Guide Parapraxes: Explained

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Freud believed that when a person utters something other than what they really intended to say, it is no accident but rather their unconscious thoughts which have broken through the censorship of the mind and emerged into consciousness. Freudian slips, however, are the most commonly occurring form of parapraxis and are often used as a source of humor in movies and television shows. The following video clip shows a set of Freudian slips that actually occurred on live television.

As you will see, these slips are often sexual in nature… but who would expect anything less of a phenomenon associated with Freud? Although a psychoanalytic explanation of the Freudian slip is still valued by many, modern theorists have proposed alternative explanations for these slips of the tongue. Firstly, in a linguistic sense, the words clinical and cynical have very similar structures and the first syllables of both words have a similar sound.

Thus, from a cognitive perspective, the word cynical might have been activated as a result of its phonological association with the word clinical, making the error an easy one. Freud himself acknowledged that not every mistake was a symbolic revelation of the unconscious.

Freudian slip

Nevertheless, he remained convinced that unconscious forces were at the heart of such errors in the majority of cases. So what are we to believe? Vismann The analyst has control over not only the meaning which is eventually deduced from the utterance, but the cancellation of the repression through its retrieval.

Freudian slip

Once the content of the utterance is thought to be retrieved and made conscious, the repression is thought to no longer exist. It is in this way, as well, that the analyst constitutes private empotions as something to be exposed; and guides its emergence into the public. The multiplexing of the brain means that one can retain the conviction or feeling of free will, while still being determined uninterruptedly in the psychic realm.


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Freud 91 Arguing through an analysis of the neurotic, he claims that nothing is lost, not even sensory experience; the difference between the neurotic and the normal person being that the neurotic both perceives something that escapes the normal person and it is expressed. Freud 92 Freud believes there is the possibility that something can only occur psychically, in mental life, which can by chance be brought to surface by external events, while not being accidental at the level of the unconscious.

The content of the slip could therefore be from anything, the combination of auditory, visual and motor memories, could result in an encoding and decoding which lacks the rationality that Freud argues exists.

Parapraxis - No Subject - Encyclopedia of Psychoanalysis - Encyclopedia of Lacanian Psychoanalysis

It is lack of attention in the process of retrieval which is of issue in the phenomenon of parapraxes, not attention in encoding, and one can frequently be led astray in analysis due to the noise which exists at the level of the unconscious. Even through the removal of repression through analysis, the information is not lost it is made conscious.

The slip, for Freud, is proof of the unconscious material which lies 'below' consciousness, and is indicative of its interference within the world of the symbolic. The notion that this is somehow more real is expressed by Freud, as being more "honest," and "true," the temporary removal of the mask which separates this content from the symbolic realm. Freud Freud 25 This paradox, however, illustrates a notion that acts of writing and speech require an attention on the part of the conscious subject, however errors can occur automatically, in a somnambulistic state which will enable parts of the unconscious to come through.

Gitelman The lack of concentrated attention is an articulation of mental process which questioned "the resemblance between motor and mental habits" and divided types of attention. It also indicates that the good weather for making Freudian slips are fatigue and inattention. Gitelman, Lisa.


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