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Prego Society in general feared that the wrong steps might lead to a disastrous situation and a possible return to the former regime. In any case, in the first few stages, and despite unsolved issues, the terms that best described the period for some critics were euphoria and celebration Vilars 5. However, the initial hype will be followed, eventually, by a feeling of desencanto, disillusionment, when reality did not fulfill the high expectations created around the process and the ghosts from the past haunted the nationthe dichotomy between the pacto de silencio, a pseudo omert against the past, and, later, the attempts for the recuperacin de la memoria histrica 3 in Spanish society.

Culturally and socially speaking, as an almost foreseeable and logical reaction, the two subjects considered taboo during the forty years of repression, namely politics and eroticism, gushed out fiercely. Francoist censorship, in a political tour de force, forbade the free expression of both; now, they reemerged with a vengeance. As Ramn de Espaa explained, Spaniards were tired of prohibition and, as soon as the vejestorio, 3. As Teresa Vilars argued, Aunque el final del franquismo sealado por la enfermedad, agona y muerte de Franco debera haber indicado el inicio de un espacio de reflexin y anlisis del pasado inmediato, el cuerpo social espaol entra por el contrario en un proceso enquistatorio de un pasado que hemos convertido en desecho.

El momento de la transicin es el espacio donde se procesa el olvido, agujero negro que chupa, hace caer y encripta los desechos de nuestro pasado histrico, aquella historia maloliente que todos nos apresuramos a repudiar y que en gran parte todava seguimos ocultando. From this point onwards, every aspect of life will be influenced by and intrinsically linked to them, as well as both will become, almost irrevocably, intertwined. As Jordi Mar has argued, there is a correlation between the political apertura and the display of erotic representations in film, press, and the mass media in general Umbral The process had started, gradually, in the last few stages of the former regime, in the so-called process of apertura, the, allegedly, opening up of Spain to new ideas.

During late Francoism, tourismand, naturally, the flood of foreign currency that came along with itwas one of the reasons for the regime to tolerate areas of moral permissiviness, in order to profit from the money that came from the other side of the Pyrenees Ponce But now, with the death of the dictator, the phenomenon known by the Spaniards as destape had arrived in full force. It was, as stated previously, a foreseeable consequence, the excess with which a society marked by a tradition of religion-controlled morals tried to heal itself Altisent According to Jos Mara Ponce, the destape was a necessity However, I see it more as a reactiona chain reaction, if you willto a repressive action: almost four decades of political and sexual repression led to the flagrant ab use of both topics.

It would be easy to state, from a contemporary perspective, that had the dictatorship not taken place, Spain would have developed culturally like the rest of Western societies. But that would be purely speculative. We can only analyze fact, and so do the experts, although not always in its full essence.

Many critics have only approached the sexual connotation of the term destape i. However, the etymology of the term cannot be overlooked: destape as uncovering, unveiling, or taking off the lid; the fact that it represented, at least for some sectors of society, a liberalization, an uncovering of new forms of interdisciplinary expression and representationsexual, political, cultural, and, in a word, social.

For another part of society, however, it was not regarded as a positive process, since modernization did not necessarily mean liberation for women, who, in a Faustian bargain changed one set of limitations under the conformity of dictatorship for the conformity of the consumer culture Morcillo Destape, when used only in reference to nudity, and not in the global sense of this dissertation, was, primarily, a male prerogative in a, still, patriarchal society; this led, in most cases, to the objectification of the Second sexthe term used by Simone de Beauvoir for women, the Other by the One positing itself as One Beauvoir 7.

For another group, it was also reason for condemnation, as Mar summarizes in El Umbral del destape: Durante las fases iniciales de la transicin, el destape deviene un espacio de intensa confrontacin ideolgica. Los sectores ms recalcitrantes de la derecha neofranquista claman contra la ola de erotismo que nos invade, punta de lanza de un discurso apocalptico en el que las autonomas regionales, pluripartidismo, libertad de expresin e informacin y otras cuestiones. Reactionary sectors of society, in line with the former regime, saw this wave of eroticism, dissolute behavior, and political freedom as evil.

During most of the dictatorship, anything considered not politically correctwhich was, in essence, everythingand nudity, including any hint of erotic innuendo, were deleted from all forms of art or society. The average Spaniard who wanted to experience any kind of destape, in the broad sense of the term, or rebel against the norm, must either travel to neighboring Biarritz, as depicted in the comedy Lo verde empieza en los Pirineos , or join a clandestine political party, with the subsequent legal consequences.

With the democratic restoration, as mentioned, Spains views changed radically and everything in society became highly political and sexualonce again, the social uncovering of desire. But it was taken, in many cases, to the extreme, because, as an expected reaction to the previous oppresion, Francos death gave way to the libertine celebration that comes after the fall of a dictatorship Altisent Political parties appeared in every corner and the magazines displayed in newsstands echoed the changes.

The social and cultural influence of both politics and eroticism was so dramatic that the artistic production of the period cannot be studied without the presence of either or both. The historical moment known as the cultural Transition to democracy would not even exist without them. Although ab used and flawed, they became part of the Spaniards daily life and, therefore, had a transcendental role in the process of generating narrative. The Transition to democracy in Spain has been viewed and analyzed from multiple perspectives, both political and cultural.

Well known are the studies conducted. However, while we have been offered a more or less global approach to the cultural Transitionthe Transition as a whole, and some critics have written papers, articles, and books on specific disciplinese. That is the purpose of my dissertation: to study, in detail and from different perspectives, the importance of both topics as sources of narrative and artistic creation during the cultural Transition to democracy in Spain. Although the academic intelligentsia has often rejected them for being expressions of mass culture, we must consider Pierre Bourdieus theoriesin line with the tradition of classical sociology, that includes science, law, and religion, together with artistic activitiesand how those in power, the dominant class, define and impose aesthetic concepts such as taste within that culture Distinction Likewise, we must take into account the theories of Michel Foucault on sexuality as well as the importance of examining texts and their contexts, as outlined by New Historicism.

In order to appropriately analyze the sway of politics and eroticism on the different discourses, each chapter is dedicated to one aspect of the cultural Transition. Chapter 1 focuses on its influence on the novel. Over fifty works are referenced, from prestigious to not so well-known writers, including both male and female perspective and. A section of the chapter centers on the most important erotic collection during the period: La sonrisa vertical.

Both epitomize the novelistic production of the period, a time when some decided to take the trend to the extreme and transgress former and reactionary societal rules to unequivocally shock the readers still coming out of cultural limbo. In Chapter 2 my dissertation focuses on the films of the Transition, especially those that address the amalgamation of eroticism and politics. As a result of the lifting of censorship in , this is the field where the production was taken as far as the legal constraints allowed.

If the novel represented, in a sense, what we could call the blind public image, pictured only in the minds of the readerswhich, in many aspects, could be even more dramatic and transgressive because of the lack of external limitations, movies were the realization of what many, mainly men, wanted to see: nudity, primarily that of women. Over a hundred films are analyzed in this chapter, including the S-rated movies and those directed by women filmmakers. In addition to this phenomenon, the productions of two directors are studied more closely: Jos Lus Garcis Asignatura pendiente and Eloy de la Iglesias El diputado.

Both represent, from two different perspectives, the intermingling of politics and eroticism in the period, as well as the consequences endured by those who lived their lives on the fringe of a, once again, reactionary societywhatever that may represent under the microscope of the diverse ideology. Chapter 3 centers on theater and music. Theater was still heavily censored during the first years of the Transitionas we will see in some of the works presented here, because of political and erotic content. Close to one hundred plays that premiered during the period are referenced in the chapter, giving preeminence to Els Joglarss controversial La torna and Peter Shaffers Equus The productions of women playwrights and directors are also included.

In the second section of the chapter the dissertation centers on music. Music was one of the most effective ways to channel political discontent and criticize the lack of freedom during the late Francoism. This trend continued during the Transition, with the cantautorfolk singer-songwriters whose lyrics, in the form of protest songs, denounced social and political injusticeas its main representative. Among them, Luis Eduardo Aute was one of the artists that best epitomized the intermingling of politics and eroticism during the period. Together with this figure, other genres, such as rumba, rock, and punk, also showed disenchantment with the political process and were tools for social criticism and the transgression of those societal rules.

It was music, to summarize it briefly, with a message. Around fifty composers, singers, and performers are reviewed in this chapter, taking a close look at their highly politicized lyrics and messagessometimes, with a touch of eroticism. As an end of the process, I reference la movida, the epitome of the cultural, social, and political changes the country was undertaking after In Chapter 4 I analyze the mass media and their take on politics and eroticism: from television to radio, newspapers, magazines, and, also, the relevance of comics during the process.

Mass media played an important role during the Transition. The different approaches chronicled the transformations in an everchanging country full of. A plethora of newspapers, magazines, and comics were born during the process. For many, they represented el parlamento de papelthe paper Parliamentgiven its relevance in reflecting the events of troubled times.

In addition to that, magazines like Intervi broke the sociopolitical rules, rebelled against the Establishment, and showed the naked body of a womanthe iconic Pepa Flores, a. Marisolin , over a year before the end of censorship, that took place in November Finally, Chapter 5 focuses on the aftermath of the Transition and todays perspective of the process. Films, literature, music, or television have found a new fascination with the period. Television, for instance, has produced in the last few years more series, miniseries, and documentaries based on the Transition than ever.

The best example is, arguably, TVEs Cuntame cmo pas, a series that started in and that, in , is still being aired on primetime television. In addition to that, writers like Javier Cercas are lured by events such as the infamous F, the failed coup in ; Los aos desnudos analyzes the phenomenon of the S-rated movies and the fate of the stars involved when its production ceased; and music from the period is re-mastered today by Rosario Flores.

In conclusion, this dissertation is not the solution to the dilemma of whether the ab use of politics and eroticism during the period known as the cultural Transition to democracy in Spain was positive, negative, necessary, or unnecessary. My study argues that the ab use was a prolonged chain reaction to a repressive action, to the demise of a regime that lasted almost four decades, and a fact that influenced society and its culture. What this dissertation adds and contributes to the existing corpus is a study focused on politics and eroticism during the Transition years never done before.

