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Thereafter he turned to songs and his expressive song cycles Frauenliebe und Leben and Dichterliebe are of particular importance. He also wrote four symphonies and many other works. The German bass-baritone brings near-Wagnerian intensity to Schumann's two great cycles of , yet he and Andsnes are at their most spellbinding in the introspective songs. Schumann: Symphonies Nos. Robert Schumann Composer. Show full biography Afflicted with increasingly severe mental instability, Schumann died in a mental asylum.

WoO 3a. Germania an ihre Kinder, after Kleist, for soprano, male chorus, and orchestra WoO 3b. Germania-Kantate, after Strachwitz, for male chorus and orchestra WoO 3c. Germania-Marsch for Orchestra WoO 4. Die Hermannsschlacht, Music for Kleist's Play, WoO 5. Frage und Antwort Question and Answer after Moerike for baritone or mezzo-soprano and piano WoO 6.

Julius Caesar, Symphonic Poem , revised WoO 7. Frithjof, Symphonic Poem WoO 8. WoO 9. Der Schwur im Rutli The Oath in Rutli , Cantata for soprano, and male chorus, version for wind orchestra; version for full orchestra.

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WoO Polonaise in D Symphonic Andante for Cello and Orchestra in e Herrat - Opera in 3 Acts , revised Gudrun - Opera in 3 Acts Concerto for Violin and Orchestra in e An den Mond, for baritone or mezzo-soprano and piano Der Waldschatzhauser Meleagerchor for 6 soloists and mixed chorus, Gesang zur Fahnenweihe, for a-capella chorus Sonata for Viola alta and Piano No.

Bertran de Born - Opera in 3 Acts Sachsen-Hymne, for male chorus and orchestra Fischer und Kalif - Comic Opera in one Act Quintet in A 'Stelzner-Quintett' for 2 violins,viola, violotta, and cello Sonata for Viola Alta and Piano No. Der Thunersee, Symphonic Poem Getrennte wege, for four-part women's chorus Merlin - Opera in 3 Acts, after K.

Immermann Psalm 57 for baritone, chorus, and orchestra Faust in Schlaf Gesungen, for chorus and orchestra Parzengesand, after Goethe's Iphigenie, for alto and orchestra Although the performances of 28 and 30 June were more assured, Schumann did not achieve the triumph he had hoped for. In June he also participated in discussions regarding the newly formed Bach-Gesellschaft. This second Liederjahr ended with Sechs Gedichte von N. Lenau und Requiem op.

On 25 August, when the cycle was first performed for a private gathering at the home of his friend Eduard Bendemann, Schumann learnt that the poet had in fact died on 22 August in an asylum near Vienna. It would be a mistake to search for a single, dominant trend in all this variety. The convivial side manifests itself most clearly in the folkish melodies, straightforward but elegant harmonies and syllabic settings typical of the choral partsongs. Similarly, the euphonious parallel 3rds and 6ths of the vocal chamber music and the ensembles in the Liederspiel a nearly moribund genre that Schumann essentially brought to life convert the personalized messages of lyric poetry into collective utterances.

In his Hausmusik for keyboard, for solo voice and piano, or for instrumental ensemble, the educational aspect of the Biedermeier sensibility comes into prominence. Through an allusion to Dein Bildnis wunderselig op. While Schumann somewhat modified the Goethean original in nos.

Tonal coherence is ensured by the use of D minor and its relative major at crucial junctures. A recurrent melodic idea bearing an uncanny resemblance to one of the motifs linked with Margaretha in Genoveva becomes a musical emblem for Mephistophelean trickery, gnawing guilt and mystical yearning. At the same time, the score is noteworthy for its employment of a range of vocal and instrumental styles, ranging from the conversational idiom of the garden scene no. Similarly, the music evokes a variety of genres across the span of the work: lied no. Though he complained of rheumatism in his foot after the family moved into lodgings on the corner of Allee- and Grabenstrassen, Schumann was soon caught up in the discharge of his new duties.

As municipal music director, he was in charge of the orchestra and chorus Gesangverein of the Allgemeiner Musikverein, which presented from eight to ten subscription concerts annually in seasons extending from October to May. The magnificent cathedral of Cologne, which he first beheld in late September, is supposed to have inspired the symphonic project he undertook between 2 November and 9 December.

Since this title was rejected by the publisher F. At the turn of the year Schumann took up orchestral composition with the overture op. By this time, then, his creativity had fallen into a pattern whereby larger compositions intended for public performance alternated with more easily marketable works in the smaller genres.

