stopped spinning. They found this very exciting.
“A Faceless People On This Land”: Exploring the Christian History of the Mohawk Institute
The children also wrote wonderful recounts of their trip to Weston Museum last week, mainly about the bus ride and the cheese sandwiches, but dinosaurs and fossils were mentioned too! Next week we will be learning about the different seasons and writing our own story about Stickman. The children are working very hard to polish their performance and learn the songs. Please could you ensure you have returned the reply slip for pick up arrangements from the church on the 12th December.
They then got into teams to make a presentation to the other groups about why their chosen explorer was the greatest, using persuasive language, for example, I think that, I feel that and in my opinion. The children then wrote a persuasive piece to convince me that their explorer was the best. Their writing was amazing. I think the opportunity to have a debate before writing so their ideas were fresh in their minds and the fact that they had used whole sentences in their speech really helped to improve the quality of their writing, perhaps the competitive nature of the task also had something to do with it!
In Maths we have worked really hard to learn our two times table. Could you please continue to practise the two, five and ten times table at home. On Friday we had an excellent trip to Weston Museum to learn more about fossils. We saw a fossil of an Ichthyosaur, the first dinosaur fossil that one of our explorers, Mary Anning, found and the largest ammonite we had ever seen. We took part in a workshop that included a fossil dig.
Once we found a fossil in the sand we had to match it to the picture and then we were told all about it. We also compared the bones of a Titanosaurus, a T-Rex and a human skeleton. The children were shown lots of fossils of different creatures and had to guess what they were. They then had the opportunity to make their own from clay. We compared dinosaurs by deciding which one was the longest, shortest, tallest, smallest, highest, coldest, smoothest, strongest etc. We were surprised to read she was only 12 years old when she found the fossil of an Ichthyosaur fish lizard in Lyme Regis.
We used this tongue twister to practise our handwriting too, especially our formation of s, e and a. We have been looking at the artist Andy Goldsworthy who specialises in land art.
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We then collected natural objects to create our own Ichthyosaur. In Maths we have been jumping forwards along a number line to find the difference between numbers. We have also had a go at solving missing number problems and explaining our reasoning. The children are getting better at the two times table. We have pictures of pairs of socks to help us count in twos. We are also continuing to count forward and back from any number to any number within Thank you for your donations for Children in Need.
We had a lovely day. The children worked together to weigh out ingredients to make cakes. The children also worked together to measure the bears head to make a spotty bandage. Their challenge was to add 50 spots to the bandage. Next week we are going to Weston Museum on Friday.
School uniform must be worn. However, Year 1 and Year 2 children at Hewish are able to wear their own clothes on Thursday 23rd November to raise funds for the Christmas Fair the following day. We have been learning to subtract using a number line this week. This came in useful when we were giving change in our shop. The children took on the various roles, we made button holes and hats and even threw confetti. In English we have been breaking our writing into sentences and adding the correct punctuation. We noticed when it was appropriate to use an exclamation mark and a question mark.
We then put them into sentences to describe what her dog had been doing. We used words such as curled, turned, bounded, walked, stayed. We have been using a disco dough gym to make our fingers stronger for writing every morning for the last couple of weeks. We are revisiting split digraphs a-e as in cake , i-e as in bike , o-e as in joke and u-e June next week in phonics. We have been predicting what will happen next in the story and writing sentences using a range of punctuation.
In Maths we have been learning to subtract. We have been using sentences to describe what is happening when we take away, for example, First there were 7 birds in the tree. Then 4 flew away. Now there are 3 birds in the tree. This language has really helped the children understand subtraction as they can picture what is happening. We have used counters to represent the amounts and physically taken them away and drawn circles and crossed them out to show the amount that is left.
On Friday, all the children were able to write subtraction sentences independently. Please can you practise the 2 times table, 5 times table and 10 times table with your child at home and help them to recognize numbers to If you have time perhaps you could play shops at home so children become familiar with the different coins. Our value for this term is Friendship and we have talked at length about what a good friend should be like. This term we have a specialist coach for PE on a Wednesday afternoon who will be teaching the children how to play Hand ball.
Can you please ensure all children have their PE kits in school for next week. We have learnt a lot about fossils this week. We made our own ammonites from Plasticine, then we made some plaster of Paris and pretended this was the sediment and covered our ammonites.
Our sight words are: thought, caught, bought, walk and talk. The children are really accelerating with their reading — thank you so much for all the reading you are doing at home, it really does make all the difference. We are sad to be saying goodbye to Jodie and Oliver but we are excited for them as they move to their own farm in Devon and a school with a swimming pool! This week we had a space picnic to finish our space explorer theme and the end of a very successful term 1. Next term we will by studying a female explorer called Mary Anning and finding out what she discovered in Lyme Regis.
In our English lessons this week we have used our story plan to write our sequel to Beegu. I was very impressed with the quality and quantity of writing. We checked our work to see if we had used the correct punctuation, adjectives and different sentence starters. We are also thinking carefully about our handwriting and whether we are forming the letters correctly and we are all trying to make our letters smaller. If your child is writing at home please could I ask that you provide them with lined paper so they can practise writing on the line. We have also been matching capital letters to lower case letters so that when the children are asked to start a new sentence with a capital letter they know what the capital equivalent looks like.