This guide, covering all aspects of culture, gives todays reader a better perspective and understanding of the process that re-shaped Spains cultural view. The Transtion, although radical for some, transgressive or disappointing for others, incomplete and full of excesses and flaws for many, was a means to a necessary learning process, not an end in itself, that the country needed to undertake and even take to an extremelogical consequence after a long repressive physical and mental stateto be able to complete an almost cathartic journey to reestablish order and findor, at least, try to find equilibrium.

An Overview Both sociopolitical criticism and narrations involving traces of erotic innuendo have always been part of the production of Peninsular Spanish Literature. From Juan Ruzs Libro de buen amor to Fernando de Rojass La Celestina , Francisco Delicados La lozana andaluza , Lope de Vegas and Caldern de la Barcas plays, Mariano Jos de Larras artculos de costumbres,4 or the novels written during Realism and Naturalism in the late s,5 including the so-called novela galante,6 Spain has always been prone to criticize the mis behavior of those in power and enjoy the allure of eroticismlo verde, the somewhat dirty, risqu, and racy touch.

All this was unilaterally and forcefully changed with Franco's coup d'tat, which led to the Civil War and the subsequent imposition of the ideals of National-Catholicism upon the nation and its subjectsmore than free citizens. The coup marked the beginning of a period when, according to Morcillo, Spain combines church doctrine of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and pseudoscientific treatises from the nineteenth century to indoctrinate a generation of Spaniards Romantic writer Mariano Jos de Larra was one of the most caustic critics of nineteenth-century Spanish society, its politics, and its customs.

His satirical perspective was depicted in his artculos de costumbres, articles where the character of the Spaniards was exposed and ridiculed. Some of their topics could be considered, even today, as transgressive as they were then. Examples of this are Pardo Bazns Los Pazos de Ulloa or La madre naturaleza, where the innuendo of incest diffuses throughout the narration. The novela galante was the erotic novel that had its splendor in Spain during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

Eduardo Zamacois was one of its best-known representatives. Since then, and for almost forty years, authors were forbidden to write about the above-mentioned topics because of the regimes harsh censorship. Regarding sex, silence became the rule Foucault, Sexuality Vol. The definition of what was tasteful or legitimate in culture was now imposed upon individuals by the dictatorial state and its unequal power relations. The only way to allude to these issues would be in a metaphorical sense; this gave way, in some cases, to narrations with a quality that would not be matched by those created without the fear of reprisals during the Transition.

But even with the metaphorical quality of some novels during Francoism, now, after almost four decades of repression, readers were eager for change, the lifting of the cultural embargo, the comeback of free criticism and, above all, open sexuality in literature, in the arts, in their daily lives: No hay duda de que existe una estrecha correspondencia entre el proceso de apertura poltica y el despliegue de representaciones erticas en cine, prensa y otros medios de comunicacin. Mar, Umbral From this point on, politics, eroticism, and cultural creation become a cultural tandem. Some critics, like Rafael Conte, however, did not praise the production of the period, arguing that there is no such thing as novel of the Transition and that Francos death did not bring along the creation of masterpieces qtd.

The literary field, for some, faced the same setback as the political situation: disillusionment. Thus, the thought for a section of the critics was that, if the regime had changed and freedom had arrived, a new novel would appear in the process. However, that did not happen, since, in literature, there are no abrupt and sudden changes Monlen But, regardless of opinions, it is a fact that many authors embraced this new freedom of speech as an opportunity to dissect and write about our most recent history, from the Republic to the Civil War, Francoism, and the Transition itself without fear of reprisals or legal cutsat least, after November 11, , when censorship officially ended.

Readers, and audiences in general, also started to see an advance from the subtle ways to represent sex to the most explicit, using provocation as its basisincest 7 or fetishism, to name but a few. At this point, sexuality was no longer carefully confined Foucault, Sexuality Vol. One of the biggest names in Spanish and world literature, Camilo Jos Cela, marked the unofficial lifting of the above-mentioned embargo with an encyclopedia devoted to sex terminology, utilizing both medical and colloquial entries.

As Chris Perriam et al. In the encyclopedia, full of artisticand not so artisticimages of nude female bodies, the author defines a plethora of terms from an erotic perspective. Here are some examples to illustrate the point: abajar. Referido al pene, ponerlo en estado de flaccidez.

Referido a la libido, amansarla por satisfaccin de su impulso. As Marsha Kinder explained, Oedipal narrative also has the potential to function subversively as a vehicle for cultural change Blood Mujer de vida alegre. En sexologa, es trmino que se aplica para sealar la impotencia momentnea o temporal del varn.

Politics and politicians were satirized constantly. As Ins Arribas stated, politics was one of the topics most targeted by comedians Even though the previously mentioned pact of silence was in effect, there was a need to know about history from a new and uncensored perspective. Writers tried to fulfill the gap: Que desde se hayan escrito novelas sobre la guerra civil o la repblica, la posguerra y el exilio, tiene una justificacin: aunque la mayora de los espaoles prefiera olvidar hechos tan dolorosos para la nacin como fue la guerra de , lo cierto es que se percibe una curiosidad por la evocacin de estos acontecimientos trascendentales.

Pedro Ruz or Moncho Alpuente were two of the best examples. For further reading, see Arribas, Ins. La literatura de humor en la Espaa democrtica. Madrid: Editorial Pliegos, Alonso 23 In conclusion, the topics of politics and eroticism took over the narrative of the Transition. Even though many critics question the quality of the literature during the period, or if there is such thing as a novel of the Transition, there is no doubt that, regardless of genre, many authors, from critically acclaimed to novice, welcomed the new creative possibilities that freedom brought along with it.

From still subtle approaches to the ab use, the truth of the matter is that both consumers and creators were eager to experiment and experience what had been banned for decades. Let us, then, analyze the literary production of the period. Bejars Aquello es lo que llambamos Berlin was an analysis of Francos Spain Alonso 27 , or the so-called dos Espaas. Pinillas Antonio BEl Rojo, ciudadano de tercera, Espaa, Espaa was a clear depiction and criticism of Francos dictatorship and its crimes through the life of its protagonist, a Lazarillo-esque individual who had the misfortune of experiencing, or witnessing, the worst of life and dictatorial society: prison and mental institutions, unknown father, prostitute motherdue to the powers that be, or incesta daughter abused by her father.

Miguel Espinosa was a writer that, although praised by the criticsamong them, Vilars 84 , is somewhat unknown by the general public. Right before the Transition he wrote Escuela de mandarines , an allegory of Francoism. At the same time, he criticized political manipulation in post-Franco Spain. Likewise, Ramn Ayerra, in La tibia luz de la maana and Los terroristas , analyzed democratic Spanish society, including topics such as the life of civil servants and surrealistic senior citizens terrorism.

In La tibia luz de la maana there were also several explicit sexual references. This will be explained later, in the section dedicated to novels whose topics centered, primarily, on a combination of socio-erotic trend, something that became popular during the period. Even though many of Miguel Delibess novels dealt with sociopolitical criticismLas ratas , Cinco horas con Mario , or Los santos inocentes , sometimes from a certain conservative standpoint, El disputado voto del seor Cayo centered on the Transtion itself.

The plot revolved around the clash of two worldsurban versus rural, two perspectivespragmatism versus idealism, two generations during the first democratic elections in Spain after Francos death. A group of young politicians visit a small and almost deserted Castillian town to campaign for their party. Cayo Fernndez was one of the two residents lefta reference to the rural exodus to the big cities, both within the country and abroad. The novel portrayed the doubts about Spains future; after forty years of silence, nobody knew what was going to work The younger urban and idealistic generations wanted change, but their rural neighborsdepicted with black beret and patched-up corduroy pants 81 were not easily convinced or, perhaps, ready for drastic transformations.

When the political candidates promised to fix the situation, Cayos response was: it is not broken Eduardo Mendoza dissected society in April just a few months before Francos deathwhen he published La verdad sobre el caso Savolta, his first novel, received by the critics as a promising surprise Gimnez Mic The book was a premonition of the new turn the narrative in the Transition was about to take Alonso 12 , a pseudo novela negrahard-boiled detective fiction 9centered on the socially convulsed Barcelona of the early twentieth century. As Gimnez Mic noted, Barcelona and its society became core subjects in Mendozas literary universe The same applies to Manuel Vzquez Montalbn or Mercedes Salisachs, among others, given the importance of the Catalonian city.

In he wrote El misterio de la cripta embrujada. Place and genre were repeated; however, the action takes now place during the late s, in the middle of the Transition, which can be easily identified with some comments the characters make regarding political parties The protagonist of the story is an antihero, a rogue, a former criminal in a mental institution turned amateur private eye at the request of the police that will set him free in exchange for his aid.

The novel was, actually, a picaresque parody of hard-boiled detective fiction full of social and political criticism of the period. Novela negra, noire, and hard-boiled detective fiction will be analyzed in the section entitled The Political Flanur. Communism, nationalism, and terrorism were also the topics for a number of writers. Ral Guerra GarridoBasque by choice, not by birth published in his Lectura inslita de El capital, a Nadal-Award winner whose title is a reference to Karl Marxs Das Kapital read by the protagonist, Ignacio Lizarraga, during his captivity by a terrorist group.

The story revolves around capitalism, Marxism, the Basque Country, nationalism, and terrorism during the Transitionthe latter will also be reviewed by Cristbal Zaragoza in Y dios en la ultima playa , which will be discussed in the Planeta Award section. Fernando Vizcano Casas, on the other hand, was a writer considered by many close to the former regime and his stories during the period reflected those topics.

He wrote six novels during the Transition: Nias, al saln , De camisa vieja a chaqueta nueva , Y al tercer ao, resucit , Hijos de pap , Viva Franco! As their titles indicate, the subjects focused on characters created by the writer reminiscing those of Francoism to elaborate satires full of social and political criticism against the democratic Transition.

