Bolonha, 21 ago. Bolonha, 16 set. Bolonha, 13 nov. Bolonha, 19 fev. Bolonha, 1 out. Bolonha, 14 jan. Bolonha, 27 ago. Bolonha, 17 set. O principal idealizador do projeto foi o conde Luigi Ferdinando Marsigli Anexo 1. Anexo 2. Tem igreja. Chegamos por volta do meio-dia. Antes do raiar do dia, prosseguindo nossa viagem pelo dito canal, paramos por volta das 10 horas para a missa na floresta. Por volta das 4 horas, retomamos nosso caminho. Aqui paramos por todo o dia e a noite seguinte. Apenas fez-se noite, mau tempo. Lugar de brancos. Antes das [ Cerca das [ Partimos por volta das 10, tendo chegado pouco antes o Padre S.
Passando por Boa Vista, atingimos [ Entre Boa Vista e Maturu, existem pedras com algum perigo. Numa e noutra margens [ Antes do raiar do dia em marcha, pelo dito canal que continua sendo pouco mais ou menos da mesma largura. Durante toda a viagem, ilhas grandes e ricas. Muito mal. Fui com L. Por volta de uma hora antes de raiar o dia, em marcha. Atravessamos o rio [Amazonas]. Paramos ao meio-dia na boca do Trombetas. Missa na floresta. Paramos numa ilha. De madrugada, grande chuva e vento; [ Depois das [ Parados em um lugar muito baixo.
Grande chuva. Depois das 3, em marcha outra vez, parando depois de quase 2 horas de viagem. O canal alarga-se. Muitas terras coloridas. O rio agora muito largo. Rio largo e sempre alguma ilha. Bom vento em parte. Ao meio-dia, passamos por ilhas onde se produz manteiga de tartaruga. Bom vento. Mas ficamos parados no mesmo lugar. Ficamos cobertos por uma ilha. Durante a viagem, sempre alguma ilha.
Depois das 6, missa na floresta. Mas [ Logo depois em marcha. Sempre ilhas [ Ao erguer-se o Sol, em marcha. Gastamos mais de uma hora e meia para passar uma corredeira sobre pedras. Por volta das 10, uma outtra corredeira, perdemos pouco mais de meia hora. Ao erguer-se o Sol, passamos por outra corredeira, gastando bastante tempo. Terras altas. Terras sempre elevadas.
Depois das 6, em marcha. Bastante pedra na margem direita.
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De dia, em marcha. Mas eu, ao meio-dia, por uma hora [ Labirinto de ilhas. Passadas as [ Infinitas ilhas. Sempre terras amuradas, que parecem pedra. Baixios, pedras e ilhas. Por volta das 5, em marcha.
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Sempre pedras e ilhas. Sempre muitas ilhas. Muitas ilhas durante a viagem. Por volta da meia-noite, chuva. Boa parte da noite, em marcha. Pouco, pouco antes de chegar, abriu-se-me a canoa, opondo-se um mau tempo.
Giovanni Brunelli. Sobre a pororoca. Carta de Giovanni Brunelli a Eustachio Zanotti. Como eu poderia dizer com poucas palavras como isso acontece? Na verdade, o que segue traz uma dificuldade muito maior. Sobre a mandioca. Carta a Ferdinando Bassi. Delas se fabrica o melhor tipo de farinha. Disse, como pude, da cultura da planta da mandioca. Antes vou enumerar e descrever alguns poucos instrumentos de que os americanos costumam servir-se para esse fim.
Podem estragar facilmente e apodrecer horrivelmente. Torram ao fogo, de maneira muito diferente, os fragmentos sobre a panela. Entretanto, muitas vezes, os animais morrem apesar de toda presteza e do cuidado tomado. Em quase todos os alimentos, pois, muitos habitantes do Brasil costumam adicionar esse suco que chamam pelo mesmo nome, ou seja, 'tucupi'. A que se dedicam? O que acontece na nossa Academia? Passa bem e ama-me, como fazes. Eu acreditaria facilmente que alguns atribuiriam a isto a causa do nome do rio.
La Condamine, embora hesitando, pensa ser a ucaialiana. Certo calor que, por acaso, acompanha geralmente as chuvas derrete, assim, as neves mais rapidamente e mais impetuosamente. Eu tive um acompanhante ferroado por uma raia. Ele tinha sofrido um ferimento muito cruel de uma raia. Os brasileiros chamam esse inseto [ sic ] 'Candiru' l. Tem o aspecto, mais ou menos, de um verme pequeno. Se isso, entretanto, acontece realmente assim como dizem, eu dificilmente afirmaria.
Ouvi-as muitas vezes de noite, nunca durante o dia. Escreveram, em , partes da "Historia naturalis Brasiliae". Tanto Piso , p. Paris, Atque sub hoc genere species septem enumerat, in quibus ea, quae quintum tenet locum, eadem est ac illa de qua in praesens agimur; vocaturque ab ipso Cel.
