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Of late years there has been some agitation in favor of orthographic reform, and the Brazilian Academy promulgated in certain rules which, if followed, would still further tend to simplify spelling. These rules, however, do not appear to have been taken seriously as yet. The Brazilian scholar who has given most careful and most practical attention to this matter of Portu- guese spelling is Professor M. Said Ali, of Rio de Janeiro. He has published a Vocdbulario ortho- graphico in which rules for greater simplicity are laid down, and the words about which there is any question are all given.

The spelling given by Pro- fessor Said Ali has been followed in the present work. In cases where two spellings have been or are used, cross-references are made in the vocabulary.

The chief object of this book is to encourage and facilitate the study of the Portuguese language and literature by English-speaking people. It is not a little remarkable that the language has not been cultivated more by English and American scholars. For many corrections and valuable suggestions the author gratefully acknowledges his indebtedness to the able Brazilian historian, Capistrano de Abreu, and to the distinguished grammarian.

Professor Said Ali, who have kindly read the manuscript. For any errors, oversights, or other shortcomings of the work, however, these gentlemen are in no way responsible. Stanford University, California. Obras Completas, XXI, 7. Adjectives 43 Plural 43 Feminine 43 Comparison. Pronouns 56 Personals 56 Use of the third person 57 Reflexive 58 Duplication " 58 Syntax of the personal pronoun 59 Possessives 61 Demonstratives 63 Determinatives 64 Interrogatives 65 Relatives 66 Indefinite.

Verbs 69 Conjugations 69 Terminations of the regular verbs 70 Model verbs 72 Observations on the regular verbs 75 Auxiliary verbs 76 Conjugation of the auxiliary verbs 79 Irregular verbs 81 Reference list of irregular verbs 82 Variable participles of regular verbs 88 List of verbs having participles of two forms 89 Defective verbs 91 Subjects of verbs 91 Impersonal verbs 93 Prepositions required by verbs 94 Objects of verbs 96 Special uses of verbs 97 Periphrastic verb phrases 98 Reflexive verbs 99 Imperative and subjunctive The subjunctive and the indicative Personal infinitive VIII.

Only a few words of the former Celtic dialects spoken there were preserved in the later Portuguese. The sub- sequent Gothic invasion also introduced a few words of Germanic origin, while the religious life of the people led to the introduction of certain words of Greek origin. In the eighth century the Moors invaded the Span- ish peninsula, and for several hundred years occu- pied portions of that region. This long contact of the Moors with the inhabitants of Portugal naturally resulted in the introduction into the Portuguese language of a good many words of Semitic origin; most of these words have as a prefix the Arabian article al, such as algodao, cotton; alfinete, pin.

It was during the long Gothic and Arabian occupancy that the Latin spoken in western Spain appears to have gradually taken on the form of a distinct language that was spoken the whole length of the region now known as Portugal. Lisboa, It was only in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, however, that it became a literary language, and took on permanent form. A few words were introduced from the French and others from the Provengal, while translations from the Latin introduced many words and idioms from that language, partly, it is supposed, through the pedantry of the translators.

The Spanish language, on account of its literary vogue, and on account of the proximity of its people and the similarity of the two tongues, necessarily reacted upon the Portu- guese. This vogue was so marked that during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries many Portu- guese authors wrote in Spanish. The explorations of the Portuguese navigators into the newly dis- covered parts of the world led to the importation of some foreign words, and, at the same time, carried colonists and established the language in Asia, Africa, and South America.

It is said that of the living languages of Latin origin the Portuguese most closely resembles the Latin. In recent years, however, the increased facilities for international communication, the demands of commerce and the requirements of various enter- prises and technical industries, and the spread of interest in certain sports have caused the intro- duction of words from various foreign tongues.

In many cases the foreign words themselves have been adopted but in others the words have been more or less modified. The Portuguese alphabet is the same as the EngUsh except that it contains no w. Following are the Portuguese names of the letters together with their approximate pronunciations. It is called dobleu, very much as in English. The only exceptions to this rule are the nasal diph- thongs. The sounds of the vowels are characterized as lonQj short, open, close, and nasal.

