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Red Cross emergency financial assistance was provided to 1. Hurricane Katrina was the first natural disaster in the United States in which the American Red Cross utilized its "Safe and Well" family location website. Direct Relief provided a major response in the Gulf states so health providers could treat the local patients and evacuees. The organization's immediate response to Hurricane Katrina included more than 5.

Its SATERN network of amateur radio operators picked up where modern communications left off to help locate more than 25, survivors. Salvation Army pastoral care counselors were on hand to comfort the emotional and spiritual needs of , individuals. As part of the overall effort, Salvation Army officers, employees, and volunteers contributed more than , hours of service.

According to a modeling exercise conducted by the U. A June report released by the American Society of Civil Engineers determined that the failures of the levees and flood walls in New Orleans were found to be primarily the result of system design and construction flaws. Army Corps of Engineers had been federally mandated in the Flood Control Act of with responsibility for the conception, design, and construction of the region's flood-control system.

All of the major studies in the aftermath of Katrina concluded that the USACE was responsible for the failure of the levees. This was primarily attributed to a decision to use shorter steel sheet pilings during construction in an effort to save money. District Court ruled that despite the Corps' role in the flooding, the agency [11] could not be held financially liable because of sovereign immunity in the Flood Control Act of Exactly ten years after Katrina, J. David Rogers, lead author of a new report in the official journal of the World Water Council, concluded that the flooding during Katrina "could have been prevented had the corps retained an external review board to double-check its flood-wall designs.

Other factors may have contributed to the flooding. According to the authors of Catastrophe in the Making Island Press, , the straight design and lack of outward flow into the Gulf allowed the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet Canal to become "the perfect shortcut for salt-water intrusion" which damaged buffering cypress forests and wetlands which historically had protected New Orleans from storm surge. Furthermore, according to storm surge researcher Hassan Mashriqui:. Initially ten or more miles apart, these two channels meet, and when they do, the water building between their levees is squeezed into a single channel — the Funnel — only yards wide, constrained by levees 14 feet to 16 feet high….

In concert with the denuded marshes, it could increase the local storm surge hitting the Intracoastal Waterway by 20 percent to 40 percent — a critical and fundamental flaw. The Corps of Engineers disputes these causalities. Many of the levees have been reconstructed since Katrina. In reconstructing them, precautions were taken to bring the levees up to modern building code standards and to ensure their safety.

For example, in every situation possible, the Corps of Engineers replaced I-walls with T-walls, which have a horizontal concrete base that protects against soil erosion underneath the flood walls. Funding battles continue over the remaining levee improvements. Bush promised to include the levee funding in his budget but rejected the idea of including the funding in a war bill, which would pass sooner. Many representatives of the news media reporting on the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina became directly involved in the unfolding events, instead of simply reporting. Because of the loss of most means of communication, such as land-based and cellular telephone systems, field reporters in many cases became conduits for information between victims and authorities.

The authorities, who monitored local and network news broadcasts, as well as internet sites, would then attempt to coordinate rescue efforts based on the reports. One illustration was when Geraldo Rivera of Fox News tearfully pleaded for authorities to either send help or evacuate the thousands of evacuees stranded at the Ernest N. Morial Convention Center. Announcers continued to broadcast from improvised studio facilities after the storm damaged their main studios. The storm also brought a dramatic rise in the role of Internet sites —especially blogging and community journalism.

One example was the effort of NOLA. The site became an international focal point for news by local media, and also became a vital link for rescue operations and later for reuniting scattered residents, as it accepted and posted thousands of individual pleas for rescue on its blogs and forums. NOLA was monitored constantly by an array of rescue teams—from individuals to the Coast Guard—which used information in rescue efforts. Much of this information was relayed from trapped victims via the SMS functions of their cell phones, to friends and relatives outside the area, who then relayed the information back to NOLA.

The aggregation of community journalism, user photos, and the use of the internet site as a collaborative response to the storm attracted international attention and was called a watershed moment in journalism. As the U.