Most of his books were made into movies by Rafael Gil. Manuel Vicent also depicted historical facts and political figures along with narrative creations in his most popular book of the period, El anarquista coronado de adelfas, that appeared in Previously, in , he wrote Hgase demcrata en diez das; in he published Retratos de la transicin. In El anarquista coronado de adelfas, ficticious charactersPelirrojo Machaconses, for instancecoexist with real onesFelipe Gonzlez, Santiago Carrillo, or Manuel Fragain this part novel, part chronicle of the Transition.

As Carlos Ardavn pointed out, this is a book where conversations taste like stories Transicin Something similar did Francisco. Umbral and Manuel Vzquez Montalbn, perhaps two of the best-known writers of the period, both in their novels and in their articles full of sociopolitical analysis of Spain.

Francisco Umbral was one of the most prolific writers and critics of the Transition. Among others, he wrote: La guapa gente de derechas, Espaa ca, Mortal y rosaall three published in , Crnicas postfranquistas, Mis parasos artificiales, Las ninfasfrom , and, perhaps, his most famous book of the period, A la sombra de las muchachas rojas: crnicas marcianas de la transicin As Alonso explained, this book, more than a novel, was a chronicle of the Transition from the assassination of Carrero Blanco to the failed coup on February 23, Vzquez Montalbn talked, discussed, and wrote about the Transition through every possible channelnewspapers, magazines, novels, television, lectures, etc.

Arguably, his bestknown creation was Pepe Carvalho, the pseudo detective used as an excuse for sociopolitical analysis. In he wrote the Planeta-Award winning novel of the series, Los mares del Sur, a perfect combination of eroticism and societal dissectionit will be discussed in depth in The Political Flanur section of this dissertation. As I have noted, politics became a core theme in the novel of the Transition.

Writers explored and criticized the nations most recent history, from the Republic to the Transition itself. For decades, in a single-party country, the only clear references to the past allowed were those that glorified the achievements of Francoism. After Francos death, and with the lifting of censorship, novels could re-tell history from different perspectives. Thus, narrators included in their stories their own and particular vision of itregardless of qualityas a symbol of progressivism and to celebrate the new freedom. But, as stated previously, politics was not the only core subject of the process.

Eroticism also became an important and interesting part of the mix. Eroticism and Sociopolitical Criticism in the Novels of the Transition Arguably, the novel that most extensively combined political commentary with raw and explicit sex during the Transition years was Leopoldo Azancots Los amores prohibidos, published in in the erotic collection La sonrisa vertical. Because of the importance of Azancots novel regarding the focus of this dissertation, it will be discussed in depth in the section entitled Political Eroticism. Azancot also wrote, among others, La novia juda , Ftima, la esclava , La noche espaola , and El amante perfecto , all of them brimming with eroticism from Medieval times to present day, becoming one of the leading figures of the periods erotic fiction.

Ramn Ayerra, as explained earlier, also depicted explicit sex in his narrative. La tibia luz de la maana was full of clear references to the penis and sexual intercourse Something similar happened in the above-mentioned novel by Eduardo Mendoza La cripta embrujada, where there were also, following the trend, scenes of sexual nature, including the physical relationship between girls in a boarding school Likewise, the idea of women as sexual objects was depicted in the story: Qu se debe?

Ya sabes que puedes pagarme con tu boquita de fresa, cielodijo el de la fonda. Qu da vamos a hacer lo que t y yo sabemos, Merceditas? Jos Manuel Caballero Bonalds Toda la noche oyeron pasar pjaros, Ateneo de Sevilla Award winner, was a mosaic of social disintegration as well as a catalog of perversions Alonso 49 deviations or aberrations, as some might call them. Once again, writers during the Transition utilized transgression as a norm, more than as an exception.

Incest, for instance, regarded by many Western societies as the ultimate sin and contra natura, became, in one way or another, part of great deal of the narrative of the period. Shocking the audiences seemed to be the path to take, and breaking up with conventional terms depicted a clear sample of freedom and rebellion after repression. In Caballero Bonalds book, an English family who owns maritime business in Southern Spain and their local counterparts display all kinds of abnormalalthough we could also question what we understand for normalbehavior, from incest 29 to voyeurism and nuns , paraphilias such as zoophilia or zoosexuality , man to man masturbation 42 , physical 81 and sexual violence 53 , prostitution , or lesbianism 42 , all this sprinkled with social criticism of a still cloistered Spain and the political executions that take place El frinosomo vino a Babel was also Jess Alvizs way of infringing upon social rules, referring to some of the same topics used by Caballero Bonald.

The novel dealt with the obsessive sensual feelings between mother and son, Ana and Juan, repulsed. However, desire tried to prevail 41 rejection and desire, extreme feelings pulsating unisonouslyand was calmed by the boy through masturbation 42 or with maids. Epistolar narration is interspersed in the plot, dealing with lesbianism and the possibility of a foursome mother, son, and lesbian lovers, Vanessa and Crutch, because, as one of the protagonist remarks, transgressors unite against order Both Goytisolo brothers, Luis and Juan, wrote several novels during the period.

Luis published three parts of the tetralogy Antagoniathat started in with Recuentoduring the Transition: Los verdes de mayo hasta el mar , La clera de Aquiles , and Teora del conocimiento Juan also wrote three: Juan sin tierra the novel that closed the Alvaro Mendiola trilogy, preceded by Seas de identidad and Reivindicacin del conde don Julin , Makbara , and Paisajes despus de la batalla Eroticism was an important factor in Luis Goytisolos production. As Alonso explained, it prevailed in these novels, regardless of protagonists Heterosexuality, homosexuality, love triangles, couples, and relationships were some of the topics dissected by the author.

La clera de Aquiles, for instance, was a literary exercise written from the perspective of a lesbian, Matilde Moret: De las mujeres me atrae nicamente el cuerpo.

Enlaces de Interés

O mejor: determinadas partes del cuerpo. Eso no significa, ni que decir tiene, que prefiera a los hombres: en modo alguno. He tenido amantes masculinos, en ocasiones cre amarlos; hasta llegu a estar casada. Pero el cuerpo del hombre, incluso en el mejor de los casos, cuando se trata de un cuerpo joven y. Cuanto me atrae de los hombres.

Exctamente lo contrario de lo que sucede con la mujer. Interesting female perspective written from a male view. Social and political criticism could not be avoided in the narration. Thus, the protagonist criticized Francoism and the Spain it created, stating that the dictator turned the country into a convent of which he became despotic and fussy Mother Superior Juan Goytisolo is the epitome of sociopolitical criticism.

As Brad Epps stated, Oppressed by the weight of Spanish history, its dreams of Empire and divinity, Goytisolo wields words with a ferocity virtually unparalleled in Spanish literature. His texts, especially from Seas de identidad on, are essays on the potentially transformative relation between language and the socio-policial order.

Declared enemy of the Francoist regime, the writer explored myth, obsessions, and the reality of the Iberian Peninsula. Countryless observer, criticized by some, praised by others, he expressed his ideas from afar, meditating about exile and its effect on the individuals who suffer it Juan sin Tierra As a final note on the writer, there is an interesting paragraph from Makbara that could.

The character is said to have visited night-clubs, sex shops full of sex toys, erotic massage parlors, or watched X-rated movies as a logical reaction against the harsh and monastic regime they had endured which brought along the need to know about the forbidden topics Juan Benet, in addition to the above-mentioned Samuel ante Samuel, also wrote En el estado , an interest portrait where time and reality do not follow the traditional trend or orderthe narration both starts and finishes the same way, with the arrival of Mr.

Hervs and Mrs. Somers to La Portada, and whose plot requires a good dosage of what Julio Cortzar called accomplice reader. De un modo que conecta con la visin de Foucault, la materializacin total del poder la guerra y de lo puramente corpreo el sexo se han asentado en el modelo social mitificado donde queda ubicado el libro: el Estado. Navajas Ral Guerra Garrido published, in , Copenhague no existe, that dealt with life and individual freedom in post-Franco Spain. He criticized the new democray and what it represented for many, with allusions to the eroticism of the period, referring to democracy as the display of buttocks on the cover of Intervi or Carrillo on Cuadernos; Julio Cortzar, one of the best-known writers of what the critics labeled Latin American Literary Boom, suggested the need for an accomplice reader, lector cmplice, an active reader whose task would be to participate in the story, interpreting and assembling parts of non-linear narrations such as his own Rayuela.

Similar ideas were proposed by Jorge Luis Borges. Rodrigo Rubio also wrote in Memoria de pecado, a review of ultracatholic Spain and the awakening of sexual adolescence from the Republic to the dictatorship years. We see the evolution of the protagonists learning and his incursions into the land of Eros, from the moments of self-satisfaction 11 , the first encounter 40 , and the realization Honor and morals are seen by the adult conservative charactersabove all, femaleas the only important treats of the individual, and sex is a sin when not intended for procreation; and, even in those cases, it must be done in moderation.

The Judeo-Christian morals that prevailed in the period 11 were clearly depicted in the novel. Another author, Jos Mara Guelbenzu, also included obsessions, sexual education, evolution, and eroticism in his novels La noche en casa and El ro de la luna the former about Chspir and his relationships, and the latter with a Fidel Euba traveling from childhood to tragedy. Gabriel Garcia-Badells De rodillas al sol , a novel where death and sex played an important role, had a quasi Donjuan-esque ending, as characters were judged for their sexual behavioronce again, the Judeo-Christian morals and the Catholic Church still rule.

Carlos Alfaros Crnica sobre Csar , XXV Ssamo Award winner, on the other hand, revolved around marginal, grotesque, and physically-deformed characters, like the protagonist, Csar, with two sexual organs and a third arm 9 , or Alciona, the woman with the vast vagina who had endless intercourse with an elephant An example of this can be seen in books like Antes de que te cases, written by Dr. Clavero in The manual, directed to women, addressed topics like the purpose of sex, the honeymoon, the risks of contraceptives, and the moral, legal, canonical, and biological implications of abortion.