Y is much used in Brazil in words of Tupy origin, as Ivahy, Apody. NASAL SOUNDS 7 is to be noted, however, that these combinations are pronounced, not as single sounds, but as if the letters were sounded separately yet with a slight abbrevia- tion from the full values of the separate vowels. The true diphthongs are known in Portuguese as the nasal diphthongs.

These are ae as in mae, ao as in mao, oe as in poe, ui as in muito. Muito, however, is a unique case. Nasal Sounds. These are indicated either by the nasal diphthongs or by the single vowels followed by m or n, as tao or tarn, bem, sim, bom, um. These words are pronounced as if they ended with an English ng in which the g is not heard. Tao is pro- nounced nearly as if written towng with the ng sound omitted or cut short.

Bem is pronounced as if written beng, but without the g being sounded; um as if written oong but omitting the g sound. All syllables ending in em, en, im, in, 5, om, on, um, and un have the nasal sound whether at the end of a word or followed by a consonant. The cedilla is used to soften the sound of c before a, o, and u: calgas pr. Except convicto, pacto, fricfao, convicgao.

When g would ordinarily precede e or i, u is added before those vowels in order to give or preserve the hard sound: entregar, to deliver, has entregue for the past participle, thus preserving the hard g sound. It has a value, however, in connection with c, 1, n, and p, which see. Ih is pronounced like Hi in million. In writing and print- ing these two letters belong to the syllable whose vowel follows and must be kept together. The sylla- bles of cordilheira are cor-di-lhei-ra ; of filha they are fi-lha.

Bern is pro- nounced as if spelled beng, but without the final g-sound; bemdito pr. In some words the m is apparently silent on account of the nasal sound: damno pr. In syllabication these two letters, when so pronounced, always belong with the vowel that follows them: lenha is divided le-nha. There are a few words, however, which are com- pounded of the prefix an or in, in which the nh is not so pronounced or written: such as anhydro, inhabil, inhalar, inhibir, inhumane. Except that the p is pronounced in captar, raptar, optar, repto, and mentecapto.

In exempgao also the p is silent pr. Qu varies somewhat: before a and o the u is sounded, as quando pr. Exceptions: the u is sounded in consequencia, frequente, equestre, antiquissimo. It is also allow- able to sound the u in questao. Except: that the single r is rolled after 1, m, n, s: honrar, tenro, genro, Henrique, melro, chilrar. It has the z-sound when it stands between vowels: rosa, casa pr. Except in cases of compound words where it has the s-sound. It has the soft s-sound in most other cases.

X has several sounds as follows: 1. It is hke ss or 5 in trouxe, anxiedade, sjmtaxe, defluxo. In certain parts of Portugal one hears many pronunciations that are purely dialectical. In Minho for example the people generally say binho instead of vinho, wine, and sordado instead of soldado, soldier. In Traz-os-Montes they say tchapeo for chapeo, hat, tchave for chave, key, djente for gente, folks; the caipiras or backwoodsmen of the state of Sao Paulo in Brazil have a similar pronunciation which was probably introduced from Portugal. In Portugal as a rule the quantity of the short syllables is perceptibly shorter than in Brazil.

Sobrado, perigo, and pessoa are so pronounced in full in the latter country, while in Portugal they are commonly pronounced s'brado, p'rigo, and p'ssoa. The d is pronounced in Brazil nearly as it is in the English language, but in Portugal it frequently has a strong resemblance to the English th in these, so that desde in Portugal sounds very like thezthy, and dedo, like daytho, the th being soft like that in though.

Some of them are not Portuguese but simply fan- tastic expressions; for the most part, however, they are the ordinary words of the language used in some figurative or special sense. For example, estar na bagagem literally means to he in the baggage, but it is a slang expression used in regard to a person who is hehindhand, or who is a slow coach. The cedilla is used with c to show that that letter has the soft c sound.

It is only used over a and 0. To show the position of the tonic accent, especially in homonyms where there is a chance of mistaking one word for another, as esta, this, and esta, it is; seria, seri- ous, and seria, would he. To indicate contractions: em relafao a for a a idea, with regard to the idea. In the sec- ond sentence the a is a contraction of the preposition a, by or with, and the article a, the. Tone accent is a matter of so much importance in Portuguese that it is often quite impossible to understand the spoken language when the accents are improperly placed.

