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An activity that required recovery by numerous military personnel and an assortment of vehicles that included a wrecker, a six-by-six, and a weapons carrier. Based on this profile, research was begun to identify events or activities with these characteristics. The aerial vehicles assigned or under development at these facilities were aircraft, missiles, renlotely-piloted drones, and high altitude balloons.
The operational characteristics and areas where these vehicles flew were researched to determine if they played a role in the events described by the witnesses. Missiles and drones were determined not to have been responsible for the accounts. Missiles were equipped with a self-destruct mechanism that was activated if it strayed off-course or out of the White Sands Missile Range.
There was never a program that required a dummy or doll to be placed inside a missile or a drone. However, missiles were launched from White Sands carrying monkeys and other small animals aloft for scientific research. Aircraft seemed just as unlikely as missiles to have been responsible for the extraterrestrial claims as outlined in the profile.
Although additional research revealed the significant role dummies played in the test and evaluation of aircraft emergency escape systems, these dummies were used on board aircraft and on the high-speed test track at Holloman AFB. However, aircraft test flights demanded strict adherence to established flight profiles over the instrumented portions of the White Sands Missile Range, many miles from the alleged crash sites.
Dummies used on the high-speed track remained in the immediate vicinity of the track facilities at Holloman AFB. This geographical impossibility ruled out dummies that were ejected from aircraft and those used on the high-speed track as a cause of alleged alien sightings. Aircraft accidents will be discussed extensively in Section Two of this report. These missiles were determined not to have been involved in the Roswell Incident. The only vehicles not yet evaluated as a possible source of the accounts were high altitude research balloons. Previous reviews of early research balloon flight records revealed that trajectories of high altitude balloons were, at times, unpredictable and did not usually remain over Holloman AFB or White Sands Missile Range.
These characteristics seemed to fit at least some of the research profile. Atmospheric sampling apparatus or weather instruments, the typical pay load of many high altitude balloons, could hardly have been mistaken for space aliens. A careful examination of the instruments carried aloft by the high altitude balloons revealed that one unique project used a device that very likely could be mistaken for an alien — an anthropomorphic dummy.
An anthropomorphic dummy is a human substitute equipped with a variety of instrumentation to measure effects of environments and situations deemed too hazardous for a human. These abstractly human dummies were first used in New Mexico in May , and have been used on a continuous basis since that time. Today, anthropomorphic dummies, better known as crash test dummies, are easily identifiable and are even the "stars" of their own automotive safety advertising campaign. During the s when the U. Air Force dropped the odd-looking test devices from high altitude balloons in its program to study high altitude human free-fall characteristics, public awareness and stardom were decades away.
It seems likely that someone who unexpectedly observed these dummies at a distance would believe they had seen something unusual. In retrospect, when interviewed over 40 years later, they could accurately report that they had seen something very unusual. With the introduction of anthropomorphic dummies as a possible explanation for the reports of bodies, another element of the research profile appeared to be satisfied.
Specific information that described the locations, methods, and procedures used to employ the dummies was required before any definitive conclusions could be drawn. To gather this detailed information, research efforts were concentrated on high altitude balloon operations and the specific projects that utilized balloon-borne anthropomorphic dummies. Left Example of an anthropomorphic dummy carried aloft by U.
Air Force high altitude balloons. These dummies landed at numerous locations throughout New Mexico during the s. Air Force photo Fig. Right Newspaper advertisement depicting anthropomorphic dummies "Vince and Larry" "stars" of the successful advertising campaign by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration to encourage use of safety belts. Air Force Since the beginning of manned flight, designers have sought a substitute for the human body to test hazardous new equipment.
Early devices used by the predecessors of the U. Air Force were simply constructed parachute drop test dummies with little similarity to the human form. Following World War II, aircraft emergency escape systems became increasingly sophisticated and engineers required a dummy with more humanlike characteristics.
To test the parachute, engineers experimented with several types of dummies, settling on a model constructed of three-inch hemp rope and sandbags with the approximate proportions of a medium-sized man. The most common type is shown in figures 17 and Parachutes were individually drop- tested from aircraft until the early stages of World War II, when, due both to increased reliability and large numbers of parachutes in service, this routine practice was discontinued. Left Early rope and sandbag dummy used to test parachutes. Right Parachute drop dummies in use at Wright Field, Ohio. The historic Flight Test hangars, Hangars 1 and 9, can be seen in the background.
The utility of this invention was realized when the U. Army Air Forces obtained an ejection seat in In , the U. Air Force Aero Medical Laboratory submitted a proposal for an improved model of the anthropomorphic dummy. Stapp, now a retired Colonel, who conducted a series of landmark Figs. They were replaced by a more realistic dummy in A more accurate external appearance was required to provide for the proper fit of helmets, oxygen masks, and other equipment used during the tests.
Stapp requested the Anthropology Branch of the Aero Medical Laboratory at Wright Field to review anthropological, orthopedic, and engineering literature to prepare specifications for the new dummy. Over the next several years the two companies improved and redesigned internal structures and instrumentation, but the basic external appearance of the dummies remained relatively constant from the mid s to the late s.