We have also been making capital letters from play dough to help us. In Maths this week we have been using our knowledge of addition to solve number problems.
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This term we have learnt our ten times table. Next term we will be learning our two times table and five times table. Please could you help your child practise these times tables at home. The children helped each other beautifully as some of us found programming a little tricky to start. We could make out where the cities were because of the concentration of lights. We have been trying to learn the names of all the continents. In Maths we have been learning our number bonds to 10 and writing addition sentences.
Jo told us all about the planets in the Solar System. We were given a planet and we had to get in order. The stars we see in the sky are so small because they are so far away from Earth. We chose which planet we wanted to make. The boys who chose Earth used the globe to help them see where the continents and oceans were. The most exciting part of the morning was to put on the virtual reality goggles and actually blast off into space in our very own rocket. We saw the bubbling hot sun, other stars, planets and all the controls inside the space rocket.
We have learnt a lot about Tim Peake and what it is like to live in space, for example, how astronauts wash their hair, what food they have to eat, how often they change their clothes and how they sleep. On Thursday, we had our own infant baptism. On Friday afternoon we had great fun making and launching rocket mice into space. First, we had to make a cone for the body of the mouse.
Then we added eyes, ears and a tail before placing the mouse on top of a plastic bottle. When the mouse was in position we pressed the air out of the bottle which fired the mouse up into the sky. We talked about what effect the different sized bottles had on how high the mouse went. I have been very impressed again this week by the standard of writing, especially during our phonics lessons.
The children are using their Fred Talk fingers to find the sounds in words before they write. We are also working hard to recognise and spell our sight words. We have also been learning that there are several alternative ways to write the same sound, for example: er, ur, ir and ow, ou, and ai, ay, a-e and oa, ow, o-e. In English we have been learning to break our writing up into sentences and use a variety of punctuation, including when to use a full stop and when to use a question mark.
We verbalised our number sentence before writing it and remembered to write just one digit in each of the squares in our maths books. We also undertook an investigation to see how many number bonds to 10 there are. In RE we looked at what symbols are associated with celebrations and the children made a comprehensive list: balloons, cards, presents, cakes, candles, party food and drew some excellent pictures and labelled them. We also talked about how to be a good friend to Beegu and what we would do if we were being ignored and feeling lonely.
On Friday we watched real footage of Neil Armstrong walking on the Moon. We then tried to walk as if we were on the moon in slow motion but we found it difficult to stay in the air when we jumped! We learnt so many facts about Neil Armstrong that we decided to write a fact file. See if your child can remember any. A lot of the children challenged themselves and put the words into sentences.
In English we have been writing our own space stories. We have started to use traffic light coloured cups to self-assess. We show our red cup when we are finding the task a bit difficult and need extra support from an adult or friend, the amber cup when we are happy to have a go by ourselves and green cups when we do not need any help because we can do it independently. We are reading the story of Beegu, an alien who has crash landed on Earth and is all alone.
We have designed, made and evaluated our very own spaceships to help Beegu return home. I was very impressed with the amount of effort that all the children put into making their spaceships, it was a very quiet afternoon! In Maths we have been partitioning numbers using arrow cards to find out how many tens and ones there are in numbers to We have also been learning about ordinal numbers 1st, 2nd, 3rd etc. We had a bean bag throwing competition and became judges to award places in the competition.
We look forward to continuing our space theme next week and learning more about Neil Armstrong and the moon landing. On Monday the Year 1 Crew hid their clay creatures in the vegetation around the school grounds for their classmates to discover. We have also been learning to represent the value of numbers this week. We used bundles of 10 straws to help us with place value. On Tuesday we enjoyed the sunshine and played some team building games that focussed on big movements on the field.
In phonics we have been looking at sounds that sound the same but are written differently, for example oi and oy, ay and a-e, ee and ea. The Year 1 Crew have had a very busy week. Library and Archives of Canada. Accessed March 11, Lux, Maureen K. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, Maracle, Lee. Toronto: Press Gang, Milloy, John S. Winnipeg: The University of Manitoba Press, Moses, Russ. Residential School Memoir. December File No. Nelles, Abram. Translated by John Hill Jr. Paul W. Pasqualed, Paul W.
Canadian Review of Comparative Literature Edmonton: University of Alberta Press, Tour and conversation with the author, Dec Razack, Sherene H. Six Nations on the Grand River. Stote, Karen. Halifax: Fernwood Publishing, Truth and Reconcilation Commission of Canada. Final Report. Tuhiwai Smith, Linda. Decolonizing Methodoligies: Research and Indigenous Peoples. Second Edition. New York: Zed Books, E-mail message to author, Sept 30, E-mail message to the author, February 27, Discussion with the author, January In what follows, I draw heavily on government files provided in this public record.
I went through over poorly sorted, often out of order, and frequently poorly scanned files while researching this paper. In the s, the DIA had attempted to close down the Institute and transfer the students to day schools. The Anglican Church fought against this and won. As a result, the Mohawk Institute began to take in even more deeply impoverished students, from a much larger geographical region than before.