Take as an illustration the word sabia : the accent may make it sabia, a learned woman, sabia, I knew or he knew, or sabia, the Brazilian robin. This kind of a case is not exceptional. Tn speaking the language, therefore, it is of the utmost importance that the accent be properly placed.

The tone accent always falls on one of the last three syllables. In these instances the addition of this enclitic does not change the position of the accent even when it falls on the syllable preceding the antepenult. Example: fala-se-lhes. The greatest number of words have it on the penult; fewest have it on the antepenult. The following suggestions may be found useful.

The following words take the accent on the final syllable: 1. Words ending in i, except dlcali, espermaceti, quasi; 1, except words of Latin origin ending in ilis, as docil, facil, habil, util, and those ending in vel: amavel, agradavel, crivel, nivel; im; r, except assucar, cadaver, cancer, caracter, ether, ju- nior, martyr, nectar, sulphur, and a few foreign words like reporter and revolver; u, except tnbu; y, except jury, tflbury; z. The following have the accent on the penult: 1. In these cases the accent does not fall on the final 5o except in the future amarao.

It is now the custom to end these words in am, reserving the ao, for the future which is accented according to the rule. ACCENT 15 following which take it on the antepenult: comedia, policia, encyclopedia, geodesia, estrategia, necromancia, pharma- cia. In- -into-a precinto-a greme -inte ouvinte -enfa nascenga -ique alambique -endo-a legenda -ira caipira -enho-a engenho -isco-a marisco -enso-a imprensa -ismo-a fatalismo -ense cearense -iso paraiso -ento-a alimenta -isto-a revista -ente presente -istro registro -erso-a conversa -ite limite, exc.

The following take the accent on the antepenult: 1. Masculine nouns from the Greek such as astr6nomo, geologo, philosopho. Absolute superlatives in -imo : illustrissimo, 6ptimo 3. There is a natural tendency in Portuguese to avoid placing the accent as far back as the antepenult; so much so that words thus accented are called esdruxulos, a word of Italian origin sdrucciolo, slippery which is used figu- ratively in Portuguese to mean odd, strange, extravagant.

The esdruxulos are few in number and are nearly all erudite forms. The tonic or accented vowels are always long; the atonic or unaccented ones are generally short: util, agradavel. In syllabication, a. Diphthongs cannot be separated. Monosyllables cannot be divided. The consonant combinations Ih, nh, rh, and ph can- not be separated from each other or from the following vowels with which they form syllables: ma-nha, ba-ta-lha, phi-lo-so-phi-a.

Compare bote, bode; mate, medo; faca, vaga. A consonant between vowels belongs with the second one: na-riz, bar-ba-ro. G and q followed by u remain with the vowel that follows: guin-das-te, qual-quer. Double consonants are separated: bel-lo, af-fli-cto. Mute letters, c in ch, t in th, g in gn, t in ct, t in pt, go with the following vowel : ar-chi-tec-tu-ra, pan-the-is-mo, si-gnal, fru-cto, ca-pti-vo, ex-em-pto.

In nasal syllables m and n generally belong with the preceding vowel: bem-di-to, man-so, dan-sar. But when m is followed by n both of these letters belong with the following vowel: so-mno, da-mno. Compound words are divided according to their elements: sub-stan-ti-vo. The rules for capitals are the same in general as in English; except that adjectives derived from proper names and eu, 7, are not written with capitals save for some other reason such as at the beginning of a sentence: francez, French; inglez, English, This rule is not invariable, however, and one sees the proper adjectives sometimes with the capital and sometimes without.

The use of the capital in such cases is regarded by some authors as more strictly the Portuguese custom. But capitals are not used when a person is referred to without the name, as o sr. Portuguese orthography is remarkably pho- netic, and after a little practise one can usually spell correctly words heard for the first time. The etymology of the words, however, is not lost sight of, though some writers adhere more closely to the etymology while others tend toward phonetic sim- plification. The only exceptions to the phonetic writing of vowel sounds are: 1. That unaccented o is generally pronounced like u short, as bonito pr.