Dummies of these types were most likely the "aliens" associated with the "Roswell Incident. Examples of a "Sierra Sam" left and Alderson Laboratories anthropomorphic dummies right of the type dropped from balloons at off-range locations throughout New Mexico during the s. Air Force photos 21 1. Air Force photo Anthropomorphic dummies were transported to altitudes up to 98, feet by high altitude balloons.
The dummies were then released for a period of free-fall while body movements and escape equipment performance were recorded by a variety of instruments. Forty-three high altitude balloon flights carrying 67 anthropomorphic dummies were launched and recovered throughout New Mexico between June and February In , dummies were dropped by aircraft over Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio possibly accounting for alleged alien "sightings" at that location.
Air Force aeromedical project no. Following the series of dummy tests, a human subject, test pilot Capt. Since free-fall tests from these unprecedented altitudes were extremely hazardous, they could not be accomplished by a human until a rigorous testing program using anthropomorphic dummies was completed. Kittinger's courageous scientific achievement remains, to this day, the highest parachute jump ever accomplished. Air Force photo 25 A Cover-Up?
Countering claims of a cover-up, Air Force projects that used anthropomorphic dummies and human subjects were unclassified and widely publicized in numerous newspaper and magazine stories, books, and television reports. This photo of Capt. More than 18 Va miles below lay the cloud-hidden New Mexico desert to which I shortly would parachute. Sunlight burned in on me under the edge of an aluminized antiglare curtain and through the gondola's open door. In my earphones crackled the voice of Capt, Marvin Feld- stein.
For about an hour- as the balloon rose from S 0, to , feet above sea level — 1 had been exposed to an environment re- quiring the protection of a pressure suit and helmet, and the fear of their failure had always been present. Without stabilization, man could not survive a jump from these high altitudes. A National tleograpliie camera mounted above the gon- dola took this remarkable photograph at , feet.
The dummies used for the balloon drops were outfitted with standard equipment of an Air Force aircrew member. This equipment consisted of a one-piece flightsuit, olive drab, gray witnesses had described seeing aliens in gray one-piece suits or fuchsia in color, boots, and a parachute pack.
Left Witnesses at both flying saucer "crash" sites stated that a "wrecker" was used in the recovery of the "alien" craft. This was a likely reference to the M five-ton wrecker, used to launch and recover anthropomorphic dummies.
The Roswell Report - Case Closed - July
Right Three tests utilized anthropomorphic dummies mounted in the door of an experimental Project High Dive gondola. This launch took place on October 8, , in front of curious onlookers at the public picnic area of White Sands National Monument, N. Air Force photo 28 Fig, Eugene M. Schwartz left and Raymond A. Madson right. This dummy is outfitted in a "sage green" colored flightsuit a shade of gray with red tape sealing its neck, wrists, and ankles.
Air Force 29 instrumentation kit that contained accelerometers, pressure transducers, an ocscillograph, and a camera to record movements of the dummy during free-fall. The recovery crews operated a variety of aircraft and vehicles. These included a wrecker, a six-by-six, a weapons carrier, and L observation and C transport aircraft — the exact vehicles and aircraft described by the witnesses as having been present at the crashed saucer locations.
Madson, even conducted a search for dummies on horseback 55 see statement in Appendix B. To expedite the recoveries, crews were prepositioned with their vehicles along a paved highway in the area where impact was expected. An M 2! Air Force photo 30 Fig. The first "space doctor," Lt. Courageously, Stapp was his own volunteer subject on 29 rocket sled tests and earned two awards of the Legion of Merit and the Cheney Award for valor and self-sacrifice.
Air Force photo On a typical flight the dummies were separated from the balloon by radio command and descended by parachute. To assist the recovery personnel, a variety of methods were used to enhance the visibility of the dummies: smoke grenades, pigment powder, and brightly colored parachute canopies. John Paul Stapp on December 10, , when he became known as both the "the bravest" and "the fastest" man on earth. Stapp earned these titles following a rocket sled test that accelerated him to miles per hour. He reached this speed in just five seconds — faster than a.
While this was America's introduction to Col. Born in Bahia, Brazil to American missionary parents, Stapp sold pots and pans door to door during the Depression while he earned both undergraduate and graduate degrees in zoology and chemistry at Baylor University. He went on to earn a doctorate in biophysics from the University of Texas, and a doctorate in medicine from the University of Minnesota. In Stapp entered the U. Army Air Forces and became a flight surgeon. Developments from these and other studies resulted The Bravest Man 31 in innovations which have saved many lives. These included improved safety belt restraint systems and design specifications for aircraft and automobiles, aircraft ejection and emergency escape systems, refinement of automobile airbag systems, and development of the modern anthropomorphic test dummy.
As commander of the U. As a testament to his thorough safety preparations, these and other extremely hazardous projects administered by Stapp, did not result in a single debilitating injury to a test subject. These projects helped pave the way for future flights of both high altitude aircraft such as the X, and of spacecraft for the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo programs. In fact, Stapp's expertise was called upon to assist in the selection of the initial cadre of astronauts, the "Mercury Seven.
These included two awards of the Legion of Merit for rocket sled experiments, the Cheney Award for , and membership in the National Aviation Hall of Fame. In association with the Society of Automotive Engineers, Stapp continues to participate in annual conferences in which industry experts assemble to discuss vehicle safety issues. The conferences, now in their 40th year bear his name: the Stapp Car Crash Conferences. In , in recognition of a lifetime of unselfish dedication to scientific research, Stapp was awarded the National Medal of Technology, bestowed upon him at the White House by President George Bush.
