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Begl e Nou Testamaint. Basilea: Ediziun tras ils Colloquis d'Engiadina, Bible in Romansch. Robert Alter and Frank Kermode. The Literary Guide to the Bible. London: Fontana Press, Leo Tolstoy. Christ's Christianity. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Ilvano Caliaro. Verona: Edizioni Fiorini, Vangeli apocrifi. Traduzione di Angela Cerinotti. Firenze: Giunti, Vincenzo Arnone. Il Vangelo apocrifo di Maria. Casale Mogferrato: Piemme, Isabella Reali, Firenze, Frances Young. London: Darton, Longman and Todd, Biblical Commentary [Shelved at Top]:.
Nuovissima version della Bibbia. Roma: Edizioni Paoline, ss: Daniele, ed. Giuseppe Bernini; Genesi, 1, ed. Emanuele Testa; Esodo, 2, ed. Bernardo G. Boschi; Levitico, 3, ed. Sofia Cavaletti; Numeri, 4, ed. Boschi; Deuteronomio, 5 ed. Angelo Stellini; I Giudici, 7, ed. Paolo Sacchi; Libri di Samuele, 8, ed. Giovanni Boccali; Libri dei Re, 9, ed. Armando Rolla; Cronache, 10, ed. Giuseppe Danieli; Ruth-Esther, 12, ed. Sofia Cavalletti; Tobia, 13, ed. Stefano Virgulin; Giuditta, 14, ed. Stefano Virgulin; Salmi, 18C, ed. Angelo Lancelotti; Proverbi, 19, ed.
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Enzo Cortese, 27; Daniele, 28, ed. Giuseppe Bernini; Amos, 29, ed. Loss; Osea-Michea-Nahum-Abacuc, 30, ed. Giuseppe Bernini; Aggeo-Zaccaria-Malachia, 32, ed. Giuseppe Bernini; Matteo, 33, ed. Angelo Lancelotti; Marco, 34, ed. Adalberto Sisti; Luca, 35, ed. Carlo M. Martini; Letter ai Tessalonicesi, 38, ed. Pietro Rossano; Lettere ai Galati e ai Romani, 40, ed. Ugo Vanni S. Settimio Cipriani; Lettera agli Ebrei, 43, ed. Benedetto Prete; Apocalisse, 46, ed.
Angelo Lancelotti. Divo Barsotti. Casale Monferrato: Piemme, Don Bernardo, C. Bose: Queriniana, Maria Francesca Gallifanti, Firenze, Pino Stancari. I Passi di un pellegrino: I Canti delle ascensioni Salmi Milano: Editrice Ancora, Suor Anna Maria, Eremo di Getsemani, Introduzione al Cantico dei Cantici.
Firenze: Libreria Editrice Fiorentina, Cantico dei Cantici. Carlo de Ambrogio. Torino: Centro Mater Divinae Gratiae, Meditazione su Abacuc. Brescia: Editrice Queriniana, Don Divo Barsotti, Settignano, Contemplative Theology. Meditazione su gli Atti degli Apostoli. Brescia: Queriniana, Meditazione sul Cantico dei Cantici. Brescia: Editrice Queriniana, , Meditazione sul Libro di Esdra e Neemia. Meditazione sul Libro di Ester. Meditazione sul libro di Giobbe.
Julia Bolton Holloway, Firenze, Second copy, don Divo Barsotti, Settignano, Pasquale Foresi. Giovanni Giavini. Verso san Paolo. Milano: Ancora, Carlo Maria Martini. Avete perseverato con me nelle mie prove: Riflessioni su Giobbe. Milano: Edizione Piemme, Meditazione sul Libro di Giona. Meditazione sul Libro di Giuditta. Meditazione sul Libro di Malachia. Meditazione sul Libro di Sofonia.
Courtenay Bartholomew. Goleta: Queenship, Anne Lastman, Melbourne, Alba Bompani. Verso Betlemme. Firenze: Sacchi Editore, Angelo Casati. Bose: Edizioni Qiqajon, Eugenio Corsini. Apocalisse prima e dopo. Prefazione, Piero Rossano. Alberto De Marzi. Firenze: L'Autore Libri, Eugen Drewermann. Bescria: Queriniana, The Jesus of History. London: Student Christian Movement, Fr Adrian Wee, Australia, Il Vangelo di San Giovanni.