Linnaeo Jatropha Manihot foliis palmatis; lobis lanceolatis integerrimis laevibus. Caroli Linnaei species plantarum, Holmiae, , p. Para biografia e obras, ver Blunt e Papavero e Llorente-Bousquets ]. Paris, , p. Ver Papavero et al.
Sloanus "Cat. Jamaicae Hist. Em sua "Voyage Numenius indicus foi o nome dado a essa ave por Clusius, em seu "Exoticorum" , p. Sobre o candiru, consultar Spotte ]. All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License. Services on Demand Journal. Acrescenta Meira Filho , p. Dia 3 [Quinta-feira] Embarcamos por volta das 10 horas. Dia 13 [Domingo] Antes do raiar do dia, prosseguindo nossa viagem pelo dito canal, paramos por volta das 10 horas para a missa na floresta.
Unfortunately, I jump to this sad conclusion now that we are about to leave this part of the country and after all I have seen. There in the continent, you can see the damage caused by the deforestation of mangroves which were turned into pastures, salt mines or shrimp farms which also pollute estuaries. Meanwhile, the maritime space is divided into lots by fishing companies which despoil our last storage of lobsters, by hunting crustaceans with trawl-net which revolve the bottom of the sea and cause serious damage.
Many boats still use rudimentary equipment of compressed air which kills, mutilates and cripples countless fishermen. When Ibama comes for surprise inspections, the date and time are previously announced in local newspapers, consequently, the whole fleet hides before they arrive. This state, one of the poorest in Brazil, according to IDH data, has no coastal infrastructure. There are neither roads, electricity, nor airports nearby. Then, the real estate speculation started to be practiced by smart politicians. After Piaui, we entered in Ceara.
We arrived in Jericoacoara which is a few kilometers from the border, a natural paradise devastated and turned into slums; all this is supported by the mayor. Rio Grande do Norte is not an exception to the rule, it is quickly becoming something similar to Ceara, and it will even surpass it. The first one opened the door for predatory tourism a long time ago whereas the latter is a land without laws. Its coastal waters are turbid due to the sediments of the river, fortunately.
Afterwards, we arrived in Bahia, the worst situation we have seen so far. There are 28 resorts just in this state and many others are being built. There is no management plan; councils never meet, contrary to what was said by secretary Sara Alves. This is another damage caused by this type of hotel. Most of them are huge for the fragile area where they were built. Additionally, the success of this undertaking depends on high concentration. Most of them stay within the hotel limits, with the same labels, restaurants, cafes, people and amenities they have in their own cities.
Others, just a few, influenced by subtle advertisements, mistakenly believe they are having sustainable tourism. Their arrival and departure occur through airports which are only an hour away. Thus the guy barely puts his feet on the unknown land. He just leaves the seat of a charter plane to take another seat in a van with air-conditioning. Then he goes to a room where the fluffy carpet probably rubs his chin; it is exactly the same as in his house.
He leaves the hotel to do the same he does in the city where he lives. At the end of the season, he repeats the same operation and in a few hours he gets back home, in another country, with plenty of pictures of parrots, cockatoos and carps to show to his friends. Well, I recalled a lot of what we have done. It still remains the sailing up to this point. But I will leave it for tomorrow. It is p.
Elefantas resgatadas de circo voltam à natureza após 40 anos em cativeiro
I am asleep too. Monday, 03 — 04 — Five families live here for two years, then they are replaced. We are waiting for the submarine film maker whose nickname is Perereca and who is coming from Caravelas to meet us. Meanwhile, I write my logbook. I wanted to see the occupation on the coast. It is amazingly free, just with a couple of houses.
On the way, the landscape remains unchanged. Long, narrow beaches, some of them with corals. The other side is covered by sand banks until they reach the Atlantic Forest inwards. We had lunch and went to the supermarket. We got back to the sailboat in the evening and prepared ourselves to leave the next day. We left on Saturday, at three p. It was a cloudy day, the result of the rest of the cold front. There was a weak southeast wind. I checked a meteorology site and saw that it was the rest of the front. We left right after.
Projeto Lixo Marinho
Out of the break-water in the sea, the strength of the wind went to 15 knots. There were some waves coming on the opposite side which made our boat pitch and toss. It was not unpleasant, but it rained a little. Alonso was at the rudder most of the time just checking the horizon since the automatic pilot was on; this marvelous board fellow.
Sometimes we had to avoid a few fishing boats. There are too many in Abrolhos. But this can be easily explained since it is one of the richest parts of the poor Brazilian coast in terms of fishing biomass. Usually, our continental platform is narrow. It ranges from 20 to 50 kilometers at most, then it drops to abyssal depths, more than four thousand meters deep. We have already said that the richness of this ecosystem rivals the tropical forests. An uncountable number of species live in this environment.