At 87 years old he continues to maintain a dizzying pace of travel and lectures. It is not an exaggeration that virtually every person who has safely operated, or ridden in, an automobile, aircraft, or spacecraft, has benefited from the genius of Col. John Paul Stapp, and owes this brave scientist, physician, and visionary, a great deal of thanks.
September 12, edition of Time featuring Col. Rough treatment and parachute failures during balloon drops often caused damage to the hands of the dummies. This detail, "beings" with "four fingers," was related by two witnesses as a distinguishing feature of the Roswell aliens. On 17 November 1 an anthropomorphic duiHsy, B jacket and a atop watch were lost during a high altitude dummy drop from a balloon at Holloman Air Fores Base, Nov J-fexico. The drop was performed to determine the effectiveness of a two str. The point at which the dusray reached tha ground was not known to the recovery arews at the time and an ex- tensive search lasting through the first week of December failed to discover the lost items.
Fisher Scientific Co. Nielsen be relieved of the responsibility for these items. Actual photographs of an Alderson Laboratories type anthropomorphic dummy falling away from its suspension rack at high altitude over New Mexico. Air Force photos Fig. The dummies were sometimes transported to and from off- range locations in wooden shipping containers, similar to caskets, to prevent damage to fragile instruments mounted in and on the dummy.
Air Force personnel used stretchers and gurneys to pick up pound dummies in the field and to move them in the laboratory. Air Force photo 35 Fig. For the first 10 balloon flights, dummies were placed in insulation bags to protect temperature- sensitive equipment. These bags may have been described by at least one witness as "body bags" used to recover alien victims from the crash of a flying saucer.
Air Force photo On one occasion northwest of Roswell, a local woman unfamiliar with the test activities arrived at a dummy landing site prior to the arrival of the recovery personnel. The woman screamed, "He's dead! However, the review of high altitude balloon operations revealed what appeared to be explanations for some other sightings of odd objects in the deserts and skies of New Mexico. These reports detailed the methods and procedures used for the dummy tests. When these descriptions were carefully examined, it was clear that they bore more than just a resemblance to Air Force activities.
It appears that some were actually distorted references to Air Force personnel and equipment engaged in scientific study through the use of high altitude balloons. Since , U. The Air Force organization that conducted most of these activities, the Holloman Balloon Branch, launched a wide range of sophisticated, and from most perspectives, odd looking equipment into the stratosphere above New Mexico. Inflation of a U. Air Force ft. Filmed on location at Holloman AFB, Air Force personnel, high altitude balloons, aircraft, vehicles, and other equipment, including the actual anthropomorphic dummies responsible for sightings of aliens, were used in the making of this film.
In an ironic twist, in 1 the television program Unsolved Mysteries, featured a segment on the Roswell Incident. The program, hosted by actor Robert Stack, depicted a dramatized version of the claims of "aliens," space ships and mysterious government recovery crews. Interestingly, a review of newspapers from announcing the Hollywood premiere of On the Threshold of Space, listed Stack among the persons scheduled to attend this star-studded event.
Scenes from the movie clearly depict the actual anthropomorphic dummies described nearly 40 years later as extraterrestrial "aliens. Stapp's historic rocket sled test was re-created for On the Threshold of Space see figure 33, page Moore, a New York University graduate student working under contract for the U. Army Air Forces, made a significant technological discovery: the use of polyethylene for high altitude balloon construction. Moore's discovery was a breakthrough in technology. For the first time, scientists were able to make detailed, sustained studies of the upper atmosphere. Polyethylene balloons, first produced in for Project Mogul, are still widely used today for a host of scientific applications.
High altitude polyethylene balloons and standard rubber weather balloons differ greatly in size, construction, and utility. The difference between these two types of balloons historically has been the subject of misunderstandings in that the term "weather balloon" is often used to describe both types of balloons. High altitude polyethylene balloons are used to transport scientific payloads of several pounds to several tons to altitudes of nearly , feet.
Polyethylene balloons do not increase in size and burst with increases in volume as they rise, as do standard rubber weather balloons. They are launched with excess capacity to accommodate the increase in volume. This characteristic of polyethylene balloons makes them substantially more stable than rubber weather balloons and capable of sustained constant level flight, a requirement for most scientific applications. The initial polyethylene balloons had diameters of only seven feet and carried payloads of five pounds or less. Modern polyethylene balloons, some as long as several football fields when on Raven Industries 40 million cubic foot balloon.
Relative sizes of a modern high altitude poyethelyne research balloon, an airliner, and a hot-air balloon. Inaccurate characterizations of the giant high altitude research balloons as "weather balloons" which are typically 15 feet in diameter has historically been the source of confusion. Polyethylene balloons flown by the U. Air Force have reached altitudes of , feet and lifted pay loads of 15, pounds. Also, the balloons, flown at altitudes of approximately , feet, were illuminated before the earth during the periods just after sunset and just before sunrise.