Lettera di S. Giovanni , ed. Torino: Mater Divinae Gratiae, Mirella Pratesi, Firenze. Francesco Carnelutti. Interpretazione del Pater Noster. Morandini, Firenze, Una Kroll. Th e Lord's Prayer. Watercolours, Andreas Felger. Gnadenthal: Praesenz, Latrun, Israel, Lebeau, S. Les Hommes de l'Evangile. Lisa Morelli Adimari, Firenze, Un giorno una parola: Letture bibliche quotidiane per il Torino: Claudiana, Roma: Edizioni Paoline, Lettera ai Romani, capitoli Firenze: Archidiocesi di Firenze, John B.
Edward Lucie-Smith. The Face of Jesus. New York: Abrams, Paolo Francini, Firenze, Vittorio Messori. Paolo agli Efesini, ed. Le Lettere di san Paolo. Milano: Paoline, Amando Megna, Firenze, Le Lettere di S. Giovanni B. Re, S. Giovanni Papini. Storia di Cristo. Firenze: Vallecchi Editore, Ravasi, B. Maggioni, A. In Principio: Bibbia e comunicazione. Milano: San Paolo, Gianfranco Ravasi.
Daniel Rops. Storia di Gesu. Firenze: Sansoni, I Servi dei Poveri del Terzo Mondo. Giovani sedotti da Cristo e dai poveri. Conegliano: Editrice Ancilla, Giuseppe Taliercio. Nuove creature in Cristo: Con Paolo alla scuola del Maestro. Milano: Edizioni Paoline, Islamic Studies. James Kritzeck. New York: Meridian Karen Armstrong. New York: Ballentine Books, Laura Mazza, Beatrice H. Milwaukee, Marquette University Press, Enrico Cerulli. Vatican: Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Kenneth Cragg. The Wisdom of the Sufis. London: Sheldon Press, America League, Florence, Vincent Crapanzano.
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New York: Harper and Row, The Jews of Islam. Il Medio Oriente: Duemila anni di storia. Milano: Mondadori, Vladimir P. Goss, Christine Verzar Bornstein. Studies in Medieval Culture Dorothy Metlitzki. The Matter of Araby in Medieval England. New Haven: Yale University Press, Reynold A. The Mystics of Islam. Jacqueline Hamesse et Marta Fattori.
Louvain-la-Neuve-Cassino, Edward W. Il Monastero Di S. Agnese Sulla Via Nomentana. Ricerche E Testimonianze. Il Vangelo Di Giovanni. Commentario PDF Online. L Alleanza Della Lettura.
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He gives the Beatitudes a moralizing tone and has them serve as a list of virtues or program of perfection proposed for all those who would be disciples of Jesus. The interpretation of the antithesis in Mt hinges on the meaning of several key terms. As for its meaning, it is best taken as almost satirical. Mt presents an apodictic commandment followed by a legal ordinance. At the same time he sets forth a new demand for human relationships in which anger and invective have no place. The word itself is neutral and becomes pejorative only in combination. The derivation in Aramaic is problematic.
The history of the interpretation of this pericope is first reviewed in the patristic period, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance and modern times. The constant in these interpretations is the interest centered on the person of Jesus. It was modern exegesis that brought to the fore the question of the historicity, whether total or partial, of the account. The Matthean redaction of the account Mt is first situated within its larger context, immediately after the conclusion of the second major literary part of Mt — The pericope itself is in two parts, and The first part Who is Jesus?
In this response the presence of the eschatological messianic blessings is stated in the logion v. Mt , Mt constitutes one of the most important clues for an objective evaluation of the Matthean redaction of chaps. To the question, Who is Jesus? Mt , cf. The confession of Peter at Caesarea Philippi and the transfiguration constitute a thematic unity. The incidents are linked by an intervening instruction on disciple- ship.
Outlining the general problem of Mt parr. The arguments to the contrary, though deserving attention, do not seem to prevail. In JournBibLit 58 H. Cadbury argued that the Greek verbs in the perfect tenses in Mt ; and Jn could be translated adequately into English by simple futures i.