There are no sexual restrictions, whether the characters are real or phantasmagorical As noted earlier, the important factor was to provoke the reader, regardless of form or way. It was transgression for transgressions sake. Gonzalo Torrente Ballesters Fragmentos de Apocalipsis , a novel with multiple narrators and stories, and La isla de los jacintos cortados fantasy, fiction, love triangles, and the non-existence of Napoleonboth had some sexual innuendo, as so will other novels he wrote after the TransitionFilomeno a mi pesar , for instance.

However, in both Jos Luis Sampedros Octubre octubre , a metafictional story of a writer and his lost love full of transgressive behavior, and Alfonso Grossos El correo de Estambul , the sexual references were intended to shock the audiences. In the latter, Grosso depicted a girl, Angela Alberti, who lost her virginity to her father at 13, had her first homosexual encounter at 16, and an abortion at 17 Las ninfas, Nadal-Award winner, was Francisco Umbrals review of childhood and adolescence in post-war Spain, with a touch of love, eroticism, and, sometimes, onanism, as corresponds to that period of growth: En la masturbacin, al adolescente le naca en su carne, le floreca en su cuerpo una mujer que deseaba su virilidad.

El sitio de las grandes pasiones desencadenadas, pues, era el retrete, el sitio de amarse y odiarse a uno mismo. Me pas muchos aos dentro de un retrete. Molina Foix, with La comunin de los atletas Viladrichs book purports to be the diary of a gay Marxist who sends it to the safely heterosexual author in order to have the benefit of his sage commentary Smith, Laws Molina Foixs story centered on a trial for rape and the reunion of old classmates in order to deal with the problems homosexual couples face Alonso Other examples can bee seen in some of the novels published in La Sonrisa VerticalMater amantssima or Los amores prohibidos, to name two of the most popular ones.

As it has been noted, politics and eroticism permeated the novels of numerous writers, both critically acclaimed and virtually unknown by the general public. They were published in several collections and by different publishers. However, there was, and still is, a publishing company whose award has been granted during almost sixty years, and whose winners represent a wide variety of writers and styles: The Planeta Award.

The Planeta Award during the Transition Years The Planeta Award 12 has always received mixed reviews by the critics, above all because of to its commercial appeal and best-seller format. However, prestigious writers such as Juan Mars, Ramn J. Most Planeta-Award winners during the years of the Transition included in their stories the topics of politics and eroticism. The first winner of the Transition, Mercedes Salisachs with La gangrena , will be studied in the section on Women Writers. Jess Torbado won the award in One of the biggest appeals for participants is its prize money.

In the winner took home , The novel is a ucrona, the narration of an alternative history. The premise of the story is that the Republican army has won the Civil War. The cover paraphrases the real communiqu given by Francoist forces, signed now by President Manuel Azaa in April after their victory over fascism: En el da de hoy, cautivo y desarmado el ejrcito faccioso, han alcanzado las tropas republicanas sus ltimos objetivos militares.

La guerra ha terminado. El presidente de la Repblica, Azaa. Madrid, 1 de abril de The coup dtat carried out in has failed, Franco has lost the war, and Spain, instead of a dictatorship, remains as a Republic. This was, as Daro Villanueva noted, a significant coincidence Letras espaolas In a best-seller type of novel, it is interesting to see the social and political implications had this happened.

The story covers over a year of this antihistory of Spain, from April to October Political criticism of fascism, Franco, and what he represented abound in the novel In this parallel universe, the problem is the opposite of reality, i. This is a reference to and clear criticism of the post-war actions by the Franco regime, whose opponents were executed, incarcerated, or had to leave the country to avoid one of the other two options.

Some, however, formed the maquis, an anti-Franco guerilla. Although in the novel there are some veiled references to sex 11 , the JudeoChristian moral standards, as noted above, still prevail Sexuality is a private matter,. Paid sex, prostitution, is depicted as a womans way to survive 17 casada, monja o puta, i. Something similar will be proposed by Lidia Falcn in El juego de la piel The novel ends with the German invasion of Spain and left to interpretation of what the future of the Republic may be. A year after Torbado, , marked the moment for Jorge Semprn, who won the award with Autobiografa de Federico Snchez.

It tells the story of Federico Snchez pseudonym and alter ego of the author, a communist during Francoist Spain and his discrepancies with his party in the s, until he leaves. More than a novel per se, it is a collage of memories in no chronological order from s to democracy. Political references with some sexual touch are constant in the novel, including the metaphorical origin of Dolores Ibarruri, offspring of Mother Spain and her people: Ante nuestros ojos, el padre-pueblo y la madre-Espaaextrao avatar de la Parejita Reproductora que provoca las irnicas iras iconoclastas de Juan-sin-Tierra-Goytisolose hacen el amor y al follarse con hlito fecundo y alma ubrrima engendran a Dolores.

Pero es. Hija y madre de s misma. Reference to Dolores Ibrruri, a. Given the communist perspective of the storyand the authors, since the story is autobiographical14, the references to Francoism are always negative. Even though the dictator praised himself for the salvation of Spain, having delivered it from communism, masonery, and all the world evils, the novel notes that the regime, however, never solved the problems that still hinder the cultural and economic development of the country This concept is not new, and authors like, for instance, Benito Prez Galds, to name but one, also commented on the atraso de Espaa.

In any case, it is the perfect excuse to review Francoist society and the Transition, as well as the, in cases, fine line between reality and fiction. The sexual innuendo comes from the seduction that Mariana carries out. The moral problem is that Mariana is not Luyss niece, but his daughter , from a one-night stand with his wifes sister. This fact leads to an incestuous. After the Transition, he was appointed Minister of Culture Benito Prez Galds criticized Spain and the character of its inhabitants in many of his novels. In El caballero encantado, for example, a man under a spell is the perfect excuse to pinpoint the flaws of his fellow countrymen.

La muchacha de los ojos de oro La fille aux yeux d'or is the story of the tragic relationship between a young man and a mysterious young woman with gold eyes and the quest for pleasure and satisfaction in late nineteenth-century Paris. Eroticism, sadism, and transvestism are some of the topics depicted in the short novel. The novel will be discussed in depth in the section on the Political Flanur. The story was the tragicomic depiction of the life of a prostitute, Hortensia, from post-Civil War Spain to the Transitiona sort of modern Moll Flanders.

Narrated in first person and using the resource of real recordings by a Sociology student 74 , the book radiates sex throughout its almost three hundred pages. Hortensia, a hooker by profession, uneducated but observant, analyzes, firsthand, the vices of society, that are many , from her privileged perspective as merchant of lust and hidden desires, the appeal of sex to individuals from all walks of lifeeven the ultrareligious type who uses a hair shirt as a penance , and behavior behind closed doors.

In a way, something that, among others, Alejo Carpentier did in El recurso del mtodo , with the Presidents actions with prostitutes. The novel adds epistolar commentaries to criticize the hypocrisy of societyespecially those who called themselves liberals during the Transition and are nothing but reactionary , or the pitiful state of the Andalusian region Hortensias narrations expose Francoist Spain, especially the so-called hunger years Alejo Carpentiers El recurso del mtodo is one of the best-known novelas del dictador, dictator novelstogether with Ramn del Valle Inclns Tirano Banderas or Miguel ngel Asturiass El seor Presidente , to name but a few.

The nameless president engages himself in perverse and transgressive exchanges with prostitutes, sometimes dressed as nuns, in a brothel used as a metaphor for the dictatorshipthe power of sex. Cristbal Zaragoza received the award in for Y Dios en la ltima playa, a story about Basque terrorism in Spain and human conflict in the s.

After the protagonists unilateral decision to murder a coronel, ETA leaders feel that his actions could jeopardize the politics of the group and seek punishment. Religion, Existentialism, and political commentary abound in the novel, with references to God and his positioning Sex and erotic comments are also part of the young protagonists life and are reflected throughout the story during his explicit sexual relationships In essence, Planeta-Award winners followed the same trend as the writers published by other companies.

Eroticism and political references became a must for the narrative of the period and most of the creations wanted to review or explore the topics silenced for such a long time. However, eroticism was realized in full by a collection published by another company, Tusquets Editores. The name decided for it was La sonrisa vertical. If there is something that best represents Altisents statement is La sonrisa verticala reference to the look of the vulva that resembles a vertical smile.

It was, and still is, an erotic collection published by Tusquet Editores since To date, it comprises over novels. Marshall, La escopeta nacional and Tusquetss editor Beatriz. The collection resurrected the genre in Spanish language, as Pedro Lpez Martnez stated Unlike other publications, limited by moralistic or religious restraints, it is interesting to remark that there are no taboo subjects in the collection; topics such as necrophilia or incest, to name but a few, appear in several novels.

Transgression is part of the norm in these novels, as noted earlier. Berlanga himself explained on the publishers own Web site the purpose of the collectioni. Y, a travs de nuestros libros, a travs de nuestra y vuestra sonrisa vertical, constatar que el escribir sobre lo biolgicamente apetecible es algo inmanente a todos los tiempos, a todas las geografas, a todos los hombres. The collection started with a short story by no other than Spanish Nobel Prize winner Camilo Jos Cela entitled La inslita y gloriosa hazaa del cipote de Archidona Presented in epistolary forma resource Cela successfully used in his acclaimed La familia de Pascual Duarte , it chronicles an incident that, allegedly, took place in the town of Archidona, in the province of Mlaga, Spain, in Una pareja.

La msica o las imgenes deban ser un tanto excitantes, porque a ella. El cateto deba ser consentidor, pues nada opuso a los vehementes deseos de su prjima. Djola hacer complacido, sin. The joyfuland powerfulcountry boy spread his semen with such violent force that it stained some spectators sitting in the row behind them, which resulted in their arrest, court appearance, and the subsequent fine to both masturbator and masturbated Cela uses the literary resource of the epistolar communiqu to mock ultrareligious Spain and the sexual power of his fellow countryman The author expands the sacarstic comments writing a sonnet 17 declaring glory to Archidona and its inhabitants, and requests the building of a granite monolith to commemorate the feat Celas book pays ironic homage to such a heroic feat by a specimen of macho ibrico that, as proved by the letters included in his story, was worthy of study and research by eminent doctors.