Unaccented e is often pronounced like i short, as doce pr. The following will serve as examples of words spelled in different ways. For present purposes either spelling may be regarded as correct. These come chiefly from the equivalence of the diphthongs ou and oi. The following is a list of the most common syncretic forms.

Either form is allowable. List of Common Syncretic Forms afoute agoite whip-lash cousa coisa thing couro coiro leather doudo doido crazy dous dels two lousa- loisa paving slate mouta moita coppice noute noite night euro Giro gold thesouro thesoiro treasure vindouro vindoiro future c.

On the whole the tendency is toward the phonetic spelling, a tendency that has lately received much fresh impulse. These variations, however, are not to be regarded as license to spell words in any way. Por A. Gongalvez Viana. The definite article has gender and number to agree with its noun. Polo and pola are antiquated forms. It is used before certain proper geographical names, especially those of rivers, mountains, seas, etc. In Brazil this rule is not universally followed. The names of the states of Parahyba and Bahia are used with the feminine article, while the article is not generally used with the names of the states of Pernambuco, Alagoas, Sergipe, Sao Paulo, Santa Catharina, Minas Geraes, and Mato Grosso.

It is used familiarly before the names of persons: onde esta o Joao? It is used before pronouns and possessive adjec- tives: o meu chapeo, my hat; a tua vontade, thy will. In this case the article may be omitted in familiar style. It is also omitted in speaking of one's kin, as meu pai, my father, not o meu pai, unless emphasis is required, when it is used. It is inserted before nouns used in a general sense where in general, all, every may be understood : o ouro e mais precioso que a prata, gold is more precious than silver.

It is used before nouns of weight and measure: dois milreis o kilo, o metro, two milreis a kiloj a meter. It is used after verbs denoting possession: estou com as maos sujas, my hands are soiled; tern os olhos pretos, he or she has black eyes. It is used after todo in both numbers: todo o homem e mortal or todos os homens sao mortaes, all men are mortal. It is omitted before numerals used as titles: Carlos quinto, Charles the fifth. It is omitted with appositional nouns: e filho do Coronel, he is the son of the colonel. The indefinite article has gender and number to agree with its noun.

It also combines with de, of, forming dum, though this is generally written d'um. The old form of the indefinite article was hum, huma, etc. The indefinite article has a negative form nenhum, none, which still retains the h that one often sees in the old forms. Syntax of the Indefinite Article. The indefinite article is omitted: 1.

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After various indefinites, outro, tal, certo, tanto, semelhante, etc. After an exclamatory que: que bella noite, what a fine night. Portuguese nouns have no case forms; they distinguish in form only between singular and plural. The plural is formed by adding s to the singu- lar : amigo, friend, pi. To this rule there are the following exceptions : 1. Final m changes to n before the final s: homem, man, pi. Final ix and ex change to ice before the final s: index, pi.

Final r and z add e before the final s; mar, sea, pi. Final al, ol, and ul are changed to aes, oes, and ues : sal, salt, pi. Final el is changed to eis: papel, paper, pi. Mel, honey, becomes either meis or meles. Final il, when the word has the acute accent, is changed to is: barril, barrel, pi. When, however, the word has the grave accent the final il is changed to eis: docil, docile, pi.

Nouns ending in ao form the plural in thrive ways: 1. Most nouns ending in ao change ao to 5es: acgao, acfoes. A few add s to the singular: these are mao, irmao, pagao, orfao, orgao, sotao, temporao, vac. A few others change ao to aes: escrivao, notary, pi. These are allemao, cao, capellao, capitao, catalao, charlatao, deao, ermitao, escrivao, guardiao, pao, sacristao, tabelliao.

Nouns ending in s have the same form in the plural : o pires, os pires, the saucers; o caes, os caes, the quays. When the accent of a word ending in ao is grave, the plural is always in aos: orgao, organ, pi. Plurals Only. Such are algemas, fetters exequias, funeral rites alvigaras, rewards expensas, costs amiaes, annals ferias, holidays arredores, environs manes, shades calgas, trousers matinas, matins calendas, calends nonas, nones ceroulas, drawers nupcias, nuptials confins, confines trevas, darkness completas, comphn viveres, provisions Compound Words.