But with all the information now available—the witness of many recent translations, the views of an increasing number of scholarly commentators, the unanimous testimony of Greek grammarians, and the findings of W. Les talents. Can one trace so complex a message to a simple idea? The exegete must determine this intention in order to know how to interpret the text. But it is not enough to know how a text was written; we must discover how it was constructed and set in relation to other texts.
Matthew, by the way he recounts this passage and sets it in relation to other texts, makes possible various levels of reading. In preaching on the pericope the particular and privileged relation of servant to master must be noted. There are in the parable two models of relation with God. One is based on judging, duty and defiance; therefore, on absence of faith. The other relation is completely dominated by the gift of God, a relation of gift and gratitude.
This article intends a contribution to the Christian-Jewish dialogue by offering certain significant rabbinic texts that can be considered as parallels to the words of Jesus on the judgment that the Son of Man will pass on all nations at his coming cf. Mt The parallels are presented in three sections: one on good works, the works of love; one on the works of love and the final judgment; and the third on the actual comparison of rabbinic doctrine with Mt Matthew is the only evangelist to transmit the text we have in Mt He first presented the theme in This mission is that of a pastor to the community and of a king with the power to judge.
Mt must be seen as linked with and to form the remnant of an original narrative. It is attested also in the Gospel of Peter. Matthew modifies it in view of integrating it with the Markan empty-tomb story and in light of his apologetic concern, which emerges most clearly in Such a story is pre-Matthean but not older than the other forms of resurrection stories. The vocabulary is distinctly Matthean at several points.
It is enough to maintain that we have a directive from the risen Lord himself rather than a late formulation by the church. Mark emphasizes that to be a disciple of Jesus one must be characterized by 1 an unashamed association and identification with Jesus and 2 a persevering fidelity and commitment to his words and mission.
The disciples are distinguished by three characteristics—their faith, their understanding of the kingdom, and their following of Jesus.
Thus the Evangelist indicates what should be the foundation for the post-paschal community. The motif of the messianic secret pinpoints the fact that the kingdom both is and is not present in Jesus. His miracles are both proclamations that the kingdom has already arrived and invitations to delve more deeply into the meaning of this kingdom.
The divisions of the Gospel are: prologue , confession of faith — , journey toward the cross — , the passover of the Son of God — , canonical ending Weeden, Mark—Traditions in Conflict [cf. NT A 16, p. The thesis that Mark struggles against the portrayal of Jesus as a wonder-worker is convincing, but the notion of a Markan polemic against the disciples as misleading representatives of a miracle-Christology is incredible.
Also, the concept of the divine man arose in Hellenism only in the 2nd century A. Mk, cf. Mk , cf. Attempts to interpret the Markan account of the temptation have approached it from a Mt-Lk point of view and found it disappointing. The language and the apocalyptic motif of both the baptism and the temptation are clearly inspired by haggadic midrash. It is this genre which offers a coherent understanding of the motifs and situates the origins of the account in the primitive Palestinian Jewish community. This pericope is fraught with problems, e. The expressions for anger in , 43 are Aramaisms: Jesus is angry in himself cf.
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Jn , The pervasive Aramaisms show that the pericope is a unity. Lk and Mk On a literary plane this pericope is not a miracle account but a controversy, the first in a group of six. As in the last controversy , this one recalls the anger of God in the OT against the infidelity and stiffneckedness of his people. The five controversy stories of Mk — form a tightly constructed literary unit, predominantly chiastic in principle: the first two stories have to do with sin, the last two with the Sabbath law; the first and last stories deal with resurrection- type healings, the second and fourth with eating, and the middle one with fasting and crucifixion.
Furthermore, it would appear that the overall chiastic structure of Mk — has influenced the form of the individual pericopes within the section. This does not exclude the idea that he was using earlier tradition or even an earlier collection of traditions to construct his section. En studie til Mk. The difficulties presented by this section are well known: what is the relationship between the parable and its explanation? Beginning with vv. The mystery is given to them a so that after the resurrection they may go out to proclaim it. Verses contain a saying about the disciples and not about parables.