However, the struggle in the s was, in turn, preceded by a conflict between the Canadian Government, the Anglican Church of Canada, and NEC as to who was taking what role in relation to the Mohawk Institute. This was resolved from The NEC retained the lease of the land but the federal government took on full operating costs apart from paying for the insurance. The local Anglican Diocese was granted the ability to select Principals. The oral histories provided in the interviews and e-mails mentioned in this paper are a critical component in engaging in scholarship related to Indigenous histories, especially given the ways in which Indigenous knowledge-keeping and transmission have differed from Western, academic models cf.
Linda Tuhiwai Smith. Decolonizing Methodologies: Research and Indigenous Peoples. One should be cautious about reading too much into this as it is likely that such name-giving was strictly ceremonial — similar to what happens with Canadian Prime Ministers like Stephen Harper or Justin Trudeau — whose Indigenous naming ceremony should, in no way, be taken as a reflection of how they related to Indigenous peoples and nations during their tenures as Prime Minister.
According to the oral history, Zimmerman and his wife, Gladys, took a large amount of files and other documents with them when they left the school. It is said that the Anglican Diocese tried to recover these files from first Zimmerman, and then from Gladys after Zimmerman died in , but that they were unsuccessful in doing so.
The couple lived rent free on the grounds of the school until they died Gladys died in Zimmerman was said to act nice when other people were around but cruelly when there was no witness ibid. Some survivors describe him as a sadist ibid. Zimmerman has been hospitalized for a number of weeks due to a very serious depression C It is also the only residential school still standing that can be toured.
After the schools were closed, the land was returned to Band control and the buildings were either destroyed, allowed to fall into disrepair or, in a few instances like Shingwauk in Sault Ste. Marie, which is now Algoma College converted to new uses.
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In order to save the Mohawk Institute so that the legacy of the school could be known, Six Nations did a fund raising campaign. The federal government which was heavily involved in running the school contributed nothing Powless, Wiland and Key Jr. Occupying settler colonial states like Canada and the United States have mapped their way onto the geography much like the Rhodesians, or the Boers, or the Belgians, did in Africa.
For more comprehensive histories of this, that takes us beyond the scope of this paper, that support this claim Cf. James Daschuk. Stolen Continents Toronto: Penguin Books, , passim. John S. This report proposed that Canada follow the American industrial school model for Indigenous children. For this and much of what follows in this section cf. Historical Studies 61 : no pagination online ; Wiland and Key Jr. This was the chapel used by the Mohawk Institute the Queen Anne silver remains there , although cold and wet weather often caused chapel services to be performed at the school itself.
The chapel can still be booked today as a wedding venue, as per a collaboration between Parks Canada, the Anglican Church, and Six Nations. Teaching aids — from Prayer books to Primers — were to be in the Mohawk language. He was expecting a school curriculum that would mainly consist of reading, writing, and mathematics but what followed was something very different. The NEC is still active today.
I contacted their Secretary while preparing this paper to ask about access to their archives in relation to the Mohawk Institute and received a copy of the book by Hitchin et al. Charles M. Lugger also began work on a Mohawk grammar and Mohawk translations of prayer books and the Book of Common Prayer — a project completed by his successor. Lugger had selected the site in the Mohawk village because his initial missionary work had met with more success there. He had clashed with the Senecas, Cayugas, and Delawares, who were following the teachings of Skanyadariyoh Handsome Lake and reviving traditional religious practices.
He only little to moderate success among the Onondagas, Oneidas, and Tuscaroras. Douglas Leighton. Thus, the split with Brant and the Mohawks was the beginning of the process whereby Indigenous children were forced against their will and against the wills of their families, to attend residential schools. This is but one example among many of Indigenous peoples from Turtle Island entering into agreements of good faith with European settlers and the North American States that replaced the European colonies only to have what they requested in this case a school staffed with their own people, taught in their own language, with the curriculum under their control , twisted and used as a weapon intent on assimilation or genocide cf.
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The most definitive account, compiled by Graham, supports the date Graham, 2. The Mechanics Institute begins in and boards students at farms in the local area. Leighton; also Graham, Graham, Ashton Sr. Ashton Jr. Being locked in the dark in solitary confinement was still a practice in used in the s ibid. From this point onwards, the Government is constantly plotting and attempting to gain increasingly more control over the school. I found nothing negative about Turnell in any of the texts examined. He also gave the children whole milk and butter and met with the Six Nations Chiefs Council to discuss the Institute.
At least one student remembers him fondly ibid. Boyce had temporarily subbed in after Ashton Jr. Almost all of the government records leave of calling Mrs. Rogers at the end of The remaining Principals after Rogers, H. Snell and C. After , the NEC is almost totally uninvolved. The land is leased to the Government of Canada who becomes responsible for the upkeep costs. The management and administration of the Institution goes to the Anglican Church of Canada. He was also remembered as being constantly drunk and it is likely that he was drinking and raping the girls. One survivor story in particular illustrates this on what follows, cf.
A nineteen year old girl, who was in grade five because she had epilepsy and was considered slow, was caught in the dormitory during the day she had gone there for privacy because she was on her period. Snell sends for her to go to the office but she refuses to leave the playroom where the nurse had brought her. Snell then goes to strap her in the playroom and the other little girls try to defend her but he straps everyone and drives the other girls back against the wall.