In this instance, receiving sunlight before the earth, the plastic balloons appeared as large bright objects against a dark sky. Also, with the refractive and translucent qualities of polyethylene, the balloons appeared to change color, size, and shape. The large balloons generated UFO reports based on their radar tracks. In later years, balloons were equipped with altitude and position reporting transponders and strobe lights that greatly diminished the numbers of both visual and radar UFO sightings.
One classic misidentification of a Holloman balloon that was mistaken for a UFO, was launched on October 27, A much likelier explanation, however, is that this was really the balloon launched from Holloman on 27 October. Many of these payloads, some of 41 which weighed many tons, were not what someone would typically envision as being associated with a balloon.
Examples of payloads flown in New Mexico by Air Force high altitude balloons can be found on pages 52 and 53 at the end of this section. Research projects of the late 's and 's conducted at Holloman AFB which began with the Project Mogul flights in June , covered a wide spectrum of scientific research. One important experiment in space biology measured the effects of exposure to cosmic ray particles on living tissues. These accounts are consistent with the properties of polyethylene balloons laminated with aluminum.
These balloons were typically launched from points west of the White Sands Proving Ground, floated over the range as targets, and descended in the areas northeast of White Sands Proving Ground where the "strange" materials were allegedly found. In the first manned stratospheric balloon flights were made from Holloman AFB see page In , balloon tests of components of the first U. In the 's, 70's, and 80's high altitude balloons were used in support of Air Force, and other U. Government and university sponsored research projects. Holloman Balloon Branch personnel prepare a polyethelyne balloon 42 High Altitude Balloons and America's First Satellite An illustration of the important contributions of the Holloman AFB Balloon Branch, and the necessity for a rapid recovery of a high altitude balloon payload, were evaluations of components of the first U.
The Soviet Union had already beaten the U. The next achievement in the quest for space superiority were the physical recovery of a payload that had been in orbit. With the eyes of the nation watching, and the Soviets testing a similar system, more failures could not be tolerated. To test the faulty components of the Discoverer, U. Air Force high altitude balloons at Holloman AFB were determined to be the most expedient method of conducting the evaluations. This test, in which the capsule was dropped over White Sands Missile Range and recovered immediately, was a total success.
It was recovered from the Pacific Ocean miles northwest of Hawaii on August 11, Air Force photo 43 Finally, on August 11,, Discoverer XIII successfully ejected a capsule and, amid much fanfare, the first recovery of a manmade object that had orbited the earth was accomplished. Viking and Voyager-Mars Space Probes.
Examples of unusual payloads, not likely to be associated with balloons, were qualification trials of NASA's Voyager-Mars and Viking space probes. Both of these spacecraft looked remarkably similar to the classic dome- shaped "flying saucer. NASA 44 Fig. NASA Fig. The Holloman Balloon Branch, in addition to high altitude research activities, also conducted low altitude tethered balloon flights. It appears that descriptions of these balloons may have become part of the "Roswell Incident. Other experimental 45 tethered balloons are not so easily identified. During the s, Balloon Branch personnel flew experimentally shaped tethered balloons from deep canyons of central New Mexico.
To a distant observer, from a vantage point above the canyon rim, where the tether and ground anchors are not visible, an experimental tethered balloon might lead some persons to speculate as to the oddly shaped balloon's origin and purpose. One design of a low altitude tethered balloon may have inspired at least one account of an "alien" craft. In The Truth About the UFO Crash at Roswell, the authors published a drawing of a crashed alien spaceship allegedly based on a drawing given to them by an anonymous witness. This experimental balloon, is strikingly similar to the "alien" craft.
The ability of a U. Air Force high altitude balloon to lift a scientific payload to more than , feet, above 99 per cent of the earth's atmosphere, for days at a time, presents a profoundly useful scientific tool at a fraction of the cost of a space research platform. Recent tests that utilized Holloman balloons included atmospheric sampling and gravity measurement experiments, high altitude astronomic studies, weapons systems evaluations, and gamma ray detection experiments.
While most tests continue to be launched from the permanent 46 balloon launch facility at Holloman AFB, U. Air Force balloon crews have recently launched balloons from numerous field locations in the U. Roger J. Welch, Mr. Joseph Fumerola, Mr. Alvin W. Hodges, Mr. Joseph Longshore, MSgt. Ray A. Pitts, Sr. John Witkop, and Mr. Harvey L. To successfully recover high altitude balloons, balloon recovery technicians regularly ventured far from Holloman AFB. In most instances the balloons and their scientific payloads were recovered from predetermined recovery areas. These regularly targeted areas, located in Arizona, West Texas, and New Mexico, included the area surrounding Roswell.
These techniques were based on meteorological, geographical, and operational conditions that exist in New Mexico. These factors, combined with ample amounts of skill and experience of balloon controllers at Holloman AFB, determined the impact points of Holloman high altitude balloons. Gildenberg see statement in Appendix B. During this period, Gildenberg, a recognized world expert in upper atmospheric wind patterns, pioneered methods to launch, control, track, and recover high altitude balloons.
Many of these methods are still used today by the U. Air Force and by research organizations throughout the world. Interaction with Civilians In several accounts, unsubstantiated allegations have been made that military personnel who retrieved equipment from rural areas of New Mexico intimidated and threatened civilians. Contrary to these charges, Balloon Branch personnel enjoyed good relations with the local community and often solicited their assistance in the area of a balloon or payload Fig.