What follows is consistent since the disciples are shown as preachers in vv. In vv. The sign of Jonah in Mk and Q and its development in Mt and Lk are studied and the various aspects of the sign examined. In general, the structuring of the sign in Mt closely resembles that in Q because both are striving to refute the charge raised by the Jews that Jesus did not provide sufficient guarantees of his messiah- ship.
Moreover, the first Gospel exhibits a tendency to show that the Master gave sufficient light to the chosen people so that when they rejected him, the fault was not his but theirs. Unlike Mt, the proclamation of the Messiah in Lk comes from Peter and the apostles only after Pentecost.
Therefore the third Evangelist does not develop the messianic indications contained in his sources, and the sign of Jonah was something he found in an existing tradition, not a development of his own. It is a complete and independent literary unit with minimal redactional modifications. Its purpose is the narration of an event and information about factual opinions. It fits no typical form nor does it point beyond itself to broader literary associations within Mk. Codex Bezae D for Mk must have read tines hode ton hestekoton. In its account of the rich young man the Gospel of the Nazarenes departs from our canonical Gospels in many expressions and in its composition.
While it could be possible that this variety resulted from a reworking of the Synoptic material, it is more likely that it is the fruit of independent tradition. This tradition would have been in written form, because the incident is placed in a new setting, there is a different Sit 2 ini Lehen, and the purpose is not the same.
Гљvod do PГsma sv. NovГ©ho zГЎkona. DГl I. SГЅkora Jan Ladislav, 1904
In his reply to the Sadducees, who argued that there is no resurrection of the dead, Jesus certainly taught that the dead rise, and the authenticity of his teaching is manifest because it differs from the specifically Jewish exegesis of Exod and from that of the kerygma as found in the Lukan version of the incident.
The parallel with the situation of their own congregation would not be lost on Roman readers. Mark stresses the failings of the Twelve because he wants his readers to recall that they were all too ordinary men and to remember how the Lord turned to them yet again ; and gathered and lifted them up for renewed service. Scroggs and K. When seen against the backdrop of Christian baptismal practices, the appearances of the young man in both Mk and can best be explained as a symbolic pointer to the Christian initiate.
The nakedness and flight in symbolize dying with Christ; the reappearance of the young man in a new garment in symbolizes rising with Christ. The initiate of is stripped of his garment and is now ready for baptism. He is baptized into the death, but only Jesus actually dies; the substitution is symbolized by the linen, which the young man leaves but with which Jesus is actually shrouded in burial. The initiate who had been stripped at the death of Jesus appears in clothed in his white baptismal robe at the resurrection of Jesus.
Thus robed he appropriately represents Jesus to the women. The problem of the twofold tradition of apparitions Galilee vs. Luke Physical healings illustrate the eternal salvation which he prefers to describe historically and by way of analogy. While word and history are not separated, they are not the same thing and are not to be confused.
John the Baptist appears in a different light in each Gospel. Luke adapts his sources and reformulates, with a theological end in view, the traditions associating the figure of Elijah with the Baptist. Mai , cited in Mt , with Lk Luke did not succeed completely in suppressing the identification see Lk , 76; But, though Luke dissociates the Elijah figure from that of the Baptist, he does use the former to shed light on the portrait of Jesus.
In Lk the miracle accounts, the transfiguration, and the ascension are the most evident allusions to the cycle of Elijah traditions. But Luke also makes John the Baptist the first prophet of the primitive church. Schurmann, Das Lukasevangelium. Erster Teil [cf. Danker, CTM 44 1, 73 Instead the words affirm present virginity. Mary states that she is now a virgin; it is her witness to her virginal maternity. In general the annunciation story is primarily concerned not with Mary but with Jesus.
No other Lukan passage and no episode in the public life of Jesus contains so many messianic titles ascribed to him. Lk , cf. Constructed out of very traditional OT formulas, the Magnificat represents the high point of the piety of the ancient people of God. It is undoubtedly the product of the early Christian community and expresses the attitude of the church toward the coming of Christ and the inauguration of salvation.
This Christian hermeneutic seeks to interpret faithfully the divine interpretation that is Sacred Scripture. Between the two interpretations there is always a certain distance. In the light of this, the Parable of the Sower Lk parr. Within this framework the themes of the sower of Israel, election and responsibility, the majestic generosity of the sower, hope and hypo- mone, and the mission of the church are discussed. Then the preaching s of this parable in relation to hermeneutical principles and to the exegesis of the text is are taken up.