He then straps the nineteen year old until she has a seizure. Wiland and Key Jr. There are now more Indigenous children in foster care today than ever were in residential schools at the height of their operations cf. This also fits with the Mission of the NEC already quoted above. Scott is simply stating that he plans to succeed where his forebears failed. Upon touring the Institute with Jessica Powless, I was shown a picture of graffiti carved by students under one of the sewing tables.
Photos of this graffiti are available online. Hidden stashes of trash from town or from the street then became valuables for the kids. Some speak of the joy they had playing with gum wrappers Brown. Others remember a girl who had a piece of broken glass she found that she used to treasure and sleep with at night because it was her sole possession Wiland and Key Jr. Witnessing one such stash of belongings found in a hideaway at the Mohawk Institute and thinking of the very young children who treasured such things, was also a harrowing experience.
Students recall various forms of abuse, from being locked in a closet with rats to receiving repeated and severe beatings, for speaking their languages ibid. There is no question that Indian students learned much more quickly in their native languages as opposed to English. Seating at meals and bunking at night were ordered by number. Thus, for example, two sisters were assigned number 34 and number 54 and were then strapped when caught bunking together on the first night Brown.
While this was the general practice, and a frequent memory of sibling survivors, while examining the archives, I did observe that there were times when siblings were assigned consecutive numbers C The lack of concern about any negative impact this might have on children is evident in a letter from V.
Eastwood wanted to divide siblings between the Mohawk Institute where he would send a 9 and a 10 year old girl and the Shingwauk Residential School at Sault Ste. Marie where he would send a 12 and a 6 year old girl. Even at the Mohawk Institute together, brothers and sisters had a difficult time keeping in any contact.
Some speak of not even being aware when a sibling had been sent to the hospital Graham, Those children whose parents could not speak English were, along with their parents, expected to remain silent for the fifteen minutes of the visit. John A. MacDonald is looking to reinforce this while also expanding the school system in general. Ambrose, who, in his work on the creation, declared that "Moses opened his mouth and poured forth what God had said to him. Augustine, preparing his Commentary on the Book of Genesis , laid down in one famous sentence the law which has lasted in the Church until our own time: "Nothing is to be accepted save on the authority of Scripture, since greater is that authority than all the powers of the human mind.
Through the mediaeval period, in spite of a revolt led by no other than St. Augustine himself, and followed by a series of influential churchmen, contending, as we shall hereafter see, for a modification of the accepted view of creation, this phrase held the minds of men firmly. The great Dominican encyclopaedist, Vincent of Beauvais, in his Mirror of Nature , while mixing ideas brought from Aristotle with a theory drawn from the Bible, stood firmly by the first of the accounts given in Genesis, and assigned the special virtue of the number six as a reason why all things were created in six days; and in the later Middle Ages that eminent authority, Cardinal d' Ailly, accepted everything regarding creation in the sacred books literally.
Only a faint dissent is seen in Gregory Reisch, another authority of this later period, who, while giving, in his book on the beginning of things, a full length woodcut showing the Almighty in the act of extracting Eve from Adam's side, with all the rest of new-formed Nature in the background, leans in his writings, like St. Augustine, toward a belief in the pre-existence of matter. At the Reformation the vast authority of Luther was thrown in favour of the literal acceptance of Scripture as the main source of natural science.
The allegorical and mystical interpretations of earlier theologians he utterly rejected. Moses calls things by their right names, as we ought to do I hold that the animals took their being at once upon the word of God, as did also the fishes in the sea. Not less explicit in his adherence to the literal account of creation given in Genesis was Calvin. He warns those who, by taking another view than his own, "basely insult the Creator, to expect a judge who will annihilate them. He dwells on the production of birds from the water as resting upon certain warrant of Scripture, but adds, "If the question is to be argued on physical grounds, we know that water is more akin to air than the earth is.
The controlling minds in the Roman Church steadfastly held this view. In the seventeenth century Bossuet threw his vast authority in its favour, and in his Discourse on Universal History , which has remained the foundation not only of theological but of general historical teaching in France down to the present republic, we find him calling attention to what he regards as the culminating act of creation, and asserting that, literally, for the creation of man earth was used, and "the finger of God applied to corruptible matter.
The Protestant world held this idea no less persistently. In the seventeenth century Dr. John Lightfoot, Vice-Chancellor of the University of Cambridge, the great rabbinical scholar of his time, attempted to reconcile the two main legends in Genesis by saying that of the "clean sort of beasts there were seven of every kind created, three couples for breeding and the odd one for Adam's sacrifice on his fall, which God foresaw"; and that of unclean beasts only one couple was created.
So literal was this whole conception of the work of creation that in these days it can scarcely be imagined. The Almighty was represented in theological literature, in the pictured Bibles, and in works of art generally, as a sort of enlarged and venerable Nuremberg toymaker. At times the accounts in Genesis were illustrated with even more literal exactness; thus, in connection with a well-known passage in the sacred text, the Creator was shown as a tailor, seated, needle in hand, diligently sewing together skins of beasts into coats for Adam and Eve.