Air Force photo 48 landing. In the flat, featureless desert areas of southeastern New Mexico near Roswell, the parachutes, payloads, the balloons themselves, and circling chase aircraft often drew crowds of curious onlookers from the local community. In fact, so many civilians were often present at balloon or payload landing sites, the scene was described by longtime civilian Balloon Branch recovery supervisor, Robert Blankenship, as being like the "circus coming to town.
Threats, intimidation, or other types of misconduct by Balloon Branch personnel would have served no purpose since without the cooperation of local persons, many recoveries would not have been possible. Air Force scientific study and were given a telephone number at Holloman AFB if they required additional information. Right This ranch family assisted in the recovery of a Project Stargazer high altitude balloon payload and is shown here with a panel from the unmanned gondola. Air Force photo 49 inquiries. There was never a reason to mislead or threaten individuals who observed balloon operations.
Relations with local citizens were good, and Balloon Branch personnel and equipment were a common sight to residents in areas with high incidences of balloon operations. In a few instances, situations arose when persons not familiar with the procedures and equipment used by the Balloon Branch misunderstood their activities. Such misunderstandings occurred several times during the s and s when recovery crews not only attracted the attention of local citizens while coordinating balloon recoveries, but also drew the attention of federal law enforcement agencies.
Apparently, balloon recoveries appeared to be something suspicious even to federal agents. A typical Holloman Balloon Branch recovery crew is shown here with a man known as "The hermit" who assisted them in a balloon recovery northwest of Silver City, N. A mule named Ida was borrowed from a local rancher when a balloon payload landed in difficult terrain 20 miles north of Wickenburg, Ariz, in October Air Force photo 50 Fig. On occasion, Air Force balloon recovery crews rented or borrowed equipment from local residents. This bulldozer was rented for one recovery in the Sacramento mountains west of Roswell.
Balloon Branch vehicle at roadside cafe. Air Force photos 52 Fig. Left This U. Army photo Fig. A ir Fo rce photo Fig. Air Force photo 53 1. Air Force Activities Were they aliens or dummies? This question can be answered by comparing witness testimony and the Air Force projects of the s, High Dive and Excelsior. Both of these projects employed anthropomorphic dummies flown by high altitude balloons and appeared to satisfy the requirements of the previously established research profile: a.
An activity that if viewed from a distance would appear unusual. An activity for which the exact date was not likely to have been known because many dummies were dropped over a six- year period An activity that took place in many areas of rural New Mexico. An activity that involved a type of aerial vehicle with dummies that had four fingers, were bald and wore one-piece gray suits. The testimony used in the following comparison, an undocumented mixture of firsthand and secondhand re-countings, are the actual statements, not the interpretations of UFO proponents, that are presented to "prove" the Earth was visited by extraterrestrial beings and the U.
Air Force has covered up this fact since This comparison is augmented by references to photographs whenever possible to illustrate the undeniable similarities between the descriptions provided by the witnesses and the equipment and methods employed by the Air Force projects. Project High Dive anthropomorphic dummy launch. James Ragsdale, in two separate sworn statements, has described two different sites, many miles apart. Ragsdale by author Donald Schmitt. A transcript of the complete interview is included in Appendix C.
The Account James Ragsdale "They was using dummies in those damned things' Testimony attributed to Ragsdale, who is deceased, states that he and a friend were camping one evening and saw something fall from the sky. The next morning, when they went to investigate, they saw a crash site: "One part [of the craft] was kind of buried in the ground and one part of it was sticking our [out] of the ground. They was using dummies in those damned things They looked like bodies.
They were not very long Leading the pack was a '47 Ford car with guys in it It was six or eight big trucks besides the pickup, weapons carriers and stuff like that " Ragsdale also said that before he left the area he observed the military personnel "gathering stuff up" and "they cleaned everything all up. The repeated use of the term "dummy" and the witness' own admission that "they was using dummies in those damned things" and "I'm sure that was bodies. According to the book, the man's "wife and daughter said that he was easily confused" and "memories of his life were jumbled and reordered.
Based on testimony attributed to this witness, the confusion could have resulted from the fact that he observed these activities from a distance. If the witness was even a short distance from the odd looking anthropomorphic dummies, it would be logical for him to believe, when interviewed 35 to 40 years after the event, that he "thought they were dummies or bodies or something. Another portion of his testimony suggesting that the witness observed an Air Force high altitude balloon and dummy recovery was the statement: "The federal government could have been doing something because they didn't want anyone to know what this was.
It was evident in the statements "They cleaned everything all up" and "They began gathering the stuff up. Numerous vehicles and various types of equipment, were often present at high altitude balloon and anthropomorphic dummy launch and recovery locations, photo collection of Ole Jorgeson 57 deposited there was a standard procedure to maintain good community relations and avoid legal claims that could arise over property damages or livestock losses.
References to "the pickup" and a "'47 Ford car" were likely descriptions of other civilian and military vehicles often present at high altitude balloon launch and recovery locations. The Secondhand Accounts These accounts were related by Mr. Vern Maltais and Ms. Alice Knight, who were acquainted with the alleged original eyewitness, Mr. Grady L. Barnett, who is deceased. But he [the eyewitness] saw a UFO fall. He said they didn't look like human beings out there. And along came government cars and trucks.