Black Hope and Faith after Hurricane Katrina

On September 9, the military leader of the relief effort announced that reporters would have "zero access" to efforts to recover bodies in New Orleans. Immediately following this announcement, CNN filed a lawsuit and obtained a temporary restraining order against the ban. The next day the government backed down and reversed the ban. Because of the large death toll and destruction of property along the Gulf Coast , the name Katrina was officially retired on April 6, , by the World Meteorological Organization at the request of the U.

The name will never again be used for another North Atlantic hurricane. An article published in the Community Mental Health Journal from January revealed information about a recent study on the psychosocial needs of Hurricane Katrina evacuees that temporarily resided in Dallas, Texas. More than one-fourth of the sample met the criteria for major depressive disorder MDD.

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About one-third of the individuals received a referral to mental health services for meeting symptom criteria for incident MDD and PTSD. In a study published in Maternal and Child Health Journal , five-to seven years after the disaster, New Orleans pregnant women were interviewed about their exposure to Katrina. Researchers found that there were associations between experiencing damage during Katrina and birthweight, thus researchers concluded that natural disasters may have long-term effects on pregnancy outcomes.

Furthermore, it was concluded that women who are most vulnerable to disaster may be more vulnerable to poor pregnancy outcome. From a September journal of Current Psychology , a study examined the attitudes of older, long-term residents of Baton Rouge, Louisiana toward displaced newcomers to their community. After using multiple tests, analyses, and descriptive statistics, the study suggested residents grew to become more patient, tolerant, and friendly towards newcomers. The study also suggests, however, that residents felt more fearful and suspicious of the evacuees, as well as the fact that they were being taken advantage of more.

The U. Army Corps of Engineers submitted the report to the U. Congress for consideration, planning, and response in mid From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Hurricane Catarina. For other storms of the same name, see Tropical Storm Katrina. Category 5 Atlantic hurricane in Hurricane Katrina at peak intensity in the Gulf of Mexico on August 28, Part of a series on Hurricane Katrina. Template:Hurricane Katrina series. Main article: Meteorological history of Hurricane Katrina. Main article: Preparations for Hurricane Katrina. See also: Hurricane preparedness for New Orleans.

Main article: Hurricane Katrina effects by region. Play media. Main article: Effects of Hurricane Katrina in Florida. Main article: Effects of Hurricane Katrina in Mississippi. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Economic effects of Hurricane Katrina. Main article: Criticism of government response to Hurricane Katrina. Main article: International response to Hurricane Katrina.

Main article: levee failures in Greater New Orleans. Main article: Media coverage of Hurricane Katrina. See also: List of retired Atlantic hurricane names. Main article: Reconstruction of New Orleans. Tropical cyclones portal Disasters portal Louisiana portal Mississippi portal s portal. Retrieved January 8, Retrieved August 13, September 16, Hurricane Katrina: Facts, Damage and Aftermath. Hurricane Andrew: August 16 — 28 Preliminary Report. Retrieved January 1, Archived PDF from the original on November 27, Retrieved November 27, Anderson, Jurjen A.

Battjes; et al. American Society of Civil Engineers.

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Seguin, P. Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability". Parry, O. Canziani, J.


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Palutikof, P. Hanson, Eds. Pp Accessed December 19, October 4, August 31, American Heritage. September 21, Archived from the original on March 12, October 23, September 9, USA Today. Arlington, VA. Courthouse News Service. Archived from the original on September 23, Retrieved March 4, Cable News Network. Retrieved August 19, September 26, Retrieved November 28, Office of the Governor, Mississippi. Retrieved September 27, Retrieved July 16, December 1, Retrieved on April 14, Hydrometeorological Prediction Center.

Retrieved November 4, September 6, Accessed on April 18, Gatineau, Quebec : Environment Canada. January 15, Retrieved January 31, CBC News. United States National Hurricane Center. January 12, Archived PDF from the original on January 27, Retrieved January 12, Climate in ". February 6, Retrieved February 9, Onge, Jeff; Epstein, Victor. April 1, February 22, October 18, Congressional Research Service. Archived from the original PDF on June 24, September Archived from the original PDF on May 21, CS1 maint: Archived copy as title link Retrieved on May 17, Ladd, John Marszalek, and Duane A.