Such representations presented no difficulties to the docile minds of the Middle Ages and the Reformation period; and in the same spirit, when the discovery of fossils began to provoke thought, these were declared to be "models of his works approved or rejected by the great Artificer," "outlines of future creations," "sports of Nature," or "objects placed in the strata to bring to naught human curiosity"; and this kind of explanation lingered on until in our own time an eminent naturalist, in his anxiety to save the literal account in Genesis, has urged that Jehovah tilted and twisted the strata, scattered the fossils through them, scratched the glacial furrows upon them, spread over them the marks of erosion by water, and set Niagara pouring -- all in an instant -- thus mystifying the world "for some inscrutable purpose, but for his own glory.
The next important development of theological reasoning had regard to the divisions of the animal kingdom. Naturally, one of the first divisions which struck the inquiring mind was that between useful and noxious creatures, and the question therefore occurred, How could a good God create tigers and serpents, thorns and thistles? The answer was found in theological considerations upon sin.
To man's first disobedience all woes were due. Great men for eighteen hundred years developed the theory that before Adam's disobedience there was no death, and therefore neither ferocity nor venom. Some typical utterances in the evolution of this doctrine are worthy of a passing glance. Augustine expressly confirmed and emphasized the view that the vegetable as well as the animal kingdom was cursed on account of man's sin.
Two hundred years later this utterance had been echoed on from father to father of the Church until it was caught by Bede; he declared that before man's fall animals were harmless, but were made poisonous or hurtful by Adam's sin, and he said, "Thus fierce and poisonous animals were created for terrifying man because God foresaw that he would sin , in order that he might be made aware of the final punishment of hell. In the twelfth century this view was incorporated by Peter Lombard into his great theological work, the Sentences , which became a text-book of theology through the middle ages.
He affirmed that "no created things would have been hurtful to man had he not sinned; they became hurtful for the sake of terrifying and punishing vice or of proving and perfecting virtue; they were created harmless, and on account of sin became hurtful. This theological theory regarding animals was brought out in the eighteenth century with great force by John Wesley.
He declared that before Adam's sin "none of these attempted to devour or in any wise hurt one another"; "the spider was as harmless as the fly, and did not lie in wait for blood. Adam Clarke and Dr. Richard Watson, whose ideas had the very greatest weight among the English Dissenters, and even among leading thinkers in the Established Church, held firmly to this theory; so that not until, in our own time, geology revealed the remains of vast multitudes of carnivorous creatures, many of them with half-digested remains of other animals in their stomachs, all extinct long ages before the appearance of man upon earth, was a victory won by science over theology in this field.
A curious development of this doctrine was seen in the belief drawn by sundry old commentators from the condemnation of the serpent in Genesis -- a belief, indeed, perfectly natural, since it was evidently that of the original writers of the account preserved in the first of our sacred books. This belief was that, until the tempting serpent was cursed by the Almighty, all serpents stood erect, walked, and talked. This belief was handed down the ages as part of "the sacred deposit of the faith" until Watson, the most prolific writer of the evangelical reform in the eighteenth century and the standard theologian of the evangelical party, declared: "We have no reason at all to believe that the animal had a serpentine form in any mode or degree until its transformation; that he was then degraded to a reptile to go upon his belly imports, on the contrary, an entire loss and alteration of the original form.
Troublesome questions also arose among theologians regarding animals classed as "superfluous. Augustine was especially exercised thereby. He says: "I confess I am ignorant why mice and frogs were created, or flies and worms All creatures are either useful, hurtful, or superfluous to us As for the hurtful creatures, we are either punished, or disciplined, or terrified by them, so that we may not cherish and love this life. Augustine in so many other matters, declined to follow him fully in this. To him a fly was not merely superfluous, it was noxious -- sent by the devil to vex him when reading.
Another subject which gave rise to much searching of Scripture and long trains of theological reasoning was the difference between the creation of man and that of other living beings. Great stress was laid by theologians, from St. Basil and St. Augustine to St. Thomas Aquinas and Bossuet, and from Luther to Wesley, on the radical distinction indicated in Genesis, God having created man "in his own image.
In view of this and of well-known texts incorporated from older creation legends into the Hebrew sacred books it came to be widely held that, while man was directly moulded and fashioned separately by the Creator's hand, the animals generally were evoked in numbers from the earth and sea by the Creator's voice. A question now arose naturally as to the distinctions of species among animals.
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The Vast majority of theologians agreed in representing all animals as created "in the beginning," and named by Adam, preserved in the ark, and continued ever afterward under exactly the same species. This belief ripened into a dogma. Like so many other dogmas in the Church, Catholic and Protestant, its real origins are to be found rather in pagan philosophy than in the Christian Scriptures; it came far more from Plato and Aristotle than from Moses and St.
But this was not considered: more and more it became necessary to believe that each and every difference of species was impressed by the Creator "in the beginning," and that no change had taken place or could have taken place since. Some difficulties arose here and there as zoology progressed and revealed ever-increasing numbers of species; but through the Middle Ages, and indeed long after the Reformation, these difficulties were easily surmounted by making the ark of Noah larger and larger, and especially by holding that there had been a human error in regard to its measurement.