The book, in humorous fashion, sings the praises of the Spaniard and, at the same time, alludes to the late Francoist regime and the Transition. Thus, when referring to the young man as a victim of female masturbatory practices, he is said to be as virgin as Lpez Rod 13 , Francoist ex-minister, member of conservative party Alianza Popular and of Parliament during the Transition. Likewise, the denial to publish the sonnet in a magazine is linked to fear of late minister Arias Salgado There are even some traces of intratextuality, when the author refers to his own book La Enciclopedia del erotismo , previously mentioned.

The story ends with poems praising the heroic deed and even adds graphic documents analyzing the trajectory of the. In September , La sonrisa vertical published the first volume of the, by far, longest, most extensive erotic novel in history, Mi vida secreta Iwhose original title was My Secret Life , written by an anonymous British author of the late s. The monumental English first version comprised eleven volumes, narrating, in first person, the sexual encounters of the protagonist and writer throughout the course of his life.

The second Spanish volume appeared two months later, in November In , it was published in one single book. Even though this narration obviously has no political references to the Transition, it is nonetheless a study of Victorian society and the behavior of the upper classes. At the same time, the sexual content of the long story follows the trend of that time in Spain. The explicit erotic descriptions start in his childhood and end with his death, including sex as a minor 76 , masturbation 87 , prostitution 90 , incest , or homosexual intercourse Although seemingly lacking quality in its writing, the book could be considered a bildungsroman, a hybrid of Lazarillo de Tormes, Moll Flanders, Fanny Hill, or even a pornographic version of Casanova.

It is, in a certain manner, picaresque, the sexual life of a rogue, Walter, his training in sexual matters, his conquests, and his misery. Tusquets Editores, together with the collection La sonrisa vertical, created in the Premios La sonrisa verticalthe collection awardsto, as declared on their Web site, give way to a literary genre previously labeled as accursed and to encourage authors to express themselves freely. The jury was presided over by Berlanga, and, over the years, the jurors have been authors such as Juan Mars, Terenci Moix, Fernando. Fernn Gmez, or Almudena Grandes. In , however, the company decided to discontinue it.

The reason seemed to be the lack of critical acclaim and the fact that eroticism had become mainstreamsomething that, as we will see later, also happened with erotic cinema. As expressed earlier, eroticism has always been considered secondrate literature, above all by the intelligentsia and the specialized critics. Yet, the collection keeps publishing novels. It is, once again, a matter of taste and distinction, to put it in Bourdieus terms. The first winner of the award was declared in The novel was La educacin sentimental de la Seorita Sonia, by Argentine exile Susana Constante; Constantes novel will be discussed in the section on Women Writers of this study.

The author, a fan of Georges Batailles, dedicated the book to him, and, at the same time, paid homage to the famous erotic writer also published in the collection: Historia del ojo, with a prologue by Mario Vargas Llosa, originally published in , and in in La sonrisa vertical, full of symbology and sexual initiation; Mi madre , which appeared in La sonrisa vertical in , where incest, manipulation, corruption, and death honor the transgression; Madama Edwarda and El muerto , both published here in in one volume; and El azul del cielo , that became part of the collection in Segus novel tells the story of a librarian obsessed with a girlpart nave, in school uniform 13 , part perverse, wearing no panties 33 and with erotic literature.

His life gravitates toward the hookers and. In , the winner was Deu pometes t el pomer, by Oflia Dracs, pseudonym of eight male writersaccording to the opinion of the writers themselves exposed on Tusquets Web site, two women were asked to write two of the erotic stories, but declined the offer. The title alludes to a popular Catalonian song of the same title, referring to the ten apples of the apple-tree.

Prohibited during the Franco regime for public use, after the dictators death it was recognized as a co-official language in Catalonia.

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The book contains, as expected by the title, ten short stories. Different sexual topics are presented throughout the narration. La cadella, one of the shortest stories of the book, is a dialogue, in monologue format, depicting the deals between a street hooker and a possible client, exposing the monetary transaction 13 , or the variations of sex such as fellatio 14 or masturbation with the use of female hair In Xop-suei, we see the criticism of a repressed Roman Catholic society, where women must always maintain their virginity until marriage However, the use of a bottle can be the female subterfuge to circumvent the problem 42 , when she can no longer wait to have intercourse.

Finally, the transgressive topic comes with Una gosseta caniche, where a little poodle dog becomes the sexual partner of a marquis:. Barrio chino has a different connotation in Spain. It refers to the area of a city where brothels are situated. The data is assumed to be generated by a model that need not be either the null or the non-null model. Some investigations of these characteristics are included. The idea is to replace an analytical computation of the expectation of the Cox difference with a bootstrap estimate.

In many Solvency and Basel loss data, there are thresholds or deductibles that affect the analysis capability. On the other hand, the Birnbaum-Saunders model has received great attention during the last two decades and it can be used as a loss distribution. In this paper, we propose a solution to the problem of deductibles using a truncated version of the Birnbaum-Saunders distribution. The probability density function, cumulative distribution function, and moments of this distribution are obtained.

In addition, properties regularly used in insurance industry, such as multiplication by a constant inflation effect and reciprocal transformation, are discussed. Furthermore, a study of the behavior of the risk rate and of risk measures is carried out. Moreover, estimation aspects are also considered in this work.

Finally, an application based on real loss data from a commercial bank is conducted. This paper proposes two new estimators for determining the number of factors r in static approximate factor models. We exploit the well-known fact that the r largest eigenvalues of the variance matrix of N response variables grow unboundedly as N increases, while the other eigenvalues remain bounded. The new estimators are obtained simply by maximizing the ratio of two adjacent eigenvalues. Our simulation results provide promising evidence for the two estimators.

We study a modification of the Luce rule for stochastic choice which admits the possibility of zero probabilities. In any given menu, the decision maker uses the Luce rule on a consideration set, potentially a strict subset of the menu. Without imposing any structure on how the consideration sets are formed, we characterize the resulting behavior using a single axiom.

Our result offers insight into special cases where consideration sets are formed under various restrictions. Purpose— This paper summarizes the findings of a research project aimed at benchmarking the environmental sustainability practices of the top Mexican companies. The survey also explored how the adoption of environmental sustainability practices relates to the competitiveness of these firms. Findings— The results suggest that Mexican companies are very active in the various areas of business where environmental sustainability is relevant.

Because the manufacturing sector is significantly overrepresented in the sample and because of its importance in addressing issues of environmental sustainability, when appropriate, specific results for this sector are reported and contrasted to the overall sample. Practical implications— The vast majority of these firms see adopting environmental sustainability practices as being profitable and think this will be even more important in the future.

In Mexico, one might expect that the same would be true, but only anecdotal evidence was heretofore available. We derive optimal consumption and portfolio policies that are robust to uncertainty about the hard-to-estimate drift rate, jump intensity and jump size parameters.

We also provide a semi-closed form formula for the detection-error probability and compare various portfolio holding strategies, including robust and non-robust policies. Our quantitative analysis shows that ignoring uncertainty leads to significant wealth loss for the investor.

We exploit the manifold increase in homicides in —11 in Mexico resulting from its war on organized drug traffickers to estimate the effect of drug-related homicides on housing prices. We use an unusually rich data set that provides national coverage of housing prices and homicides and exploits within-municipality variations. We find that the impact of violence on housing prices is borne entirely by the poor sectors of the population. An increase in homicides equivalent to 1 standard deviation leads to a 3 percent decrease in the price of low-income housing.

This paper examines foreign direct investment FDI in the Hungarian economy in the period of post-Communist transition since Hungary took a quite aggressive approach in welcoming foreign investment during this period and as a result had the highest per capita FDI in the region as of We discuss the impact of FDI in terms of strategic intent, i.

The effect of these two kinds of FDI is contrasted by examining the impact of resource seeking FDI in manufacturing sectors and market serving FDI in service industries. In the case of transition economies, we argue that due to the strategic intent, resource seeking FDI can imply a short-term impact on economic development whereas market serving FDI strategically implies a long-term presence with increased benefits for the economic development of a transition economy.

Our focus is that of market serving FDI in the Hungarian banking sector, which has brought improved service and products to multinational and Hungarian firms. This has been accompanied by the introduction of innovative financial products to the Hungarian consumer, in particular consumer credit including mortgage financing. However, the latter remains an underserved segment with much growth potential. For public policy in Hungary and other transition economies, we conclude that policymakers should consider the strategic intent of FDI in order to maximize its benefits in their economies.

We propose a general framework for extracting rotation invariant features from images for the tasks of image analysis and classification. Our framework is inspired in the form of the Zernike set of orthogonal functions. It provides a way to use a set of one-dimensional functions to form an orthogonal set over the unit disk by non-linearly scaling its domain, and then associating it an exponential term.

When the images are projected into the subspace created with the proposed framework, the rotations in the image affect only the exponential term while the value of the orthogonal functions serve as rotation invariant features. We exemplify our framework using the Haar wavelet functions to extract features from several thousand images of symbols.

We then use the features in an OCR experiment to demonstrate the robustness of the method. In this paper we explore the use of orthogonal functions as generators of representative, compact descriptors of image content. In Image Analysis and Pattern Recognition such descriptors are referred to as image features, and there are some useful properties they should possess such as rotation invariance and the capacity to identify different instances of one class of images.

We exemplify our algorithmic methodology using the family of Daubechies wavelets, since they form an orthogonal function set. We benchmark the quality of the image features generated by doing a comparative OCR experiment with three different sets of image features. Our algorithm can use a wide variety of orthogonal functions to generate rotation invariant features, thus providing the flexibility to identify sets of image features that are best suited for the recognition of different classes of images.

When analyzing catastrophic risk, traditional measures for evaluating risk, such as the probable maximum loss PML , value at risk VaR , tail-VaR, and others, can become practically impossible to obtain analytically in certain types of insurance, such as earthquake, and certain types of reinsurance arrangements, specially non-proportional with reinstatements. Given the available information, it can be very difficult for an insurer to measure its risk exposure. This effect can be assessed mathematically. The PML is defined in terms of a very extreme quantile.