I guess it was government. You know it was a long time ago It also appears that the "creatures" were seen from a distance, as evidenced by the statement, "They got nearly up to the UFO but it was close enough that you could see some creatures. As with the previous testimony, from a distance the dummies were likely to look, as described by the witness, "not exactly like humans The detailed descriptions of the "beings" as "about three and a half to four feet tall, very slim in stature..
Air Force photo 59 no hair," with "hands that were not covered" and "had only four fingers," is a likely description of an Alderson Research Laboratories model anthropomorphic dummy. The head of the Alderson dummy was "bald" and the area of the eyebrows protruded but had no "hair" see figure Also, a distinguishing feature of the Alderson dummy, unlike the Sierra dummy, was that it had individual fingers not covered by gloves that were often damaged during the tests resulting in the loss of fingers see figures 35, 73, Due to the secondhand nature of these accounts, even UFO theorists were not convinced that this "incident" actually occurred.
Corroborating testimony of a firsthand witness was necessary to verify these claims. The firsthand testimony is examined next. From the outset, some UFO theorists were skeptical of this testimony due to the amount of detail provided from the witness who was only five years old in In fact, UFO organizations sponsored a conference in February to evaluate the testimony for authenticity. J didn't think they were rear Anderson related that as a five-year-old boy on an outing with his family in west central New Mexico, they stumbled upon the crash of some type of aerial vehicle. He also provided an abundance of supporting details that accurately described vehicles, aircraft, equipment, and procedures used by the Holloman AFB Balloon Branch to launch and recover anthropomorphic dummies.
An aspect of this testimony that is not accurate is the alleged threats and intimidation of civilians by military personnel. The use of such heavy-handedness was not a tactic used by the Air Force. A careful review of official records and interviews with numerous persons who actively participated in and were responsible for the conduct of Air Force members on high altitude balloon recovery operations revealed that these allegations are untrue.
However, logic dictates that if something was classified "screaming and hollering" it was "secret," would compromise it and not serve to protect its classification. This application of logic, combined with the fact that the launch and recovery of anthropomorphic dummies was unclassified, widely publicized, and often observed by local civilians, indicates that the witness' recollections are in error. There was never a reason to disrespect, "scream," "holler," or forbid any person from talking about the launch or recovery of anthropomorphic dummies. The "Crewmembers.
The heads of the "crewmembers" were described as "completely bald" with "no visible ears. The assertion that "they were all wearing one-piece suits Plot Summary. Plot Keywords. Parents Guide. External Sites. User Reviews. User Ratings. External Reviews. Metacritic Reviews. Photo Gallery. Trailers and Videos. Crazy Credits. Alternate Versions. Rate This. This was a logical area of concern since the th Bomb Group was the only military unit in the world at the time that had access to nuclear weapons. Again, reviews of available records gave no indication that this was the case.
These records, which pertained to the th, had nothing to do with any activities that could have been misinterpreted as the "Roswell Incident. There were no ancillary records in Air Force files to indicate the potential existence of such records within DOE channels, however. An Extraterrestrial Craft The Air Force research found absolutely no indication that what happened near Roswell in , involved any type of extraterrestrial spacecraft.
This, of course, is the crux of this entire matter. Nevertheless, the research indicated absolutely no evidence of any kind that a spaceship crashed near Roswell or that any alien occupants were recovered therefrom, in some secret military operation or otherwise. However, in the early days, " UFO " meant Unidentified Flying Object , which literally translated as some object in the air that was not readily identifiable. It did not mean, as the term has evolved in today's language, to equate to alien spaceships. Records from the period reviewed by Air Force researchers as well as those cited by the authors mentioned before, do indicate that the USAF was seriously concerned about the inability to adequately identify unknown flying objects reported in American airspace.
All the records, however, indicated that the focus of concern was not on aliens, hostile or otherwise, but on the Soviet Union. Many documents from that period speak to the possibility of developmental secret Soviet aircraft overflying US airspace. This, of course, was of major concern to the fledgling USAF, whose job it was to protect these same skies. The research revealed only one official AAF document that indicated that there was any activity of any type that pertained to UFOs and Roswell in July, The object turned out to be a radar tracking balloon".
The UFO Dossier
Additionally, this history showed that the th Commander, Colonel Blanchard , went on leave on July 8, , which would be a somewhat unusual maneuver for a person involved in the supposed first ever recovery of extraterrestrial materials. Detractors claim Blanchard did this as a ploy to elude the press and go to the scene to direct the recovery operations. The history and the morning reports also showed that the subsequent activities at Roswell during the month were mostly mundane and not indicative of any unusual high level activity, expenditure of manpower, resources or security.
Likewise, the researchers found no indication of heightened activity anywhere else in the military hierarchy in the July, , message traffic or orders to include classified traffic. There were no indications and warnings, notice of alerts, or a higher tempo of operational activity reported that would be logically generated if an alien craft, whose intentions were unknown, entered US territory.