But naturally there was developed among both ecclesiastics and laymen a human desire to go beyond these special points in the history of animated beings -- a desire to know what the creation really is. Current legends, stories, and travellers' observations, poor as they were, tended powerfully to stimulate curiosity in this field. Three centuries before the Christian era Aristotle had made the first really great attempt to satisfy this curiosity, and had begun a development of studies in natural history which remains one of the leading achievements in the story of our race.
But the feeling which we have already seen so strong in the early Church -- that all study of Nature was futile in view of the approaching end of the world -- indicated so clearly in the New Testament and voiced so powerfully by Lactantius and St. Augustine -- held back this current of thought for many centuries. Still, the better tendency in humanity continued to assert itself. There was, indeed, an influence coming from the Hebrew Scriptures themselves which wrought powerfully to this end; for, in spite of all that Lactantius or St.
Augustine might say as to the futility of any study of Nature, the grand utterances in the Psalms regarding the beauties and wonders of creation, in all the glow of the truest poetry, ennobled the study even among those whom logic drew away from it. But, as a matter of course, in the early Church and throughout the Middle Ages all such studies were cast in a theologic mould. Without some purpose of biblical illustration or spiritual edification they were considered futile too much prying into the secrets of Nature was very generally held to be dangerous both to body and soul; only for showing forth God's glory and his purposes in the creation were such studies praiseworthy.
The great work of Aristotle was under eclipse. The early Christian thinkers gave little attention to it, and that little was devoted to transforming it into something absolutely opposed to his whole spirit and method; in place of it they developed the Physiologus and the Bestiaries, mingling scriptural statements, legends of the saints, and fanciful inventions with pious intent and childlike simplicity. In place of research came authority -- the authority of the Scriptures as interpreted by the Physio Cogus and the Bestiaries -- and these remained the principal source of thought on animated Nature for over a thousand years.
Occasionally, indeed, fear was shown among the rulers in the Church, even at such poor prying into the creation as this, and in the fifth century a synod under Pope Gelasius administered a rebuke to the Physiologus ; but the interest in Nature was too strong: the great work on Creation by St.
Basil had drawn from the Physiologus precious illustrations of Holy Writ, and the strongest of the early popes, Gregory the Great, virtually sanctioned it. Thus was developed a sacred science of creation and of the divine purpose in Nature, which went on developing from the fourth century to the nineteenth -- from St. Basil to St. Like all else in the Middle Ages, this sacred science was developed purely by theological methods.
Neglecting the wonders which the dissection of the commonest animals would have afforded them, these naturalists attempted to throw light into Nature by ingenious use of scriptural texts, by research among the lives of the saints, and by the plentiful application of metaphysics. Hence even such strong men as St. Isidore of Seville treasured up accounts of the unicorn and dragons mentioned in the Scriptures and of the phoenix and basilisk in profane writings. Hence such contributions to knowledge as that the basilisk kills serpents by his breath and men by his glance, that the lion when pursued effaces his tracks with the end of his tail, that the pelican nourishes her young with her own blood, that serpents lay aside their venom before drinking, that the salamander quenches fire, that the hyena can talk with shepherds, that certain birds are born of the fruit of a certain tree when it happens to fall into the water, with other masses of science equally valuable.
As to the method of bringing science to bear on Scripture, the Physiologus gives an example, illustrating the passage in the book of Job which speaks of the old lion perishing for lack of prey. Out of the attempt to explain an unusual Hebrew word in the text there came a curious development of error, until we find fully evolved an account of the "ant-lion," which, it gives us to understand, was the lion mentioned by Job, and it says: "As to the ant-lion, his father hath the shape of a lion, his mother that of an ant; the father liveth upon flesh and the mother upon herbs; these bring forth the ant-lion, a compound of both and in part like to either; for his fore part is like that of a lion and his hind part like that of an ant.
Being thus composed, he is neither able to eat flesh like his father nor herbs like his mother, and so he perisheth. In the middle of the thirteenth century we have a triumph of this theological method in the great work of the English Franciscan Bartholomew on The Properties of Things. The theological method as applied to science consists largely in accepting tradition and in spinning arguments to fit it.
In this field Bartholomew was a master. Having begun with the intent mainly to explain the allusions in Scripture to natural objects, he soon rises logically into a survey of all Nature.
Discussing the "cockatrice" of Scripture, he tells us: "He drieth and burneth leaves with his touch, and he is of so great venom and perilous that he slayeth and wasteth him that nigheth him without tarrying; and yet the weasel overcometh him, for the biting of the weasel is death to the cockatrice. Nevertheless the biting of the cockatrice is death to the weasel if the weasel eat not rue before. And though the cockatrice be venomous without remedy while he is alive, yet he looseth all the malice when he is burnt to ashes.
His ashes be accounted profitable in working of alchemy, and namely in turning and changing of metals. Bartholomew also enlightens us on the animals of Egypt, and says, "If the crocodile findeth a man by the water's brim he slayeth him, and then he weepeth over him and swalloweth him. Naturally this good Franciscan naturalist devotes much thought to the "dragons" mentioned in Scripture. He says: "The dragon is most greatest of all serpents, and oft he is drawn out of his den and riseth up into the air, and the air is moved by him, and also the sea swelleth against his venom, and he hath a crest, and reareth his tongue, and hath teeth like a saw, and hath strength, and not only in teeth but in tail, and grieveth with biting and with stinging.