The resulting reinsurance structures will then be very complicated to analyze and to evaluate their mitigation or transfer effects analytically, so it may be necessary to use alternative approaches, such as Monte Carlo simulation methods. This is what we do in this paper in order to measure the effect of a complex reinsurance treaty on the risk profile of an insurance company.

We compute the pure risk premium, PML as well as a host of results: impact on the insured portfolio, risk transfer effect of reinsurance programs, proportion of times reinsurance is exhausted, percentage of years it was necessary to use the contractual reinstatements, etc. Since the estimators of quantiles are known to be biased, we explore the alternative of using an Extreme Value approach to complement the analysis. The need to estimate future claims has led to the development of many loss reserving techniques. There are two important problems that must be dealt with in the process of estimating reserves for outstanding claims: one is to determine an appropriate model for the claims process, and the other is to assess the degree of correlation among claim payments in different calendar and origin years.

We approach both problems here. On the one hand we use a gamma distribution to model the claims process and, in addition, we allow the claims to be correlated.

EDUARDO CHIRINOS (DERROTA DEL OTOÑO)

We follow a Bayesian approach for making inference with vague prior distributions. The methodology is illustrated with a real data set and compared with other standard methods. Consider a random sample X1, X2,. Only the sample size, mean and range are recorded and it is necessary to estimate the unknown population mean and standard deviation.

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In this paper the estimation of the mean and standard deviation is made from a Bayesian perspective by using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo MCMC algorithm to simulate samples from the intractable joint posterior distribution of the mean and standard deviation. The proposed methodology is applied to simulated and real data. This paper is concerned with the situation that occurs in claims reserving when there are negative values in the development triangle of incremental claim amounts.

Typically these negative values will be the result of salvage recoveries, payments from third parties, total or partial cancellation of outstanding claims due to initial overestimation of the loss or to a possible favorable jury decision in favor of the insurer, rejection by the insurer, or just plain errors. Some of the traditional methods of claims reserving, such as the chain-ladder technique, may produce estimates of the reserves even when there are negative values. Historically the chain-ladder method has been used as a gold standard benchmark because of its generalized use and ease of application.

This paper presents a Bayesian model to consider negative incremental values, based on a three-parameter log-normal distribution. The model presented here allows the actuary to provide point estimates and measures of dispersion, as well as the complete distribution for outstanding claims from which the reserves can be derived. It is concluded that the method has a clear advantage over other existing methods.

The BMOM is particularly useful for obtaining post-data moments and densities for parameters and future observations when the form of the likelihood function is unknown and thus a traditional Bayesian approach cannot be used. Also, even when the form of the likelihood is assumed known, in time series problems it is sometimes difficult to formulate an appropriate prior density. Here, we show how the BMOM approach can be used in two, nontraditional problems. The first one is conditional forecasting in regression and time series autoregressive models.

Specifically, it is shown that when forecasting disaggregated data say quarterly data and given aggregate constraints say in terms of annual data it is possible to apply a Bayesian approach to derive conditional forecasts in the multiple regression model. The types of constraints conditioning usually considered are that the sum, or the average, of the forecasts equals a given value.

This kind of condition can be applied to forecasting quarterly values whose sum must be equal to a given annual value. Analogous results are obtained for AR p models. The second problem we analyse is the issue of aggregation and disaggregation of data in relation to predictive precision and modelling. Predictive densities are derived for future aggregate values by means of the BMOM based on a model for disaggregated data. They are then compared with those derived based on aggregated data.

En este trabajo se analiza el problema en el contexto de muestreo por conglomerados. Se presenta un estimador puntual y uno para la varianza del total. The problem of estimating the accumulated value of a positive and continuous variable for which some partially accumulated data has been observed, and usually with only a small number of observations two years , can be approached taking advantage of the existence of stable seasonality from one period to another.

For example the quantity to be predicted may be the total for a period year and it needs to be made as soon as partial information becomes available for given subperiods months. These conditions appear in a natural way in the prediction of seasonal sales of style goods, such as toys; in the behavior of inventories of goods where demand varies seasonally, such as fuels; or banking deposits, among many other examples.

In this paper, the problem is addressed within a cluster sampling framework. A ratio estimator is proposed for the total value to be forecasted under the assumption of stable seasonality. Estimators are obtained for both the point forecast and the variance. The procedure works well when standard methods cannot be applied due to the reduced number of observations.

Fragmentos literarios Tusquets Editores Otoño 2013

Some real examples are included as well as applications to some previously published data. Comparisons are made with other procedures. We present a Bayesian solution to forecasting a time series when few observations are available. The quantity to predict is the accumulated value of a positive, continuous variable when partially accumulated data are observed. These conditions appear naturally in predicting sales of style goods and coupon redemption. A simple model describes the relation between partial and total values, assuming stable seasonality.

Exact analytic results are obtained for point forecasts and the posterior predictive distribution. Noninformative priors allow automatic implementation. Examples are provided. We give a brief description of the Project and characteristics of the target population. We then describe and use the FGT Index to determine if the communities included in the Project were correctly chosen. We describe the method of cost-effectiveness analysis used in this article.

The procedure for specifying cost-effectiveness ratios is next presented, and their application to measure the impact of PNAS on Food Expenditures carried out. Finally we present empirical results that show that, among other results, PNAS increased Food Expenditures of the participating households by 7. The evidence is mostly qualitative, however, since there are no methods for measuring this participation quantitatively.

In this paper we present a procedure for generating an aggregate index of community participation based on productivity. It is specifically aimed at measuring community participation in the construction of works for collective benefit. Because there are limitations on the information available, additional assumptions must be made to estimate parameters.

The method is applied to data from communities in Mexico participating in a national nutrition, food and health program. A Bayesian approach is used to derive constrained and unconstrained forecasts in an autoregressive time series model. Both are obtained by formulating an AR p model in such a way that it is possible to compute numerically the predictive distribution for any number of forecasts. The types of constraints considered are that a linear combination of the forecasts equals a given value. This kind of restriction is applied to forecasting quarterly values whose sum must be equal to a given annual value.

Constrained forecasts are generated by conditioning on the predictive distribution of unconstrained forecasts. The problem of temporal disaggregation of time series is analyzed by means of Bayesian methods. The disaggregated values are obtained through a posterior distribution derived by using a diffuse prior on the parameters. Further analysis is carried out assuming alternative conjugate priors. The means of the different posterior distribution are shown to be equivalent to some sampling theory results. Bayesian prediction intervals are obtained.

Forecasts for future disaggregated values are derived assuming a conjugate prior for the future aggregated value. A formulation of the problem of detecting outliers as an empirical Bayes problem is studied. In so doing we encounter a non-standard empirical Bayes problem for which the notion of average risk asymptotic optimality a.

Some general theorems giving sufficient conditions for a. These general results are then used in various formulations of the outlier problem for underlying normal distributions to give a. Rates of convergence results are also given using the methods of Johns and Van Ryzin. This article examines the distinctive characteristics and features of how both women and men speak. Based on this analysis, the author will make an assessment, and then invite the reader to become aware of their manner of speaking.

En el presente trabajo, estudiamos los espacios de Brown, que son conexos y no completamente de Hausdorff. Escribimos algunas consecuencias de este resultado. Esto generaliza un resultado probado por Kirch en In the present paper we study Brown spaces which are connected and not completely Hausdorff. We also show that some elements of BG are Brown spaces, while others are totally separated.

We write some consequences of such result. For example, the space N, TG is not connected "im kleinen" at each of its points. This generalizes a result proved by Kirchin We also present a simpler proof of a result given by Szczuka in Morsi, A. In recent years has increased interest in the development of new materials in this case composites, as these more advanced materials can perform their work better than conventional materials. In the present work we analyze the effect of the addition of carbon nanotubes incorporating nano silver particles to increase both their electrical and mechanical properties.

The obtained alloys were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy SEM , X-Ray Diffraction Analysis, hardness tests were performed and electrical conductivity tests were finally carried out. The salts were placed in the inlet to promote corrosion and increase the chemical reaction. These salts were applied to the alloys via discontinuous exposures.

The corrosion products were characterized using thermo-gravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The presence of Mo, Al and Si was not significant and there was no evidence of chemical reaction of these elements. The most active elements were the Fe and Cr in the metal base. The steel with the best performance was alloy Fe9Cr3AlSi3Mo, due to the effect of the protective oxides inclusive in presence of the aggressive salts.

Clustering is an unsupervised process to determine which unlabeled objects in a set share interesting properties. The objects are grouped into k subsets clusters whose elements optimize a proximity measure. Methods based on information theory have proven to be feasible alternatives. They attempt to minimize the entropy of each cluster. We propose a clustering method based on the maximum entropy principle.

Such a method explores the space of all possible probability distributions of the data to find one that maximizes the entropy subject to extra conditions based on prior information about the clusters. As a consequence of such a principle, those distributions of high entropy that satisfy the conditions are favored over others. Searching the space to find the optimal distribution of object in the clusters represents a hard combinatorial problem, which disallows the use of traditional optimization techniques.

Genetic algorithms are a good alternative to solve this problem. We benchmark our method relative to the best theoretical performance, which is given by the Bayes classifier when data are normally distributed, and a multilayer perceptron network, which offers the best practical performance when data are not normal. In general, a supervised classification method will outperform a non-supervised one, since, in the first case, the elements of the classes are known a priori. This clearly exhibits the superiority of our method.

One of the basic endeavors in Pattern Recognition and particularly in Data Mining is the process of determining which unlabeled objects in a set do share interesting properties. This implies a singular process of classification usually denoted as "clustering", where the objects are grouped into k subsets clusters in accordance with an appropriate measure of likelihood. Clustering can be considered the most important unsupervised learning problem.

The more traditional clustering methods are based on the minimization of a similarity criteria based on a metric or distance. This fact imposes important constraints on the geometry of the clusters found. Since each element in a cluster lies within a radial distance relative to a given center, the shape of the covering or hull of a cluster is hyper-spherical convex which sometimes does not encompass adequately the elements that belong to it.