It is extremely revealing to consider the material in this section solely according to the thematic categories and to link it to the hypothesis that Luke tried to classify the vast amount of data at his disposal and to give it a historical context. His hypothesis was that, organized this way, the accounts would speak for themselves. We might say that Luke spoke, in the strictest sense of the word, and did not preach. But besides this last complex of ideas there is another significant group of themes, which includes the kingdom of God, the resurrection and the parousia.
Luke also wishes to depict the journey as the way which brings the Messiah into suffering and through suffering into glory. Those who hear the word must keep it attentively, actively and faithfully. The semiotics of the table is part of the semiotics of furniture. All this is verified by numerous details in the parable.
The advice of Jesus in Lk seems out of harmony with Also present in these traditions are the motif of a time set apart for repentance and the tendency to use the same catalogue of vices taken for the most part from the Psalms and the OT wisdom literature to describe the sins of the two generations. Analysis of Sir , 3 Maccabees 2. In the light of these Jewish traditions the point of Lk may not be so much the suddenness of the eschatological catastrophe as it is the certainty that sinners will be punished. There is no need to postulate as derived from two sources.
As the Evangelist is known for his mercy and his reverence for women, the passage shows he is faithful to his sources, reproducing their content even when it goes counter to his own tendencies. Acts It is because of these two elements that it is possible to encounter Christ in the community today.
John r. Bultmann, The Gospel of John [cf. Evans, ScotJournTheol 26 3, 73 Thirty years from its first appearance it remains magisterial. Also, the reordering of passages is dealt with piecemeal and is nowhere reviewed as a whole; the end result must be pronounced unconvincing. Can the persecution of and the discrimination against the Jews be justified theologically by what John says? To understand the complex and profound attitude of the Evangelist towards the Jews, some aspects of the redaction of his Gospel are considered: its context, the Christ-Judaism opposition in Jn, flesh and spirit in Judaism, the option before Jesus, the universal dimension of the Gospel, and the Jews as symbol.
These show how unjustified and unfounded is a hostile attitude towards Judaism. The Fourth Gospel is analyzed according to five schemes each of which is linked with one or more honorific titles whose development may be seen from the following headings. The eschatological judge, the descent and ascent of the Son of Man, the exalted and glorified Son of Man, center of attraction and salvation.
Son of God in the profession of faith, messianic sense, ontological sense, the Son in salvation-history, mission of the Son, the gift of the only-begotten Son, the glorified Son, Father and Son, the only-begotten Son the re- vealer of the Father. From the present to the future. From the present to the past. Ultimately the five schemes can be reduced to two.
One includes the coming descent , death and resurrection exaltation , and parousia final judgment. In this plan are found the titles Christ, Son of Man, and to some extent Lord. The other scheme includes pre-existence, the mission of the Son by the Father, the revelation of the love and glory of the Father in the earthly and eschatological activity of the Son. Jn, cf. John speaks of the creative and vivifying power of the Word. In the first operation the Word acts so to speak extrinsically; in the second the causality is much more intimate and profound.
The change in the tenses of ginesthai seems deliberately intended. Jn , cf. Hence the incident is of prime importance for the Christology of the Fourth Gospel. This collector-scribe used a copy of Jn very closely related to the early Egyptian witnesses especially P 66 , P 75 and Origen. Textual similarities, the almost identical sequence of events between Gen 24 and GOSPELS [NTA 18 2, 74 Jn 4, and the orchestration of the same themes hint strongly at the possibility that the author of Jn somehow referred to the texts selected according to the Jewish lectionary system in composing his Gospel.
In many ways Jn 4 is a commentary on Gen 24, Gen 29 and Exod Duprez, Jesus et les dieux guerisseurs [cf. Jeremias, Biblica 54 1, 73 At several points e. To this we can add the Mishnah text in Zab 1. The text- criticism of Jn b-4 is not handled properly. These verses present many problems: punctuation, identification of Scripture allusion, image of koilia. Jn ; ; ; ; cf.