Compound words take the plural in both parts when they both represent functions belonging to the noun: surdo-mudo, deaf-mute, pi. As in English some nouns are plural but are used only in a singular sense: Montes Clares fica na planicie, Monies Claws is on the plain. Compound words united by de usually take the plural in the first part only : flor-de-lis, pi. Plural nouns that take the article, however, are used in the plural: os Alpes ficam na Suissa, the Alps are in Switzerland; os Estados Unidos fizeram guerra, the United States made war.

Varied Meanings. These correspond to similar changes that take place in the English language as illustrated by the words iron and ironSj liberty and liberties. Gender is grammatical, and all nouns are either masculine or feminine. There are no rules covering all cases, and there are many exceptions to those given below. Nouns denoting males and their offices and occupa- tions : o homem, the man; o cavallo, the horse; juiz, judge; pai, father. Nouns not implying sex distinction and ending in a a with acute accent sofa, tafeta, cha except a pd, shovel or spade.

Such forms are the imper- sonal definite pronouns isso, isto, aquillo, and tudo. The cardinal numerals also have no gender except um flma, dois duas, and those compounded of cento as duzentos-as, trezentos-as. This does not refer to the end- ing ao. The following, how- ever, are feminine: enxo, adz; mo, millstone; avo, grandmother; filho, cake; ilho, eyelet. Nouns ending in ote and ume are generally masculine.

Examples: dote, chicote, lume, costimie, betimie. Infinitive verbs are masculine when used as sub- stantives : o andar do cavallo, the gait of the horse. Masculine are the names of seas, rivers, lakes, and mountains, of the letters of the alphabet, of the numbers, the months, the points of the compass, and the notes in music. Nouns denoting females and their names and occu- pations: a vacca, the cow, mai, mother, costureira, seam- stress, rainha, queen.

There are, however, some words which have the same form for both genders, such as martyr, jovem, and tigre, which may be either masculine or feminine. When it becomes necessary in such cases to indicate sex, it is done by use of the word macho, male, or femea, female; o salmao macho, the male salmon, or a onfa femea, the female panther; o corvo macho, the male crow. Nouns not implying sex distinction ending in: a or a.

Except dia, day, mappa, map, and words from the Greek ending in ma : aroma, clima, climate, di- ploma, dogma, emblema, idioma, poema, thema, problema, symptoma, epigramma. Except pagem, page, and selvagem, savage, which may be of either gender. Common Terminations. I Fem. Augment atives, even though derived from feminine original. Examples: caixao caixa , portao porta mu- Iherao mulher.

Those in ao and not derived from words of the third declension of the Latin: corafao, grao, sabao, siphao, trovao. Words so ending derived from words of the third declension in the Latin: acfSo, constituifao, dicgao, execufao, feigao, instituifao, legiao, lentidao, mansidSo, multidao, opiniao, rebelliao, regiao, re- solufao, servidao, solidao, uniao. But pao from pants and sermao from sermo are both masculine. Nouns of opposite Sex. See Exercise IX, page They are a. Related when the feminine form is derived from the mascuUne either I.

There is also a tendency to change final or to eira, as trabalhador, trabalhadeira. By changing the terminal to inha, essa, eza, neza, ola: barao, baron baroneza, baroness conde, count condessa, countess gallo, cock gallinha, hen hespanhol, Spaniard hespanhola, Spanish woman principe, prince princeza, princess GENDER 35 h. Unrelated when not derived from the same word: boi, ox vacca, cow cavallo, horse egua, mare genre, son-in-law nora, daughter-in-law pal, father mai, mother d.

Identical when the same word may be of either gender : camarada m. Closely Similar Related Nouns. In each case these nouns contain the same funda- mental idea, but the sense of the feminine form is more general, while that of the masculine is more specific. Similar Unrelated Nouns.