Chicago Defender. Archived from the original on December 12, Archived from the original PDF on July 7, December 22, Retrieved on December 22, May 28, Retrieved June 15, Hurricane Katrina Impact Studies. Retrieved June 5, Free Press. Forest Ecology and Management. January 1, Gulf Coast Forests". Bibcode : Sci Little Rock, Arkansas. Los Angeles Times. September 2, ABC News.

September 4, December 2, New Orleans, Louisiana. Archived from the original on November 19, Associated Press. Journal of Criminal Justice. Retrieved September 18, The White House. January 20, Government Printing Office. United States Coast Guard. May 25, Retrieved November 15, February 15, Retrieved October 27, February 13, WLOX Channel Retrieved June 24, Archived from the original on March 9, January 6, Retrieved September 1, Retrieved May 13, Retrieved July 19, September 12, Retrieved on July 15, September 8, Retrieved on August 5, October 24, September 5, Retrieved on December 17, October 15, San Francisco Bay Guardian.

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Retrieved October 15, Retrieved May 12, Archived from the original on March 14, Retrieved January 4, Billboard Radio Monitor. No jobs, water, food or electricity. We worked hard from sunup to sundown clearing debris, ate by candlelight with food grilled on the barbeque pit and bathed each other with bottles of water distributed by national guardsmen.

Our lives were made simple and we practiced the existential way of life, alone building our own world one day at a time. Everyone was affected; everyone was starting a new life. But our fellow Americans came to our rescue. Thousands of volunteer groups poured in across the Louisiana and Mississippi coast and still do. People of all ages rallied their support taking their college breaks or week long vacations sleeping on cots working all day clearing debris, pulling out molded sheetrock, lending a helping hand and a shoulder to cry on. Just as Percy predicated there are thousands upon thousands who have seized countless opportunities to build new lives, businesses and communities.

You can literally feel the enthusiasm walking on New Orleans city streets and surrounding communities. We have all escaped the everydayness of life. Even our football team had a renewed sense of energy making the NFL championship playoffs—the first in their forty year history. He wrote about people coming together to help each other, our government failing to act, and entire communities losing their social structure in Love in the Ruins and there was a hurricane in Lancelot.

He would have been thrilled with Katrina because he would have felt so alive in the danger, horror, and destruction. Percy died in but crafted six award winning novels, his first The Moviegoer won the National Book Award for fiction in and today appears on many school reading lists. He wove his medical background, existential philosophy and Catholicism into a therapeutic theme of diagnostic storytelling dashed with shadows of death and suicide.

His love for the south comes alive in his brillant backdrops and characterizations prescibing moralistic cures entertaining readers with a self-aborsbed poetic prose. To think I lived so close and never read one of his books until after his death makes me sad.

Disaster tourism and disaster landscape attractions after Hurricane Katrina | Emerald Insight

Percy called Covington his hometown and the people still love him. A trip to the Louisiana section at the Covington branch of the St. Tammany Parish library proudly displays a huge framed photograph of Percy, laid back in his blue jeans sitting on his porch swing.

A couple feet away legends of the great philosopher stack the shelves, both his novels and books about him.


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Percy and hope his Hurricane Theory stays alive in the hearts of people all across the Louisiana and Mississippi Gulf Coast. The soul of New Orleans is very much alive in its world renowned food and music. Hotels, restaurants and all the popular tourism locations welcome visitors with a heaping helping of southern hospitality. Louis Cathedral. For more information about New Orleans visit www. Newsletter Signup Sign up to receive emails about upcoming events, site updates, and other news!

You can unsubscribe anytime Constant Contact Use. Emails are serviced by Constant Contact. The man and his community At the age of 71 Walker Percy celebrated a milestone; he was the oldest living Percy on earth. The Hurricane Theory The hurricane theory is another theme within the aesthetic sphere where Percy dictates that in times of crisis people find they are freed from everydayness.


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Visiting New Orleans and the Northshore The soul of New Orleans is very much alive in its world renowned food and music. Like 0. Tweet 0. Pin it 0.