He who believes in Jesus receives teaching from a most abundant fountain—Jesus himself. This doctrine resides in the koilia of the believer, quenches his thirst, and becomes a fountain that can quench the thirst of others who seek wisdom. The Spirit has been sent to proclaim what he has heard—that the Father is the source of the word, that this is the word of Jesus, and that the Father has given Jesus all that he has.
Inclusion marks the next unit, vv. Within vv. Agapan and doxa are the link words, then, joining vv. The speech has the function of leading the readers to a consideration of their situation in the world as the community of Christ. First the glory beheld by Isaiah Jn is considered, then the structure of , and then the relation between doxa and love.
The glorification of Jesus as seen by Isaiah means the glorification of Jesus by his work as revealer. Faith in the final analysis means sharing in the love of God. In either case they would symbolize the power which is the cause of death in men, a meaning which suits very well the two Johannine contexts in which the burial napkins appear. Lazarus comes forth from the tomb with his head still wrapped in a veil because he is still subject to the power which the Angel of Death, Satan, and the evil impulse will have over all mankind until this power has been destroyed in the days of the Messiah.
Christ, however, removes the napkin from his face as he rises from the dead; he himself has conquered death definitively. John believes that Christ has risen from the dead because the folded napkin in the tomb tells him that the prophecy of Isaiah has been fulfilled: God has swallowed up death forever. Jn ; , by their privileged position in the Jewish-Christian Easter tradition, and by their importance in the Jewish-Christian church. In Jn the disciples continue the role assigned to them in the Grundschrift as witnesses of the signs and other messianic deeds of Jesus.
The author of the Grundschrift took the tradition according to which Jesus was exalted as Messiah cf. Rom ; Acts ; and historicized it by basing it on the word and deed of Jesus. We are not yet dealing with a visible ascension viewed by eyewitnesses. Acts of the Apostles There is similarity between John 14—16 and Luke-Acts in describing the work of the Spirit. According to Luke, until the first Christian Pentecost only Jesus had received the Spirit of the new age. There is affinity with the Qumran teaching, but in Acts the Spirit is clearly personal. Acts describes the gospel as making its way through the world under the constant direction of the Spirit.
As in the past through the prophets and Christ, God continues to communicate himself throughout the life of the church ARTICLES] ACTS through the logos tou kyriou ; ; , 48, 49; ; , 20; , calling upon men for conversion metanoia. Loyalty to the apostolic witness and fidelity to the hermeneutic action of the Spirit ensure the transition from the preaching on the kingdom by Jesus to the preaching on Jesus by the church, without any interruption.
The end of the book shows us that the essential element of the preaching or kerygmatic activity of the church is to preach simply the kingdom and the things pertaining to Jesus Christ. An examination of the missionary discourses in Acts highlights the centrality in them of the Jesus story. In some instances the variations correspond to elements of the context of the discourses.
For Luke precise teaching about Jesus was very important; he engaged in it in his Gospel and indicated its prominence in the speeches he composed throughout Acts. Haenchen, The Acts of the Apostles [cf. Edwards, Jr.
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Dibelius and of H. Conzelmann and work them out in a detailed study of Acts. In Acts many titles are used for the risen Lord, of which the most common is kyrios. The Christology could be called adoptionist, although it is not explicitly such; it is complex and comprehensive. It involves a claim for the universality of Jesus reflected in his many titles. It involves a movement of the divine action from the sphere of humanity through resurrection and exaltation to universal lordship in heaven.
Luke had to provide an imaginatively reconstructed and prefigured future and the concordance between the immediate predicament and that past and future. This ACTS [NTA 18 2, 74 required the intervention of the Holy Spirit by way of prophetic guidance; thus it was necessary to invoke eyewitnesses who had been companions of Jesus and had seen the risen Lord. The issue of faith in the word becomes identical with the issue of the credibility of the eyewitnesses. As a theologian Luke was closer to the modern preacher-teacher-counselor than to the graduate-school exegete or dogmatician.
The various samples of kerygma in Acts are listed, and their sources and composition discussed. The modes and characteristics of the apostolic preaching are outlined; then the use of the Scriptures and the recapitulation of the history of Israel are treated.