To believe that such operational and high-level security activity could be conducted solely by relying on unsecured telecommunications or personal contact without creating any records of such activity certainly stretches the imagination of those who have served in the military who know that paperwork of some kind is necessary to accomplish even emergency, highly classified, or sensitive tasks. An example of activity sometimes cited by pro-UFO writers to illustrate the point that something unusual was going on was the travel of Lt. Actually, records were located indicating that Twining went to the Bomb Commanders' Course on July 8, along with a number of other general officers, and requested orders to do so a month before, on June 5, Atch Similarly, it has also been alleged that General Hoyt Vandenberg , Deputy Chief of Staff at the time, had been involved directing activity regarding events at Roswell.
Activity reports Atch 15 , located in General Vandenberg's personal papers stored in the Library of Congress, did indicate that on July 7, he was busy with a "flying disc" incident; however this particular incident involved Ellington Field, Texas and the Spokane Washington Depot. After much discussion and information gathering on this incident, it was learned to be a hoax. There is no similar mention of his personal interest or involvement in Roswell events except in the newspapers. The above are but two small examples that indicate that if some event happened that was one of the "watershed happenings" in human history, the US military certainly reacted in an unconcerned and cavalier manner.
In an actual case, the military would have had to order thousands of soldiers and airman, not only at Roswell but throughout the US, to act nonchalantly, pretend to conduct and report business as usual, and generate absolutely no paperwork of a suspicious nature, while simultaneously anticipating that twenty years or more into the future people would have available a comprehensive Freedom of Information Act that would give them great leeway to review and explore government documents.
The records indicate that none of this happened or if it did, it was controlled by a security system so efficient and tight that no one, US or otherwise, has been able to duplicate it since. If such a system had been in effect at the time, it would have also been used to protect our atomic secrets from the Soviets, which history has showed obviously was not the case. The records reviewed confirmed that no such sophisticated and efficient security system existed. As previously discussed, what was originally reported to have been recovered was a balloon of some sort, usually described as a "weather balloon," although the majority of the wreckage that was ultimately displayed by General Ramey and Major Marcel in the famous photos Atch 16 in Ft.
Worth, was that of a radar target normally suspended from balloons. This radar target, discussed in more detail later, was certainly consistent with the description of July 9 newspaper article which discussed "tinfoil, paper, tape, and sticks. Additionally, the description of the "flying disc" was consistent with a document routinely used by most pro-UFO writers to indicate a conspiracy in progress—the telegram from the Dallas FBI office of July 8, This document quoted in part states:.
The disc is hexagonal in shape and was suspended from a balloon by a cable, which balloon was approximately twenty feet in diameter. Although it was not the original intention to comment on what commercial authors interpreted or claimed that other persons supposedly said, this particular document was different because it contained actual copies of apparently authentic sworn affidavits received from a number of persons who claimed to have some knowledge of the Roswell event. Although many of the persons who provided these affidavits to the FUFOR researchers also expressed opinions that they thought there was something extraterrestrial about this incident, a number of them actually described materials that sounded suspiciously like wreckage from balloons.
These included the following:. Jesse A. Affidavit dated May 6, There were three categories of debris: a thick, foil like metallic gray substance; a brittle, brownish-black plastic-like material, like Bakelite; and there were fragments of what appeared to be I-beams.
On the inner surface of the I-beam, there appeared to be a type of writing. This writing was a purple-violet hue, and it had an embossed appearance. The figures were composed of curved, geometric shapes. It had no resemblance to Russian, Japanese or any other foreign language. It resembled hieroglyphics, but it had no animal-like characters Loretta Proctor former neighbor of rancher W. Affidavit dated May 5, Brazel came to my ranch and showed my husband and me a piece of material he said came from a large pile of debris on the property he managed. The piece he brought was brown in color, similar to plastic It was very flexible and wouldn't crush or burn.
There was also something he described as tape which had printing on it. The color of the printing was a kind of purple Bessie Brazel Schreiber daughter of W. Brazel; 14 years old at the time of the incident. Affidavit dated September 22, The debris looked like pieces of a large balloon which had burst. The pieces were small, the largest I remember measuring about the same as the diameter of a basketball. Most of it was a kind of double-sided material, foil-like on one side and rubber-like on the other. Both sides were grayish silver in color, the foil more silvery than the rubber.
Sticks, like kite sticks, were attached to some of the pieces with a whitish tape. The tape was about two or three inches wide and had flower-like designs on it. The 'flowers' were faint, a variety of pastel colors, and reminded me of Japanese paintings in which the flowers are not all connected.
I do not recall any other types of material or markings, nor do I remember seeing gouges in the ground or any other signs that anything may have hit the ground hard. The foil-rubber material could not be torn like ordinary aluminum foil can be torn Affidavit dated September 27, What Bill showed us was a piece of what I still think as fabric. It was something like aluminum foil, something like satin, something like well-tanned leather in its toughness, yet was not precisely like any one of those materials.
It was about the thickness of very fine kidskin glove leather and a dull metallic grayish silver, one side slightly darker than the other. I do not remember it having any design or embossing on it Robert R. Porter B flight Engineer stationed at Roswell in Affidavit dated June 7, On this occasion, I was a member of the crew which flew parts of what we were told was a flying saucer to Fort Worth.
The people on board included William E. Anderson said it was from a flying saucer. After we arrived, the material was transferred to a B I was told they were going to Wright Field in Dayton, Ohio. I was involved in loading the B with the material, which was wrapped in packages with wrapping paper. The rest were in small packages, about the size of a shoe box.