Fishes, algae, mollusks, crustaceans, micro-algae which give them color, polyps, thousands of micro-organisms, etc. This is the reason why this area attracts fishing fleets. During the night, we zigzagged to avoid the other boats. I replaced Alonso at three a. An eye on the prow and another on the radar screen, all the time. The disregard for the maritime space costs a lot, and from now on it will only increase. One step forward, two backwards. The total area of the Park is square kilometers, kilometers in Recife de Timbebas.
However, like most of the national parks there is almost no infrastructure. This makes boats daring in regard to legal rules by throwing baits, harpoons and traps in forbidden areas, thus decimating the fauna to such an extent that you rarely see a parrot fish an ordinary fish in reefs out of the perimeter of the five islands that form the archipelago. When you dive in Parcel das Paredes, which is between Caravelas and Abrolhos, in addition to the fact that it takes hours to see a fish, it is almost impossible not to find damaged coral or even destroyed by the anchors of these boats.
It is such a daring attitude that the present park keeper, Mauricio de Oliveira, from Santos, told us that one of these nights, when he was walking along the west end of Santa Barbara, he noticed there was light behind the hill of Ilha Redonda just in front. He took his boat immediately and went there to check what it was. It was a boat of professional divers who with their harpoons devastate the fauna of the bottom of the seas by choosing the greatest and best fishes just under the nose of the pompous Maritime National Park. Mauricio has not the power the police have; he just gives lectures on environmental education.
At first the motor boat obeyed. Then, he simply turned degrees, sped up, and escaped easily, ignoring Mauricio. Just like that. Of course, guess how the daring bandits would react if the Brazilian police were unarmed. Well, this is what happens here. On the islands and on the Brazilian coast in general, the law of the strongest reigns due to the criminal omission of the State. This area was recently protected from auction at the last minute due to the reaction of environmentalists, teachers among them Zelinda , NGOs and researchers who got a temporary restraining order.
They asked the government to have more time to examine the area thus minimize the risk; and if they succeed, it will be forbidden to prospect in the area. However, there are other threats, as serious as this one or more. One is global warming and the other is the occupation on the coast, especially due to deforestation. Do you want more? Tourism, overfishing, industrial pollution, oil leakage, just to mention the most important ones. Do you still think this is all? Well, this paradise has a dark future.
When we spoke to Rubens, we talked a lot about the issue of scientific knowledge; different aspects. He explained to us that the coastal environment is the area where the greatest human occupation is found. In Brazil too. Here the average density on the coast is 87 inhabitants per square kilometer, five times bigger than the national average which is 17 inhabitants per square kilometer.
To make things worse, research funds in all the fields are evidently limited. The participation of the private sector to foster research is very fragile, it is still very little. This is an interesting example of how this economical impact can be translated into a greater interest in the private sector.
Nevertheless, we have good news. IOUSP is at the head of this research which will be carried out by ten research institutions plus a NGO gathering 50 scientists from the whole country. Well, it is not easy. Just for the record: according to some experts there might be 30 million of animal species in the sea.
They have been removing from the sea twice as much the amount of fishes fished in the last 25 years. Some companies use airplanes to know where shoals are and their nets are as big as six jumbo planes! Every year, twenty two thousand tons of fishes are thrown back dead into the sea, after they are fished in trawl-nets. We simply throw the net into the sea to see what it brings back. Nevertheless, present data show that with the collapse of the traditional fishing in the north hemisphere, the efforts of the industrial fleets are now oriented to the African coast and the Pacific.
According to Dr. Here is another thing that will make you sleep well. This was debated publicly. In , believe it or not, the United States started to throw into the sea radioactive residues put in barrels of liters, more specifically in the Farallon islands, 50 kilometers away from California. This was only stopped in the 90s. More than 50 thousand barrels were thrown in the depths of Farallon.
Tartaruga de quilos deu à costa no Algarve. Eis as imagens
Besides the United States, Russia, China, Japan and other European countries did the same in several areas of the oceans. We have made some progress at least in this area. Today, ships which cross the oceans with radioactive garbage are monitored by NGOs and are treated like floating pariahs; just a few ports receive them due to the international pressure.
But the thing is worse. I will talk about this later on as well as about the pollution in other seas which is as serious as ours, sometimes worse. Now, I have to return to the trip to Abrolhos. Alonso replaced me at 6 a. I went to bed. I woke up again much later when the sailboat had already been tied to one of the weights which had been put to avoid continuously damaging the corals.
We dove a little bit beside the boat to enjoy the bottom of the sea since there is very low depth and the water is crystalline. It is a privilege to dive in Abrolhos, even with a cold front which revolved the waters moving sediments that are now in suspension causing some turbidity. In spite of that, visibility is fantastic as the treated water of a swimming pool. At midday, for breakfast we roasted pork chops in the oven. Then each member of the crew got back to his place.
At the end of the afternoon we had lunch and then went to bed. Sunday was devoted to more diving.