This is followed by a brief analysis of some kerygmatic discourses in Acts ; ; ; These discourses exhibit both traditional and redactional elements. The basic kerygma is the proclamation of the coming of God among men. It proclaims Christ to men. The keryx acts in personam Christi cf. Rom ; Acts, cf. The book of Acts, justly described as the vestibule to the whole NT, is rich with instruction that is of perennial value to the Christian community.
Its first chapters describe a new community, and to understand the nature of this community better we need to know how Luke and the first Christians understood Pentecost. Reflecting upon the links that bind Sinai, Easter, the ascension and Pentecost, the church was better able to shed light on its own mystery as the new people of God.
In the second part of the account of the Pentecostal theophany Luke presents the universalistic panorama of the community gathered in Jerusalem. There is in Acts no room for an individualistic morality. The Holy Spirit leads the first Christians not to the desert but to fraternal communion. How Luke understands the Spirit in the time of the church begins to emerge in Acts The apostles are to understand themselves on the verge of power and mission. The Holy Spirit means power manifesting itself in glossolalia, healing power, guidance and, especially, power for articulate witness.
Historical criticism is the only public means of gaining confidence today. Enough can be known about Jesus to make out the dimensions of his work and to suggest the quality of his life and trust. Between the beginning of the Gospel Lk 1—2 and that of Acts Acts 1 an implicit parallel can be perceived. Just as Mary was physically the mother of her Son, so also she actively assists at the birth of the church.
Ps speaks neither of resurrection nor of eternal life but of restoration to health in the face of imminent death. The LXX rendering, however, is made from an eschatological perspective. Evidently the psalm was given a messianic interpretation before the Christian era, and Christians saw its fulfillment in Jesus. However, the portion of the psalm that speaks of being spared from impending death would not be applicable to Jesus, who, in accordance with the primitive confession 1 Cor , died and was buried.
In Hellenistic circles the gods, to whom aphtharsia is ascribed, are spared such fate. Thus it is implied that Jesus belongs, by virtue of his resurrection, in the realm of the divine. Acts 7—8, cf. Acts , cf. Luke could have been totally unaware of a private fortnight spent by Paul with Peter Gal , and consequently the first visit of which he was aware and which he recorded in Acts was actually the second visit which Paul had made—the more public one of Gal The main points of correlation between Acts and Gal are these.
This reconstruction would indicate that Paul founded the Galatian churches in A. Norden, that the triadic construction of our formula is not original but derivative. Ben-Chorin, Paulus [cf. Religionswissenschaft im Spannungsfeld der Bekenntnisse. The tensions and paradoxes in the life and teaching of Paul have their basis in the tensions and paradoxes of Christianity as such.
The concepts pneuma and dynamis in the Pauline corpus have their background in the OT and later Jewish literature. The OT has no neutral concept of power but witnesses to the personal God whose power creates physical life, wisdom, and understanding and is in fact a history-forming influence. In the NT power is a characteristic of the being of Jesus and God. The Spirit not only recreates man but is also the standard of the new life.
The relation pneuma-dynamis is further illuminated by the pairs flesh-Spirit, law-Spirit, letter-Spirit. The second usage is with reference to the sinful condition of man and mankind. The reference to the sinful nature of man is to the fact that man is in the condition of sarx. So the capital sin according to Paul is the non-recognition of or refusal to recognize the true God: in the OT, concretely, in the sin of idolatry; in the NT, in the refusal of the Messiah.
NT research has not given pneuma the attention it merits. The history of its interpretation shows a gradual shift from an objective to a subjective concept, in which the Spirit is relegated to the position of a mediating power. In this sense the Spirit is the bridge between ascension and parousia. Paul describes this new life in a variety of ways, the nature of which is expressed both in juridical categories and as a process of sanctification.
When his principle is applied to a given text, the meaning of en pneumati in the specific context remains vague. In many instances, the Hebrew b e as background word must be reconsidered. This corresponds to the functions of Christ and the Spirit in the economy of salvation-history. En Christg has to do with the objective position of the believer, en pneumati primarily with the fact that the Spirit is the medium by means of whom salvation is applied.
For this reason also en pneumati has so much to do with the life of the Christian congregation. Engelbrecht, Jr. In 1 Cor 15 he insists that the final glorious resurrection cannot be separated from the baptismal and moral resurrection. Analysis of 2 Cor , Phil and 1 Thes shows that Paul envisioned a state of happiness for individuals after death and prior to the general resurrection.