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In early February Schumann drafted the scenario for an oratorio called Luther , and enlisted Richard Pohl as a collaborator. Work on both compositions proceeded more or less concurrently into the late spring and early summer. Ballscenen op. On 6 July the Schumanns celebrated the move to their new lodgings on the Kastanienallee with a performance of Der Rose Pilgerfahrt with a hand-picked group of singers from the Gesangverein. Between 19 July and 5 August they were travelling along the Rhine and in Switzerland, enjoying a holiday that Schumann would remember as one of the most idyllic experiences of his married life.

Wortmann a leading member of the administration of the Allgemeiner Musikverein , over the selection of repertory and soloists for the forthcoming winter concerts. Correspondingly, his creative activity in the autumn of emphasized vocal and instrumental chamber music. A number of large-scale works for vocal forces and orchestra followed in the first half of Work on the Missa sacra op. The new work was orchestrated by 23 May, just after the drafting of an orchestral accompaniment for Verzweifle nicht im Schmerzenstal in the middle of the month.

Two projects of a literary nature also occupied Schumann in late spring Then, on 27 May, he set about ordering his own writings on music for publication in a collected edition. Although suffering from nervous attacks, rheumatism, coughing fits and general exhaustion, he hoped to relive the pleasantries of the previous summer with a trip along the Rhine. Unfortunately, his attempts to proceed with the sketching process while on holiday 26 June—2 July were cut short by persistent nervous complaints.

German Lieder Medium/Low Voice, Part 2

Having failed to experience relief through a regimen of daily bathing in the Rhine, he set off with Clara on 12 August for Scheveningen, a spa on the Dutch coast. But while at work on this cycle of five brooding lieder on translations of texts attributed to Mary Queen of Scots, he was confronted with a troubling request from the administrators of the Musikverein.

On 30 December Schumann conducted his first complete concert with the orchestra since the end of the last season and at about the same time regained his compositional stride, though now his focus shifted from vocal to instrumental music. The second and last instalment of Bachiana, harmonizations of the six suites for unaccompanied cello, was ready by 10 April. From 15 to 19 April he drafted the exuberant Fest-Ouverture op.

Towards the end of the month the Schumanns and their friends developed a passion for table-rapping. Along with Hiller and Tausch, Schumann served as co-director of the event and garnered public acclaim for performances of his D minor Symphony version , Piano Concerto with Clara as soloist and the recent Fest-Ouverture. After a brief hiatus in July, Schumann started composing again, and with a vengeance, in mid-August.

A diverse series of works followed in rapid succession: the overture to the Faust scenes 13—17 August ; the Introduction and Concert-Allegro op. While still occupied with the Violin Concerto on 30 September, Schumann was visited by a young pianist and composer from Hamburg who had been recommended to him by Joachim. Named Johannes Brahms, he was immediately recognized by the older man as a genius. The members of the Gesangverein refused to sing under his direction after a disastrous performance of a mass by Moritz Hauptmann on 16 October, when he continued to conduct well after the music stopped.

Rätsel Op No scored for Soprano or Tenor/Piano

In private consultation with Clara on 7 November, two members of the executive committee, Julius Illing and Joseph Herz, suggested that Schumann conduct only his own pieces and leave his other duties to Tausch. Incensed by what he considered a breach of faith, Schumann failed to appear at the subscription concert of 10 November, thus leaving himself open to the charge of violating his contract. Schumann officially broke off relations with the executive committee in a bluntly worded letter of 19 November. At the same time, he and Clara considered a future move to either Berlin or Vienna.

On 19 January he set off with Clara for Hanover, where Joachim was leader of the court orchestra and where, over the course of the next 12 days, he engaged in a round of music-making which included a private reading of his Violin Concerto. On 3 February he drafted a brief but spirited introductory essay for publication with the collected edition of his critical writings. Fearful that he might unwittingly bring harm to his wife, Schumann demanded to be removed to an asylum on 26 February.

After working for a time on the fair copy of his variations, he slipped undetected out of the house in the early afternoon and made for the bridge over the Rhine. After diving headlong into the river, he was rescued by fishermen who had observed him from nearby. Thereafter Clara was not allowed to see him, nor was she informed of his suicide attempt though she soon realized the truth. Clara was prevented from bidding him farewell when he departed in the company of Hasenclever and two male attendants on 4 March.