For this reason we propose to solve the clustering problem through the optimization of Shannon's Entropy. The optimization of this criterion represents a hard combinatorial problem which disallows the use of traditional optimization techniques, and thus, the use of a very efficient optimization technique is necessary. We consider that Genetic Algorithms are a good alternative. We show that our method allows to obtain successfull results for problems where the clusters have complex spatial arrangements.

Such method obtains clusters with non-convex hulls that adequately encompass its elements. We statistically show that our method displays the best performance that can be achieved under the assumption of normal distribution of the elements of the clusters. We also show that this is a good alternative when this assumption is not met. We present a novel approach to disentangle the effects of ideology, partisanship, and constituency pressures on roll-call voting. First, we place voters and legislators on a common ideological space. Finally, we use a structural equation model to account for these separate effects on legislative voting.

We rely on public opinion data and a survey of Argentine legislators conducted in — Legislators in presidential countries use a variety of mechanisms to advance their electoral careers and connect with relevant constituents. The most frequently studied activities are bill initiation, co-sponsoring, and legislative speeches.

In this paper, the authors examine legislators' information requests i. The authors focus on the case of Chile - where strong and cohesive national parties coexist with electoral incentives that emphasise the personal vote - to examine the links between party responsiveness and legislators' efforts to connect with their electoral constituencies.

Making use of a new database of parliamentary questions and a comprehensive sample of geographical references, the authors examine how legislators use this mechanism to forge connections with voters, and find that targeted activities tend to increase as a function of electoral insecurity and progressive ambition.

Recent efforts to theorize the role of emotions in political life have stressed the importance of sympathy, and have often recurred to Adam Smith to articulate their claims. In the early twentieth-century, Max Scheler disputed the salutary character of sympathy, dismissing it as an ultimately perverse foundation for human association. Unlike later critics of sympathy as a political principle, Scheler rejected it for being ill equipped to salvage what, in his opinion, should be the proper basis of morality, namely, moral value.

Even if Scheler's objections against Smith's project prove to be ultimately mistaken, he had important reasons to call into question its moral purchase in his own time. Where the most dangerous idol is not self-love but illusory self-knowledge, the virtue of self-command will not suffice.

We present an algorithm that automatically segments and classifies the brain structures in a set of magnetic resonance MR brain images using expert information contained in a small subset of the image set. The algorithm is intended to do the segmentation and classification tasks mimicking the way a human expert would reason. The algorithm uses a knowledge base taken from a small subset of semiautomatically classified images that is combined with a set of fuzzy indexes that capture the experience and expectation a human expert uses during recognition tasks.

The fuzzy indexes are tissue specific and spatial specific, in order to consider the biological variations in the tissues and the acquisition inhomogeneities through the image set. The brain structures are segmented and classified one at a time. For each brain structure the algorithm needs one semiautomatically classified image and makes one pass through the image set.

The algorithm uses low-level image processing techniques on a pixel basis for the segmentations, then validates or corrects the segmentations, and makes the final classification decision using higher level criteria measured by the set of fuzzy indexes. We use single-echo MR images because of their high volumetric resolution; but even though we are working with only one image per brain slice, we have multiple sources of information on each pixel: absolute and relative positions in the image, gray level value, statistics of the pixel and its three-dimensional neighborhood and relation to its counterpart pixels in adjacent images.

We have validated our algorithm for ease of use and precision both with clinical experts and with measurable error indexes over a Brainweb simulated MR set. We present an attractive methodology for the compression of facial gestures that can be used to drive interaction in real time applications. Using the eigenface method we build compact representation spaces for a variety of facial gestures.

These compact spaces are the so called eigenspaces. We do real time tracking and segmentation of facial features from video images and then use the eigenspaces to find compact descriptors of the segmented features. We use the system for an avatar videoconference application where we achieve real time interactivity with very limited bandwidth requirements.


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The system can also be used as a hands free man-machine interface. We use interactive virtual environments for cognitive behavioral therapy. Working together with children therapists and psychologists, our computer graphics group developed 5 interactive simulators for the treatment of fears and behavior disorders. The simulators run in real time on P4 PCs with graphic accelerators, but also work online using streaming techniques and Web VR engines.

The construction of the simulators starts with ideas and situations proposed by the psychologists, these ideas are then developed by graphic designers and finally implemented in 3D virtual worlds by our group. Our methodology starts with a graphic modeler to build the geometry of the virtual worlds, the models are then exported to a dedicated OpenGL VR engine that can interface with any VR peripheral. Alternatively, the models can be exported to a Web VR engine.

The simulators are cost efficient since they require not much more than the PC and the graphics card. We have found that both the therapists and the children that use the simulators find this technology very attractive. We consider the curved 4-body problems on spheres and hyperbolic spheres. After obtaining a criterion for the existence of quadrilateral configurations on the equator of the sphere, we study two restricted 4-body problems, one in which two masses are negligible and another in which only one mass is negligible.

In the former, we prove the evidence square-like relative equilibria, whereas in the latter we discuss the existence of kite-shaped relative equilibria. In both cases, 2D and 3D, we verify the existence of bifurcation, that is, for a same set of masses we determine two new central configurations. The computation of the bifurcations, as well as their pictures have been performed considering homogeneous force laws with exponent a Medical image segmentation is one of the most productive research areas in medical image processing. The goal of most new image segmentation algorithms is to achieve higher segmentation accuracy than existing algorithms.

But the issue of quantitative, reproducible validation of segmentation results, and the questions: What is segmentation accuracy? The creation of a validation framework is relevant and necessary for consistent and realistic comparisons of existing, new and future segmentation algorithms. An important component of a reproducible and quantitative validation framework for segmentation algorithms is a composite index that will measure segmentation performance at a variety of levels.

In this paper we present a prototype composite index that includes the measurement of seven metrics on segmented image sets. We explain how the composite index is a more complete and robust representation of algorithmic performance than currently used indices that rate segmentation results using a single metric. Our proposed index can be read as an averaged global metric or as a series of algorithmic ratings that will allow the user to compare how an algorithm performs under many categories.

We calibrate the cost of sovereign defaults using a continuous time model, where government default decisions may trigger a change in the regime of a stochastic TFP process. We calibrate the model to a sample of European countries from to By comparing the estimated drift in default relative to that in no-default, we find that TFP falls in the range of 3.

The model is consistent with observed falls in GDP growth rates and subsequent recoveries and illustrates why fiscal multipliers are small during sovereign debt crises. Employment to population ratios differ markedly across Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development OECD countries, especially for people aged over 55 years. In addition, social security features differ markedly across the OECD, particularly with respect to features such as generosity, entitlement ages, and implicit taxes on social security benefits.

This study postulates that differences in social security features explain many differences in employment to population ratios at older ages. This conjecture is assessed quantitatively with a life cycle general equilibrium model of retirement. At ages years, the correlation between the simulations of this study's model and observed data is 0. Generosity and implicit taxes are key features to explain the cross-country variation, whereas entitlement age is not. The consequences of increases in the scale of tax and transfer programs are assessed in the context of a model with idiosyncratic productivity shocks and incomplete markets.

The effects are contrasted with those obtained in a stand-in house hold model featuring no idiosyncratic shocks and complete markets. The main finding is that the impact on hours remains very large, but the welfare consequences are very different. The analysis also suggests that tax and transfer policies have large effects on average labor productivity via selection effects on employment. It starts with a conceptual distinction between rigidity and supremacy.

Subsequently those categories are used to analyze mexican system and to question the amendment process capability to guarantee constitutional supremacy. Finally, the paper makes some proposals to amend the Mexican constitutional amendment process in order to make it more democratic, deliberative and effective to guarantee constitutional supremacy.

Popular constitutionalism is a contemporary constitutional theory with a critical view of U. S' constitutional narrative focus on judicial supremacy. Instead, popular constitutionalism regards the people as main actor. It defends an anti-elitist understanding of constitutional law. From the institutional perspective, popular constitutionalism proposes a weak model of constitutionalism and a strong participatory democracy.

Asimismo, se plantean algunos retos e inquietudes que suscita la sentencia a la luz del activismo judicial que puede conllevar. For now on the Supreme Court is able to judge the stigmatizing messages of law. Finally, I express some thoughts about the issues that this judgment could pose to the Supreme Court. Business cycles in emerging economies display very volatile consumption and strongly countercyclical trade balance.

We show that aggregate consumption in these economies is not more volatile than output once durables are accounted for. Then, we present and estimate a real business cycles model for a small open economy that accounts for this empirical observation. Our results show that the role of permanent shocks to aggregate productivity in explaining cyclical fluctuations in emerging economies is considerably lower than previously documented.

Moreover, we find that financial frictions are crucial to explain some key business cycle properties of these economies. We use intraday data to compute weekly realized variance, skewness, and kurtosis for equity returns and study the realized moments' time-series and cross-sectional properties. We investigate if this week's realized moments are informative for the cross-section of next week's stock returns. We find a very strong negative relationship between realized skewness and next week's stock returns. A trading strategy that buys stocks in the lowest realized skewness decile and sells stocks in the highest realized skewness decile generates an average weekly return of 19 basis points with a t-statistic of 3.

Our results on realized skewness are robust across a wide variety of implementations, sample periods, portfolio weightings, and firm characteristics, and are not captured by the Fama-French and Carhart factors. We find some evidence that the relationship between realized kurtosis and next week's stock returns is positive, but the evidence is not always robust and statistically significant.

We do not find a strong relationship between realized volatility and next week's stock returns. This paper empirically investigates the determinants of the Internet and cellular phone penetration levels in a crosscountry setting. It offers a framework to explain differences in the use of information and communication technologies in terms of differences in the institutional environment and the resulting investment climate. Mobile phone networks, on the other hand, are built on less site-specific, re-deployable modules, which make this technology less dependent on institutional characteristics.

It is speculated that the existence of telecommunications technology that is less sensitive to the parameters of the institutional environment and, in particular, to poor investment protection provides an opportunity for better understanding of the constraints and prospects for economic development.