Whom he findeth he slayeth. Oft four or five of them fasten their tails together and rear up their heads, and sail over the sea to get good meat. Between elephants and dragons is everlasting fighting; for the dragon with his tail spanneth the elephant, and the elephant with his nose throweth down the dragon The cause why the dragon desireth his blood is the coldness thereof, by the which the dragon desireth to cool himself.
Jerome saith that the dragon is a full thirsty beast, insomuch that he openeth his mouth against the wind to quench the burning of his thirst in that wise. Therefore, when he seeth ships in great wind he flieth against the sail to take the cold wind, and overthroweth the ship. These ideas of Friar Bartholomew spread far and struck deep into the popular mind. His book was translated into the principal languages of Europe, and was one of those most generally read during the Ages of Faith.
It maintained its position nearly three hundred years; even after the invention of printing it held its own, and in the fifteenth century there were issued no less than ten editions of it in Latin, four in French, and various versions of it in Dutch, Spanish, and English. Preachers found it especially useful in illustrating the ways of God to man. It was only when the great voyages of discovery substituted ascertained fact for theological reasoning in this province that its authority was broken. The same sort of science flourished in the Bestiaries , which were used everywhere, and especially in the pulpits, for the edification of the faithful.
In all of these, as in that compiled early in the thirteenth century by an ecclesiastic, William of Normandy, we have this lesson, borrowed from the Physiologus : "The lioness giveth birth to cubs which remain three days without life. Then cometh the lion, breatheth upon them, and bringeth them to life Thus it is that Jesus Christ during three days was deprived of life, but God the Father raised him gloriously. Pious use was constantly made of this science, especially by monkish preachers. The phoenix rising from his ashes proves the doctrine of the resurrection; the structure and mischief of monkeys proves the existence of demons; the fact that certain monkeys have no tails proves that Satan has been shorn of his glory; the weasel, which "constantly changes its place, is a type of the man estranged from the word of God, who findeth no rest.
The moral treatises of the time often took the form of works on natural history, in order the more fully to exploit these religious teachings of Nature. Thus from the book On Bees , the Dominican Thomas of Cantimpre, we learn that "wasps persecute bees and make war on them out of natural hatred"; and these, he tells us, typify the demons who dwell in the air and with lightning and tempest assail and vex mankind -- whereupon he fills a long chapter with anecdotes of such demonic warfare on mortals.
In like manner his fellow-Dominican, the inquisitor Nider, in his book The Ant Hill , teaches us that the ants in Ethiopia, which are said to have horns and to grow so large as to look like dogs, are emblems of atrocious heretics, like Wyclif and the Hussites, who bark and bite against the truth; while the ants of India, which dig up gold out of the sand with their feet and hoard it, though they make no use of it, symbolize the fruitless toil with which the heretics dig out the gold of Holy Scripture and hoard it in their books to no purpose.
This pious spirit not only pervaded science; it bloomed out in art, and especially in the cathedrals. In the gargoyles overhanging the walls, in the grotesques clambering about the towers or perched upon pinnacles, in the dragons prowling under archways or lurking in bosses of foliage, in the apocalyptic beasts carved upon the stalls of the choir, stained into the windows, wrought into the tapestries, illuminated in the letters and borders of psalters and missals, these marvels of creation suggested everywhere morals from the Physiologus, the Bestiaries, and the Exempla.
Here and there among men who were free from church control we have work of a better sort. In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries Abd Allatif made observations upon the natural history of Egypt which showed a truly scientific spirit, and the Emperor Frederick II attempted to promote a more fruitful study of Nature; but one of these men was abhorred as a Mussulman and the other as an infidel. Far more in accordance with the spirit of the time was the ecclesiastic Giraldus Cambrensis, whose book on the topography of Ireland bestows much attention upon the animals of the island, and rarely fails to make each contribute an appropriate moral.
For example, he says that in Ireland "eagles live for so many ages that they seem to contend with eternity itself; so also the saints, having put off the old man and put on the new, obtain the blessed fruit of everlasting life. In one of the great men of the following century appeared a gleam of healthful criticism: Albert the Great, in his work on the animals, dissents from the widespread belief that certain birds spring from trees and are nourished by the sap, and also from the theory that some are generated in the sea from decaying wood. But it required many generations for such scepticism to produce much effect, and we find among the illustrations in an edition of Mandeville published just before the Reformation not only careful accounts but pictured representations both of birds and of beasts produced in the fruit of trees.
This general employment of natural science for pious purposes went on after the Reformation. Luther frequently made this use of it, and his example controlled his followers. In , Wolfgang Franz, Professor of Theology at Luther's university, gave to the world his sacred history of animals, which went through many editions.
It contained a very ingenious classification, describing "natural dragons," which have three rows of teeth to each jaw, and he piously adds, "the principal dragon is the Devil. Near the end of the same century, Father Kircher, the great Jesuit professor at Rome, holds back the sceptical current, insists upon the orthodox view, and represents among the animals entering the ark sirens and griffins.