There are still other words that are spelled precisely alike, but differ from each other in gender and in meaning. Following are some of these words: 1 Julio Ribeiro in his Grammatica Portugueza, page 84, says that the feminine form of several of these words indicates always an increase of volume or size.

Suffixes are extensively and effectively used to modify and extend the meaning of nouns and adjectives, and even of verbs. In these cases the meaning of the parent word is carried over in some modified form to the new word. It should be noted, however, that these suffixes do not have, as a rule, such exact meanings as do the prefixes. Most of the suffixes are directly from the Latin, while ista, isme, ite, and izar are from the Greek. Only the more important of them can be mentioned here.

It cor- responds in part to the English ending er as illustrated in the words bank, banker, but it has a wider application in Portuguese, as for example: pedra, stone, pedreira, stone quairy, pedreiro, quarryinan, and sometimes stone mason; sapato, shoe, sapateiro, shoemaker.

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The common names of many trees are similarly derived from the names of their fruits: pecego, peach, pecegueiro, peach-tree; coco, the coco- nut, coqueiro, the coco-palm. Many other suffixes are so nearly like forms in English that they will be recognized, such as those ending in ficar corresponding to the English fy: clarificar, to clarify, purificar, to purify, classificar, to classify; others ending in mente corresponding to the English ending ly, as grandemente, grandly, claramente, clearly, escuramente, darkly; and in ista corresponding to the English ist, as capitalista, a capitalist, dentista, socialista, etc.

Many words ending in orio correspond approximately to English words ending in ory: consistorio, repertorio. Many endings in ico correspond to the English ending ic, as artistico, symbolico; many in avel, evel, and ivel correspond to the English endings able and ible, as notavel, veneravel, indelevel, risivel, terrivel.

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The termination ivo often corresponds to the English ive, as instructive, executivo. The infinitives of verbs are often used as plural nouns: dizer, to say, os dizeres, the sayings; poder, to he able, os poderes, the powers. Augmentatives are formed by the addition of the suffixes ao, arao, aga, anha, az, azio, and ona as here illustrated. An additional augmentative effect is produced by giving a masculine ending to a feminine noun : mulherao, an enormous woman or an amazon. The augmentatives sometimes convey an idea of ridicule or irony. For example, ratao is used as a slang expression for a queer fellow.

Diminutives See Exercise XI, page A still further arbitrary diminutive effect is produced by a repetition or drawing out of the syllables of the usual diminutives, as pequenininho or pequeninozinho, very, very small. Another class of diminutives includes certain proper names. These, however, do not always imply smallness, but they are used as terms of endear- ment or compassion and as nicknames. The adjectives have gender, number, and degree of comparison. They agree in gender and number with their nouns; mulher sensata, a sensible woman, homens velhos, old men.

When mesmo and proprio are used in connection with a pronoun they must agree with the noun so repre- sented. Eu mesmo or eu mesma according as the speaker is mascuHne or feminine. When there is more than one noun, the adjective usually agrees with the last one : desejos e virtudes puras, pure aims and pure virtues. When the nouns have different numbers the adjec- tive is generally plural: os soldados e o seu chefe cheios de coragem, the soldiers and their leader, full of courage.

There may be a plural noun with singular adjectives expressing parts as, as grammaticas portugueza, franceza e ingleza. Adjectives form their plurals like nouns: bonito, handsome f. Adjectives with the masculine ending in o change that vowel to a : belle, fine, f. Adjectives ending in ao either drop the o: as sao, f. Adjectives ending in r except particular, singular, and comparatives which are unchanged add a: encanta- dor, charming, f.

Proper adjectives ending in z and 1 add a: francez, f. Those ending in eu change to ea ; hebreu, f. Those ending in u add a : cru, f. Other adjectives have the same form in both genders: facil, m. The following, however, are irregular:. The relative superlative is formed by placing the definite article before the comparative form: o mais escuro, the darkest. The absolute superlative is derived directly from the Latin and has the termination imo.