She would not see him again until July The alternation of larger with less imposing projects speaks to an outlook in which idealism was tempered by a shrewd sense for the marketplace. Perhaps biassed by their foreknowledge of his unfortunate end, many commentators have searched for signs of mental decay in this repertory, a dubious exercise at best.

In the first place, the scoring of the late works is by no means uniformly sombre: the overture to Hermann und Dorothea , to cite one of many examples, is as deftly orchestrated as anything by Weber or Mendelssohn. It was a matter less of a discrepancy between psychic state and sonorous elaboration than of a musical imagination capable of embracing a diversity of styles. As a lyric poet, Schumann explored the inner lives of his subjects in the Sieben Lieder on Kulmann texts op. The generally affirmative tone of the earlier work, however, gives way to mysterious understatement in the Kulmann lieder and an unusual blend of passion and austerity in the Maria Stuart cycle.

At the opposite pole from the introspective lyricist is the extroverted symphonist. Similarly, the concertante works of the last years are characterized by a synthesis of virtuosity and musical substance, most obviously in the written-out cadenzas of the Cello Concerto, the Introduction and Concert-Allegro for piano and the Phantasie for violin, where the traditional site of soloistic display becomes a secondary development section. The recall of thematic ideas over the span of a multi-movement work, a feature of the Third Symphony and the concertos for cello and violin, is an essentially narrative technique and hence a manifestation of the storyteller persona.

This figure naturally dominates in the ballad-type works for chorus and orchestra, most of which take the preservation of memory as their poetic theme. The religious side of his personality was free of dogmatism. Hoffmann isolated as the hallmarks of genuine church music. The figure of the collector is concerned with redemption of a material sort, with the preservation and arrangement of fragile objects that might otherwise perish.

Once assembled into a collection, these objects are imbued with an aura, a mixture of distance and proximity intended to fill the beholder with awe. If the collector preserves objects, then the pedagogue preserves traditions. While all of these belong to the world of Hausmusik , aiming to promote conviviality and edification, several of their constituent pieces disclose an undeniably poetic quality.

Situated on a well-kept estate in Endenich, a suburb of Bonn, the private asylum where Schumann spent his last years was one of the more progressive institutions of its type. Though he neither force-fed nor drugged his patients, Richarz discouraged direct contact with relatives in the belief that such meetings might set off untoward reversals.

It was chiefly for this reason that Clara did not see her husband until nearly two and a half years into his confinement, and just two days before his death. In the meantime, on 11 June Clara had given birth to another son, named Felix, after Mendelssohn. After a brief period of improvement, the final decline set in, leading to death in July Perhaps other compositions were among the papers and letters that, according to Richarz, Schumann consigned to the flames in April The hallucinations and auditory disturbances he experienced in February probably mark the onset of the final stage of the disease after a long period of latency.

The steady deterioration of his neurological system brought with it convulsive fits, the gradual loss of the ability to speak clearly, delusional ideas among them the conviction that he was being poisoned , aggressive behaviour and protracted periods of screaming that left him hoarse. But when she learnt from Brahms in June that Schumann had not left his bed for several weeks, she decided to investigate for herself. Twice prevented from seeing him by Richarz and Brahms during visits to Endenich on 14 and 23 July , she was finally admitted to his sickroom on 27 July.

Now in the throes of pneumonia and barely conscious, Schumann mustered the strength to embrace her and mumble a few words of recognition. Two days later he was buried in a cemetery near the Sternentor in Bonn. Asked for an opinion on Schumann, a follower of the European musical scene in about would probably have identified him as a critic, not a composer. Even members of the relatively limited circle who knew his earlier compositions often found them bizarre and eccentric.

Reacting to charges of this sort at mid-century, Schumann reissued opp.

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With the First Symphony and the Piano Quintet, he began to garner the public recognition that had previously eluded him. Performed in centres as remote from his native Saxony as Riga and New York, Das Paradies und die Peri established his reputation as a composer of international stature. The appropriation of his music by the spokesmen for what was then taken to be musical progress also played a part in this shift. Adorno has also pointed to the remarkable affinity between Schumann and Berg, both of whom demonstrated a predilection for allusions, encoded messages and musical ciphers.