Yet even among theologians we note here and there a sceptical spirit in natural science. Early in the same seventeenth century Eugene Roger published his Travels in Palestine. As regards the utterances of Scripture he is soundly orthodox: he prefaces his work with a map showing, among other important points referred to in biblical history, the place where Samson slew a thousand Philistines with the jawbone of an ass, the cavern which Adam and Eve inhabited after their expulsion from paradise, the spot where Balaam's ass spoke, the place where Jacob wrestled with the angel, the steep place down which the swine possessed of devils plunged into the sea, the position of the salt statue which was once Lot's wife, the place at sea where Jonah was swallowed by the whale, and "the exact spot where St.
Peter caught one hundred and fifty-three fishes. As to natural history, he describes and discusses with great theological acuteness the basilisk. He tells us that the animal is about a foot and a half long, is shaped like a crocodile, and kills people with a single glance. The one which he saw was dead, fortunately for him, since in the time of Pope Leo IV -- as he tells us -- one appeared in Rome and killed many people by merely looking at them; but the Pope destroyed it with his prayers and the sign of the cross.
He informs us that Providence has wisely and mercifully protected man by requiring the monster to cry aloud two or three times whenever it leaves its den, and that the divine wisdom in creation is also shown by the fact that the monster is obliged to look its victim in the eye, and at a certain fixed distance, before its glance can penetrate the victim's brain and so pass to his heart. He also gives a reason for supposing that the same divine mercy has provided that the crowing of a cock will kill the basilisk.
Yet even in this good and credulous missionary we see the influence of Bacon and the dawn of experimental science; for, having been told many stories regarding the salamander, he secured one, placed it alive upon the burning coals, and reports to us that the legends concerning its power to live in the fire are untrue.
He also tried experiments with the chameleon, and found that the stories told of it were to be received with much allowance: while, then, he locks up his judgment whenever he discusses the letter of Scripture, he uses his mind in other things much after the modern method. In the second half of the same century Hottinger, in his Theological Examination of the History of Creation , breaks from the belief in the phoenix; but his scepticism is carefully kept within the limits imposed by Scripture.
He avows his doubts, first, "because God created the animals in couples, while the phoenix is represented as a single, unmated creature"; secondly, "because Noah, when he entered the ark, brought the animals in by sevens, while there were never so many individuals of the phoenix species" thirdly, because "no man is known who dares assert that he has ever seen this bird"; fourthly, because "those who assert there is a phoenix differ among themselves.
In view of these attacks on the salamander and the phoenix, we are not surprised to find, before the end of the century, scepticism regarding the basilisk: the eminent Prof. Kirchmaier, at the University of Wittenberg, treats phoenix and basilisk alike as old wives' fables. As to the phoenix, he denies its existence, not only because Noah took no such bird into the ark, but also because, as he pithily remarks, "birds come from eggs, not from ashes.
But these germs of a fruitful scepticism grew, and we soon find Dannhauer going a step further and declaring his disbelief even in the unicorn, insisting that it was a rhinoceros -- only that and nothing more. Still, the main current continued strongly theological. In Samuel Bochart published his great work upon the animals of Holy Scripture. As showing its spirit we may take the titles of the chapters on the horse:.
Of the Hebrew Name of the Horse. Of the Colours of the Six Horses in Zechariah. Of the Consecrated Horses of the Sun. Mixed up in the book, with the principal mass drawn from Scripture, were many facts and reasonings taken from investigations by naturalists; but all were permeated by the theological spirit.
The inquiry into Nature having thus been pursued nearly two thousand years theologically, we find by the middle of the sixteenth century some promising beginnings of a different method -- the method of inquiry into Nature scientifically -- the method which seeks not plausibilities but facts. At that time Edward Wotton led the way in England and Conrad Gesner on the Continent, by observations widely extended, carefully noted, and thoughtfully classified.
This better method of interrogating Nature soon led to the formation of societies for the same purpose. In was founded an Academy for the Study of Nature at Naples, but theologians, becoming alarmed, suppressed it, and for nearly one hundred years there was no new combined effort of that sort, until in began the meetings in London of what was afterward the Royal Society. Then came the Academy of Sciences in France, and the Accademia del Cimento in Italy; others followed in all parts of the world, and a great new movement was begun.
Theologians soon saw a danger in this movement. In France, there were frequent ecclesiastical interferences, of which Buffon's humiliation for stating a simple scientific truth was a noted example. In England, Protestantism was at first hardly more favourable toward the Royal Society, and the great Dr. South denounced it in his sermons as irreligious. Fortunately, one thing prevented an open breach between theology and science: while new investigators had mainly given up the medieval method so dear to the Church, they had very generally retained the conception of direct creation and of design throughout creation -- a design having as its main purpose the profit, instruction, enjoyment, and amusement of man.
On this the naturally opposing tendencies of theology and science were compromised. Science, while somewhat freed from its old limitations, became the handmaid of theology in illustrating the doctrine of creative design, and always with apparent deference to the Chaldean and other ancient myths and legends embodied in the Hebrew sacred books. About the middle of the seventeenth century came a great victory of the scientific over the theologic method.
At that time Francesco Redi published the results of his inquiries into the doctrine of spontaneous generation. For ages a widely accepted doctrine had been that water, filth, and carrion had received power from the Creator to generate worms, insects, and a multitude of the smaller animals; and this doctrine had been especially welcomed by St.