The precise formation varies according to the termination of the positive from which it is de- rived : I. When the positive ends in al, 11, r, or u, add issimo : natural, naturalissimo ; habil, habilissimo ; singular, singularissimo ; cru, cruissimo. When the positive ends in vel, that ending be- comes bilissimo: notavel, notabilissimo. When the positive ends in om or um, the m is changed to n before the final issimo: bom, bonissimo; commum, communissimo. When the positive ends in ao, that termination becomes anissimo; sao, sanissimo; but christao, chris- tianissimo.

When the positive ends in az, iz, oz, the final z is changed to c before the issimo: audaz, audacissimo; feliz, felicissimo; veloz, velocissimo. When the positive ends in e or o these termina- tions change to issimo: excellente, excellentissimo ; alto, altissimo. Positives ending in co and go change those letters to qu and gu before issimo in order to retain the hard sounds: rico, riquissimo; vago, vaguissimo. In colloquial Portuguese certain superlative forms are used to strengthen an expression or statement, as mesmissima cousa, precisely the same thing.

One even hears such expressions as coisissima ne- nhuma, not the slightest thing, though, strictly speaking, a noun does not admit of such comparison. The absolute superlative may also be expressed by the use of various adverbs, mui or muito, very, bastante, quite, or summamente, exceedingly. The relative superlative takes de, of: o mais valente de todos, the bravest of all. Comparatives of superiority or inferiority take que, de que and do que, than: mais belle do que a rosa, more beautiful than the rose.

The forms maior, greater, menor, smaller, peior, worse, melhor, better, are followed by que; maior que a serra, bigger than the mountain; but the forms superior, inferior, interior, and exterior take a, to, instead of que : elle e inferior a seu irmao, he is inferior to his brother. Several irregular adjectives derive parative and their absolute superlative rectly from the Latin, but the relative is formed in the usual way by placing o, the comparative. The adjectives, like the nouns, are often used as terms of endearment.

In general the noun precedes the adjective: homem trabalhador, a working man.. This order may be inverted: mau signal or signal mau, a had sign. This inversion, however, is not arbitrary, but is determined by emphasis, the rule for which cannot be fully stated but must be acquired by observation, and practise. In general the adjective precedes when it denotes a quality which necessarily belongs to the noun, and when the adjective and noun might almost be regarded as a compound word. The adjective follows when it denotes ja qual- ity to which especial attention is directed; but when the attention is to be directed to the noun, and the adjective is of minor importance, the adjective precedes the noun.

In the cases cited the expressions are readily trans- latable, but in many instances the distinctions do not admit of such brief definitions. In the following cases the English translation given is inadequate and explana- tions are required that cannot be given briefly: altos ceos and ceos altos, high heavens; santos padres and padres santos, holy fathers; primeira causa and causa primeira, first cause; longos dias and dias longos, long days.

In certain cases inversions are not allowed. In the following instances, for example, the words must be in the order given as if they were compounds: Deus padre, God the father; estrella fixa, a fixed star; mac direita, the right hand; deputado federal, federal deputy congressman ; Illustrissimo Senhor, Most illustrious Mr. The words pouco, little, and muito, manyy much, when used as adjectives usually precede their nouns: poucas cousas, a few things; ha poucos dias, a few days ago; muito barulho, much noise.

The adjectives hungry , thirsty , sleepy, and coldj are expressed by the use of estar com and the nouns meaning hunger , etc. The cardinal numbers have the same form for both genders except in the cases of um, uma, one; dois, duas, two, and those ending in centos or centas. The cardinal numbers are often used in place of the ordinals, especially to denote the days of the month except primeiro, the first, as: hoje e sete, to- day is the seventh; pagina vinte, page twenty; seculo dezoito for decimo oitavo seculo, the eighteenth century.

Except when used in place of the ordinals the cardinals always precede the noim: ha vinte dias, twenty days ago. The ordinal numbers are variously derived: 1. By the use of the suffix eiro : primeiro, first, terceiro, third. From the Latin forms: segundo, second, sexto, sixth. The ordinals have gender and number like other adjectives. The ordinals are used either as nouns or as adjec- tives: um sexto, a sixth, or uma sexta parte, a sixth part. Um segundo, however, is not used for a half, nor imi terceiro, for a third, when fractions are meant.