The brown paper was held with tape. The material was extremely lightweight. When I picked it up, it was just like picking up an empty package. We loaded the triangle shaped package and three shoe box-sized packages into the plane. AJ1 of the packages could have fit into the trunk of a car. When we came back from lunch, they told us they had transferred the material to a B They told us the material was a weather balloon, but I'm certain it wasn't a weather balloon In addition to those persons above still living who claim to have seen or examined the original material found on the Brazel Ranch, there is one additional person who was universally acknowledged to have been involved in its recovery, Sheridan Cavitt , Lt Col, USAF, Ret.
Cavitt is credited in all claims of having accompanied Major Marcel to the ranch to recover the debris, sometimes along with his Counter Intelligence Corps CIC subordinate, William Rickett , who, like Marcel, is deceased. Although there does not appear to be much dispute that Cavitt was involved in the material recovery, other claims about him prevail in the popular literature. He is sometimes portrayed as a closed-mouth or sometimes even sinister conspirator who was one of the early individuals who kept the "secret of Roswell" from getting out.
Other things about him have been alleged, including the claim that he wrote a report of the incident at the time that has never surfaced. Since Lt Col Cavitt, who had first-hand knowledge, was still alive, a decision was made to interview him and get a signed sworn statement from him about his version of the events.
Prior to the interview, the Secretary of the Air Force provided him with a written authorization and waiver to discuss classified information with the interviewer and release him from any security oath he may have taken. Subsequently, Cavitt was interviewed on May 24, , at his home. Cavitt provided a signed, sworn statement Atch 17 of his recollections in this matter. He also consented to having the interview tape-recorded.
A transcript of that recording is at Atch In this interview, Cavitt related that he had been contacted on numerous occasions by UFO researchers and had willingly talked with many of them; however, he felt that he had oftentimes been misrepresented or had his comments taken out of context so that their true meaning was changed. He stated unequivocally, however, that the material he recovered consisted of a reflective sort of material like aluminum foil, and some thin, bamboo-like sticks. He thought at the time, and continued to do so today, that what he found was a weather balloon and has told other private researchers that.
He also remembered finding a small "black box" type of instrument, which he thought at the time was probably a radiosonde. Worth often claimed by UFO researchers to have been switched and the remnants of a balloon substituted for it and he identified the materials depicted in those photos as consistent with the materials that he recovered from the ranch.
Lt Col Cavitt also stated that he had never taken any oath or signed any agreement not to talk about this incident and had never been threatened by anyone in the government because of it. He did not even know the "incident" was claimed to be anything unusual until he was interviewed in the early 's. Newton was a weather officer assigned to Fort Worth, who was on duty when the Roswell debris was sent there in July, He was told that he was to report to General Ramey's office to view the material. In a signed, sworn statement Atch 30 Newton related that. I walked into the General's office where this supposed flying saucer was lying all over the floor.
As soon as I saw it, I giggled and asked if that was the flying saucer Newton also stated that. He did not convince me that these were alien writings. Newton concluded his statement by relating that. During the ensuing years I have been interviewed by many authors, I have been quoted and misquoted. The facts remain as indicated above. I was not influenced during the original interview, nor today, to provide anything but what I know to be true, that is, the material I saw in General Ramey's office was the remains of a balloon and a RAWIN tareet".
U.S. Air Force reports on Roswell
Balloon Research The original tasking from GAO noted that the search for information included "weather balloons. Its name was Project Mogul Atch 19 Project Mogul was a then-sensitive, classified project, whose purpose was to determine the state of Soviet nuclear weapons research. This was the early Cold War period and there was serious concern within the US government about the Soviets developing a weaponized atomic device. Because the Soviet Union's borders were closed, the US Government sought to develop a long range nuclear explosion detection capability. Long range, balloon-borne, low frequency acoustic detection was posed to General Spaatz in by Dr.
Maurice Ewing of Columbia University as a potential solution atmospheric ducting of low frequency pressure waves had been studied as early as As part of the research into this matter, AAZD personnel located and obtained the original study papers and reports of the New York University project. Their efforts also revealed that some of the individuals involved in Project Mogul were still living. Athelstan F. All of these persons were subsequently interviewed and signed sworn statements about their activities. A copy of theses statements are appended at Atch Additionally, transcripts of the interview with Moore and Trakowski are also included equipment malfunctioned during the interview of Spilhaus Atch These interviews confirmed that Project Mogul was a compartmented, sensitive effort.
The NYU group was responsible for developing constant level balloons and telemetering equipment that would remain at specified altitudes within the acoustic duct while a group from Columbia was to develop acoustic sensors. Doctor Spilhaus, Professor Moore, and certain others of the group were aware of the actual purpose of the project, but they did not know of the project nickname at the time.
An advance ground team, led by Albert P. Upon their arrival, Professor Moore and his team experimented with various configurations of neoprene balloons; development of balloon "trains" see illustration, Atch 25 ; automatic ballast systems; and use of Naval sonobuoys as the Watson Lab acoustical sensors had not yet arrived. They also launched what they called "service flights. These "service flights" were not logged nor fully accounted for in the published Technical Reports generated as a result of the contract between NYU and Watson Labs.