According to Paul both collective and individual eschatology are rooted in incorporation into Christ. Incorporation into Christ is expressed by Paul with the concept of the body of Christ and by John with the doctrine of the redemptive incarnation and the image of the vine. A discussion of the statistical procedures used by S. Michaelson and A. Kasemann, Prospettive paoline [cf. NT A 17, p. Rom , for example, shows that for Paul the strict opposition was not between faith and Law but between faith and the absolutization-adoration of the Law, between putting in first place the promises realized in Jesus Christ and putting the Law in that place.
The sources employed in these investigations are the Greek and Roman classics, the NT, and the itineraries and reports of travelers from the 15th to the 20th century. An examination of the methodology employed and some of the linguistic evidence adduced in an effort to determine the validity of the method used by P.
Harrison regarding the Pastorals and by others since him. The ratio of vocabulary peculiar to each letter to the total vocabulary of each is analyzed in particular detail. The arguments based on style are simply incorrect or to put it bluntly they are invalid. The latter includes the gift of salvation and the charismata. No tension exists between charismata and institutions. Every member is included in the task of the church to upbuild itself. Romans, 1 —2 Corinthians For Paul, Christian life is a grateful response to that which God has already done for man.
Faith cannot be separated from action. Remarks on the occasion, content, message and enduring significance of Rom. Observations on eighteen theological, critical-exegetical and popular commentaries on Rom published in German since K. Then the concept of the history of salvation is taken up and the views opposed to it, especially G.
An appendix deals with Rom and concludes that the passage is concerned with the judgment of God and is not part of the anti-Jewish polemic but forms a link that binds the anti-pagan and the anti-Jewish sections together. Chiefly because of the conflict between the present time in Rom and the future time in , R.
Bultmann judged to be a gloss. But the verse contains so many parallels and allusions to the context that it is difficult to excise. A hidden inferiority is in conflict with external appearances, and though it exists in the present it will become manifest only on the eschatological day. Johnson, Jr. One should note the parallels between Rom and the latter being a reductio ad absurdum. The Law, as Law, was given to the Jews and bears witness against them.
As a promise, however, it witnesses to Christ. This apocalyptic perspective is echoed again in ff. The actual chronological sequence of events in the case of the Jews does not alter the centrality of sola gratia. The Spirit places us in communion with the Son, who brings us near to the Father Rom , cf.
Rom indicates that through the Spirit we may pass from the death of sin to the divine life of holiness and that we who had been strangers or slaves may become sons of God. As sons of God we are also heirs of God and fellow heirs with Christ, but we cannot be heirs apart from Christ. Traditionally Rom 9—11 has been considered an appendix to Rom 1—8, which was judged to be the essential theological core of the epistle. Actually, however, chaps.
By bringing the nations to God in the obedience of the kindgdom, together with the people of Israel, the promise of the OT is fulfilled. The second part of the article is given to a detailed analysis of the three chapters. A study of Rom as a whole and of chaps. Rom shows that now the Jews and the Gentiles are on the same level, and suggests that the reconciliation of both to God through the gospel is an eschatological event.
The article concludes with hermeneutical reflections on the understanding of Rom 9—11 and observations on the significance of the passage for Jewish-Christian dialogue. There was, in addition to the Hebrew equivalent of herem, the classical and Hellenistic sense of anathema as a votive consecration-dedication to a divinity. A verse-by-verse exegesis of Rom The parallel and chiastic structure of Rom is striking. This text must have been written by a very suggestive and imposing preacher.
They held a dualistic anthropology, distinguishing between the spiritual salvandum in man and the psychic pereundum, and only in this sense did they deny the resurrection. The word en in this phrase lias been interpreted in a variety of ways: causal, introducing the source of knowledge, temporal, and spatial. The phrase has a function similar to that of eudokesen ho theos later in the verse. The crucial question is whether v. The implication is that there exists a strong exegetical link between vv. The estin of v. Whether ho kyrios in v.
Verse 17, therefore, is a pneumatological statement rather than a Christological one. The Corinthians ought to reject the spirit of discord, be of one heart and one spirit, and live in love, peace and joy as children of the God who is love.