Retrieved 16 June Retrieved 1 June The Lucknow Observer". Retrieved 22 September Verve Magazine. Retrieved 2 February Bollywood Hungama.
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Retrieved 15 June Deccan Chronicle. Who needs them when in Bollywood". The Times of India. Mumbai Mirror. Retrieved 2 August Retrieved 30 November Retrieved 26 April Shershaah goes on floors, filming begins Directed by Vishnu Varadhan". Retrieved 7 May Retrieved 26 September Gulf News. While official rhetoric surrounding the Islamic Center of Washington contained overtures of international goodwill and understanding, the State Department used the mosque as part of its early Cold War propaganda campaigns abroad.
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Placing this envoy-in-stone alongside the Cold War politics of the postcolonial period underscores the tensions between the liberal rhetoric and geopolitical motives behind this meeting between East and West. The American government produced short films documenting each presidential visit.
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The pageantry shown in the videos, demonstrate the significance of the Islamic Center as a diplomatic pit stop highlighting American commitment to religious pluralism and accommodation of Muslims. Shah Pahlavi of Iran visited Washington just a year after his reinstatement in with the help of American-led coup.
In a sense, it must have felt like a homecoming: Pahlavi waved away a limousine outside the Iranian Embassy and walked down Massachusetts Avenue straight to the Washington mosque, five blocks away. While it may seem like an ordinary stop for the Shah, the casual walk from the embassy to the Center allowed the unpopular Iranian leader to feel a sense of normalcy that he would have not have been allowed in his home country.
The construction of the Islamic Center of Washington occurred alongside the development of early Cold War propaganda and the mosque itself was used as part of the machinery to win the hearts and minds of the postcolonial world. As the United States began to replace Britain as the new power in the Middle East, the National Security Council divided the region into three major categories to prevent Soviet expansion: 1 countries whose neutrality in the Cold War was of little material significance Israel , 2 countries whose leaders were committed to pro-Western policies but where there was substantial public opposition Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, and Iran , and 3 governments that professed a desire to follow a neutral foreign policy, yet actively hindered Anglo-American policy Egypt, Syria, and Saudi Arabia.
The American position among these decolonizing nations took up a language of self-determination abroad alongside a determination to simultaneously increase American power in the postcolonial world.
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While the American agenda may seem contradictory and conflicting, the rhetoric of gifting both freedom and demanding subservience was a well-rehearsed feature belonging to the theater of imperial rule. The propaganda efforts employing the Islamic Center of Washington included posters, a film script, and a mosque-drawing contest. A private letter written by the first U. Huntington Damon discussed in a private meeting the utility of religion and the Islamic Center of Washington in U.
Damon also offered to hold a competition among Washington schoolchildren to paint the Islamic Center and send the images to embassies and schools abroad. Our God is one. Once again, the Islamic Center had become a stage for international diplomacy—this time featuring two foreign diplomats with Western-flair and one with a Napoleonic figure intervening in domestic affairs.
After hours of negotiations, the hostages were released and the twelve men were all tried and found guilty. International developments in the late s and s ultimately rendered the liberal rhetoric and cosmopolitan sentiment surrounding the Islamic Center of Washington impossible. American-backed anti-communist leaders ruled with iron fists in much of the Middle East and South Asia. As both anti-Muslim sentiment in the United States and anti-American sentiment in the Middle East deepened after the failure of Israeli-Palestinian peace talks, the Arab oil embargo in and, most specifically, the success of the Iranian revolution of , the Islamic Center began to reflect some of these global developments at home in Washington.
As dissent mounted against the reinstalled monarchy of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi in the s, whose friendship was symbolized through his donation of eleven Persian rugs bearing his own name to the Islamic Center, the mosque became a site of demonstrations and counter-demonstrations in support and rejection of the Iranian Revolution.
Embassy in Tehran, the protests had reached the doorstep of the Islamic Center. President Jimmy Carter attempted to subdue the rising tension by banning virtually all Iran-related public demonstrations in Washington, fearing that the high anti-Iranian sentiment, exemplified by the pelting of eggs and jeering epithets against Iranian-Americans by counter-protesters, could trigger retaliation against the American hostages in Tehran. By , dissent in Washington surrounding the Iranian Revolution had brought about radical demands on the leadership of the Islamic Center.
Until the revolution, the administration of the Islamic Center had essentially been a function of the diplomatic American-backed Muslim elite in Washington. Now, a local middle and working-class immigrant congregation had emerged with a political consciousness influenced by discontent festering in the lands they came from. The Islamic Center had become deeply divided by a series of controversies that reflected the ferment of the revolution. The protesters eventually barred mosque director Muhammad Abdul Rauf from giving sermons at the pulpit for a few weeks.
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Mumbai , Maharashtra , India. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. India Today. Retrieved 7 August Times of India. Retrieved 11 May Retrieved 16 June Retrieved 1 June The Lucknow Observer".
Retrieved 22 September Verve Magazine. Retrieved 2 February Bollywood Hungama.
Retrieved 15 June Deccan Chronicle. Who needs them when in Bollywood". The Times of India. Mumbai Mirror.