This problem consists in the analysis of the dynamics of an infinitesimal mass particle attracted by two primaries of identical masses describing elliptic relative equilibria of the two body problem on Mk2, i. The Hamiltonian formulation of this problem is pointed out in intrinsic coordinates.

In this sense, we describe the number of equilibria and its linear stability depending on its bifurcation parameter corresponding to the radial parameter a. After that, we prove the existence of families of periodic orbits and KAM 2-tori related to these orbits. We classify and analyze the orbits of the Kepler problem on surfaces of constant curvature both positive and negative, S2 and H2, respectively as functions of the angular momentum and the energy. Hill's regions are characterized and the problem of time-collision is studied.

We also regularize the problem in Cartesian and intrinsic coordinates, depending on the constant angular momentum, and we describe the orbits of the regularized vector field. The phase portraits both for S2 and H2 are pointed out. We consider a setup in which a principal must decide whether or not to legalize a socially undesirable activity.

The law is enforced by a monitor who may be bribed to conceal evidence of the offense and who may also engage in extortionary practices. The principal may legalize the activity even if it is a very harmful one. The principal may also declare the activity illegal knowing that the monitor will abuse the law to extract bribes out of innocent people. Our model offers a novel rationale for legalizing possession and consumption of drugs while continuing to prosecute drug dealers. We study a channel through which inflation can have effects on the real economy. Using job creation and destruction data from U.

These results are robust to controls for the real-business cycle and monetary policy. Over a longer time frame, data on business failures confirm our results obtained from job creation and destruction data. We discuss how interaction of inflation with financial-markets, nominal-wage rigidities, and imperfect competition could explain the empirical evidence.

We study how discount window policy affects the frequency of banking crises, the level of investment, and the scope for indeterminacy of equilibrium. Previous work has shown that providing costless liquidity through a discount window has mixed effects in terms of these criteria: It prevents episodes of high liquidity demand from causing crises but can lead to indeterminacy of stationary equilibrium and to inefficiently low levels of investment.

We show how offering discount window loans at an above-market interest rate can be unambiguously beneficial. Such a policy generates a unique stationary equilibrium. Banking crises occur with positive probability in this equilibrium and the level of investment is suboptimal, but a proper combination of discount window and monetary policies can make the welfare effects of these inefficiencies arbitrarily small.

The near-optimal policies can be viewed as approximately implementing the Friedman rule. We investigate the dependence of the dynamic behavior of an endogenous growth model on the degree of returns to scale. We focus on a simple but representative growth model with publicly funded inventive activity. We show that constant returns to reproducible factors the leading case in the endogenous growth literature is a bifurcation point, and that it has the characteristics of a transcritical bifurcation.

The bifurcation involves the boundary of the state space, making it difficult to formally verify this classification. For a special case, we provide a transformation that allows formal classification by existing methods. We discuss the new methods that would be needed for formal verification of transcriticality in a broader class of models. We evaluate the desirability of having an elastic currency generated by a lender of last resort that prints money and lends it to banks in distress. When banks cannot borrow, the economy has a unique equilibrium that is not Pareto optimal.

The introduction of unlimited borrowing at a zero nominal interest rate generates a steady state equilibrium that is Pareto optimal. However, this policy is destabilizing in the sense that it also introduces a continuum of nonoptimal inflationary equilibria. We explore two alternate policies aimed at eliminating such monetary instability while preserving the steady-state benefits of an elastic currency. If the lender of last resort imposes an upper bound on borrowing that is low enough, no inflationary equilibria can arise.

For some but not all economies, the unique equilibrium under this policy is Pareto optimal. If the lender of last resort instead charges a zero real interest rate, no inflationary equilibria can arise. The unique equilibrium in this case is always Pareto optimal. We consider the nature of the relationship between the real exchange rate and capital formation. We present a model of a small open economy that produces and consumes two goods, one tradable and one not.

Domestic residents can borrow and lend abroad, and costly state verification CSV is a source of frictions in domestic credit markets. The real exchange rate matters for capital accumulation because it affects the potential for investors to provide internal finance, which mitigates the CSV problem. We demonstrate that the real exchange rate must monotonically approach its steady state level. However, capital accumulation need not be monotonic and real exchange rate appreciation can be associated with either a rising or a falling capital stock. The relationship between world financial market conditions and the real exchange rate is also investigated.

With about 3. However, the security criteria envisioned 30 years ago, when the standard was designed, are no longer sufficient to ensure the security and privacy of the users. Furthermore, even with the newest fourth generation 4G cellular technologies starting to be deployed, these networks could never achieve strong security guarantees because the MNOs keep backwards- compatibility given the huge amount of GSM subscribers. In this paper, we present and describe the tools and necessary steps to perform an active attack against a GSM-compatible network, by exploiting the GSM protocol lack of mutual authentication between the subscribers and the network.

The attack consists of a so-called man-in-the- middle attack implementation. By using Software Defined Radio SDR , open-source libraries and open- source hardware, we setup a fake GSM base station to impersonate the network and therefore eavesdrop any communications that are being routed through it and extract information from their victims. Finally, we point out some implications of the protocol vulnerabilities and how these can not be mitigated in the short term since 4G deployments will take long time to entirely replace the current GSM infrastructure.

It is shown in the paper that the problem of speed observation for mechanical systems that are partially linearisable via coordinate changes admits a very simple and robust exponentially stable solution with a Luenberger-like observer. This result should be contrasted with the very complicated observers based on immersion and invariance reported in the literature. A second contribution of the paper is to compare, via realistic simulations and highly detailed experiments, the performance of the proposed observer with well-known high-gain and sliding mode observers.

In particular, to show that — due to their high sensitivity to noise, that is unavoidable in mechanical systems applications — the performance of the two latter designs is well below par. We formulate a p-median facility location model with a queuing approximation to determine the optimal locations of a given number of dispensing sites Point of Dispensing-PODs from a predetermined set of possible locations and the optimal allocation of staff to the selected locations. Specific to an anthrax attack, dispensing operations should be completed in 48 hours to cover all exposed and possibly exposed people.

A nonlinear integer programming model is developed and it formulates the problem of determining the optimal locations of facilities with appropriate facility deployment strategies, including the amount of servers with different skills to be allocated to each open facility. The objective of the mathematical model is to minimize the average transportation and waiting times of individuals to receive the required service.

The mathematical model has waiting time performance measures approximated with a queuing formula and these waiting times at PODs are incorporated into the p-median facility location model. A genetic algorithm is developed to solve this problem. Our computational results show that appropriate locations of these facilities can significantly decrease the average time for individuals to receive services. Consideration of demographics and allocation of the staff decreases waiting times in PODs and increases the throughput of PODs.

When the number of PODs to open is high, the right staffing at each facility decreases the average waiting times significantly. The results presented in this paper can help public health decision makers make better planning and resource allocation decisions based on the demographic needs of the affected population. This paper focuses on model selection, specification and estimation of a global asset return model within an asset allocation and asset and liability management framework.

The development departs from a single currency capital market model with four state variables: stock index, short and long term interest rates and currency exchange rates. The model is then extended to the major currency areas, United States, United Kingdom, European Union and Japan, and to include a US economic model containing GDP, inflation, wages and government borrowing requirements affecting the US capital market variables. In addition, we develop variables representing emerging market stock and bond indices.

Simulation, impulse response and forecasting performance is discussed in order to analyse the dynamics of the models developed. We consider the problem of managing inventory and production capacity in a start-up manufacturing firm with the objective of maximising the probability of the firm surviving as well as the more common objective of maximising profit.

Using Markov decision process models, we characterise and compare the form of optimal policies under the two objectives. This analysis shows the importance of coordination in the management of inventory and production capacity. The analysis also reveals that a start-up firm seeking to maximise its chance of survival will often choose to keep production capacity significantly below the profit-maximising level for a considerable time.

This insight helps us to explain the seemingly cautious policies adopted by a real start-up manufacturing firm. We are interested in the decisions for long-term survival of these firms when they have considerable cash restrictions. In this paper we analyse several inventory control models to manage inventory purchasing and return policies. The Markov decision models are formulated for both established companies that look at maximising average profit and start-up companies that look at maximising their long-term survival probability.

We contrast both objectives, and present properties of the policies and the survival probabilities. We find that start-up companies may need to be riskier if the return price is very low, but there is a period where a start-up firm becomes more cautious than an established company and there is a point, as it accumulates capital, where it starts behaving as an established firm.

We compare the various models and give conditions under which their policies are equivalent. This research addresses this concern by examining the influence of geographic proximity on the work ethic experienced by employees from Mexico, working in 11 different cities in the Northern, Central and Southern regions of the country. Using a sequence of complementary analyses to assess the main source of variance on seven dimensions of work ethic, our results indicate that work ethic is most appropriately considered at the individual level.

This panel study, conducted in a large Venezuelan organization, took advantage of a serendipitous opportunity to examine the organizational commitment profiles of employees before and after a series of dramatic, and unexpected, political events directed specifically at the organization.

Two waves of organizational commitment data were collected, 6 months apart, from a sample of employees. No evidence was found that employees' continuance commitment to the organization was altered by the events described here. Interestingly, however, both affective and normative commitment increased significantly during the period of the study. Further, employee's commitment profiles at Wave 2 were more differentiated than they were at Wave 1. This paper explores the relationship between individual work values and unethical decision-making and actual behavior at work through two complementary studies.

Specifically, we use a robust and comprehensive model of individual work values to predict unethical decision-making in a sample of working professionals and accounting students enrolled in ethics courses, and IT employees working in sales and customer service. Study 1 demonstrates that young professionals who rate power as a relatively important value i. Study 2, which examines a group of employees from an IT firm, demonstrates that those rating power as an important value are more likely to engage in non-work-related computing i.

This study, based in a manufacturing plant in Venezuela, examines the relationship between perceived task characteristics, psychological empowerment and commitment, using a questionnaire survey of employees. The objective of the study was to assess the effects of an organizational intervention at the plant aimed at increasing productivity by providing performance feedback on key aspects of its daily operations.