In a sense he was all of these things and many others besides. A fastidious miniaturist, he was no less adept as a fabricator of monumental forms. Mayeda, K. Niemoller and others Mainz, — [NSA]. SATB, unaccompanied, unless otherwise stated; incipit given only if different from title. Ritornelle in canonischen Weisen [orig. Geiringer Vienna, ]:. Schubert; opening used as opening of Carnaval, op. Canon], 28 Erinnerung [orig. Zum Schluss]. Verrufener Ort], 5 Freundliche Landschaft [orig.

Freier Ausblick], 6 Herberge [orig. A Catalogues. B Bibliographies. C Genealogies. D Iconography. E Diaries. F Letters.

G Writings and aesthetics. H Documentary studies and compilations. I General studies, collections of essays. J Biography, memoirs. K Life and works. L Keyboard music. M Songs. N Other vocal music. O Orchestral works. P Chamber music. Q Late works. R Reception. S Other special studies. Printed from Grove Music Online. Grove is a registered trademark. Grove Music Online. Advanced search. Pre- and Early Medieval before Medieval 15th c. Late 18th c. Africa Asia. The Americas Browse All.

Place Type. City Country. State Browse All. Sign In Article Navigation. Subscriber sign in. Forgot password? Don't have an account? Sign in via your Institution. Sign in with your library card. Search within Article contents 1. Formative years: Zwickau, — Jean Paul and Schubert: Leipzig, —9.

The decision for music: Heidelberg, — Discoveries and disappointments: Leipzig, — The music critic: Leipzig, —4. Viennese prospects, —9. The battle for Clara, — The symphonic year, The chamber music year, —3. The oratorio year, Russia and after, A new manner of composing: Dresden, —6. The musical dramatist: Dresden, —8. Unbounded creativity: Dresden, — The late styles. Endenich, —6. Open in new tab. In his New Year editorial for the Neue Zeitschrift issue of 2 January , Schumann wrote that his journal aimed to acknowledge the past and its creations and to draw attention to the fact that new artistic beauties can only be strengthened by so pure a source; next, to oppose the recent past as an inartistic period with only a notable increase in mechanical dexterity to show for itself; and finally, to prepare for and hasten the advent of a new, poetic future.

Works Open in new tab. Editions Robert Schumanns Werke , ed. Schumann, J. Catalogue K. Theatrical Open in new tab. Marbach, after Byron ed. Reinick , after L. Tieck and C. Choral with orchestra Opp. Heine — — orch version of op. Moore: Lalla Rookh , trans. Orchestral Open in new tab. Phantasie, pf, orch iii, — 61 Symphony no.

Chamber Open in new tab. To Suite no. Dietrich and Brahms — woo 27 Sonata no.


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Partsongs for mixed voices SATB, unaccompanied, unless otherwise stated; incipit given only if different from title Open in new tab. Burns, trans. Komm du auf unsre Heide A. Uhland 2 Die Nonne Sie steht am Zellenfenster anon. Taylor: Robert Schumann London, —. Klopstock 65 Ritornelle in canonischen Weisen [orig. Laubes Jagdbrevier, 4 hn ad lib [orig.

Songs duets, trios etc. Byron, trans. Fanshawe, trans. Moore, trans. Freiligrath 19 Hauptmanns Weib Hoch zu Pferd! Gerhard 20 Weit, weit Wie kann ich froh Burns, trans. Heine 22 Niemand Ich hab mein Weib allein Burns, trans. Gerhard 3 Was soll ich sagen? Zimmermann 29 Drei Gedichte: E.

Zu Augsburg steht ein hohes Haus 3 Wanderlied Wohlauf! Andersen, trans. Chamisso 2 Muttertraum Die Mutter betet herzig Andersen, trans. Lenau und Requiem N. Heyse 5 Im Wald Ich zieh so allein in den Wald hinein! Shelley, trans. Buddeus 2 Husarenabzug Aus dem dunkeln Tor wallt C. Candidus 3 Jung Volkers Lied [orig. Shakespeare: Twelfth Night , trans.

Tieck and A. Bernhard 4 Mein Wagen rollet langsam [orig. Index to the songs Open in new tab. Abendlied, op. Keyboard for solo piano unless otherwise stated Open in new tab. Heinrich IV? Bibliography A: Catalogues A Catalogues. Hofmann and S. Keil , eds. B: Bibliographies G. Abraham , ed. Walker , ed. C: Genealogies E. D: Iconography W. Petzold and E.


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Kast , ed. E: Diaries R. Nauhaus Leipzig, ; Eng. Nauhaus Leipzig, F: Letters C.