In the reading of fractions above tenths the suffix avo derived from the term oitavo is used to express the divisor. These expressions are also used: dois tantos, twice as many; tres tantos, three times as many; outros tantos, as many more. Que horas sao, what time is it? Sao tres e um quarto, it is quarter past three. E uma hora, it is one o'clock. Faltam vinte para tres colloq.

A quantos estamos hoje do mez? Quantas leguas sao d'aqui a cidade? Sao duas, it is two. Que idade tern o senhor? Tenho vinte e tantos annos, I am twenty odd years old. Ha vinte annos, twenty years ago, also these twenty years. Ha cousa de vinte annos, some about twenty years ago.

Ha duas horas, two hours ago, and these two hours. D'aqui a quinze dias, a fortnight hence. There are the usual three personal pronouns, but in Portuguese the third person is generally used in place of the second in direct address, with the exceptions noted below. Strictly speaking there is no declension in Portuguese; the personal pro- nouns, however, retain, in all persons, so many traces of their Latin declensions that they have the appearance of being declined, and are so given by some grammarians.

The objective forms vary ac- cording as they are used with or without prepositions. Lhe, Ihes, to him, to her, to it, to them are always indirect or dative forms. O, a, lo, la, os, as, los, and las are always direct objective or accusative forms. Those used with prepositions admit of any preposi- tion, except that when the preposition is com, mth, the forms migo, tigo, nosco, vosco, and sigo only are used, as commigo, with me, comtigo, with thee, etc.

EUe, ella, etc. Use of the Third Person. Your mercy, your grace. Voce, a common abbreviation of Vossa merce, but one to be used only in cases of extreme familiarity, or as Senhor, Mr. Until one becomes familiar with the use of these terms the safest rule is to use Senhor and Senhora. A Brazilian scholar observes : " assim o pobre o vai perdendo terreno. The same is true of tu, thou, elle, he, ella, she, nos, we. Para ti sonhava eu sonhos de gloria, for thee I dreamed dreams of glory.

Vos, you, is only used in very formal discourses, and as a vocative in prayers, etc. It is not used collo- quially as in English. Tu, thou, is also used as a vocative. Reflexive Personal Pronouns By its use attention is redirected to an idea. Que me importa a mim a gloria? In what does glory concern mef or what is glory to me? Aconteceu-mea mim, it happened to me.

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Syntax of the Personal Pronouns. Indirect: elle me deu o livro, he gave me the book. The same thing occurs with the other pro- nouns, except that in the third person the indirect object is expressed by Ihe, while the direct is o, a, OS, and as. Direct : reprehendeu-o, he reprehended him. This is due in part, at least, to the somewhat different usages in Portugal and Brazil. They precede the verb are procHtic : 1. In negative sentences: nao me fale; nao o creio. In phrases depending upon que, o qual, quern, cujo : quern o chamou ; a mulher que se ama.

In certain popular expressions : Deus me livre ; o diabo te leve. When used with the conjunctions que, porque, and pels que, the rule has many exceptions. They always follow the verb are enclitic at the beginning of a phrase : resta-me agradecer-lhe ; diga-me ; faf a-me o favor. In the mescoclitics and encUtics the pronoun is separated from the verb by a hyphen or hyphens. The enclitics do not affect the position of the ac- cents of the verbs. When two pronouns come before a verb, the subject precedes: mandou que tu Ihe entregasses o livro, he directed that you should give him the book, Se and si refer to the subject: Pedro falou de si, Pedro spoke of himself.

Voce quer tudo para si, you want everything for yourself. Leve a espingarda comsigo, take the gun with you. The possessive pronouns are inflected Hke adjectives and agree in gender and number with the object possessed. They all take a in the feminine and s in the plural. Inasmuch as the third person is used in direct address, seu, sua, seus, and suas are generally used in place of vosso, etc. The place of the possessive is before the noun as in English: meu cavallo, my horse. In certain cases the possessive placed after the noun is equivalent to the personal pronoun with de: noticias tuas de ti , news of about you.

Im- portant distinctions of this kind are illustrated by the example: saudades tuas means saudades for you, while tuas saudades means the saudades you have for some one else. Possessives are not used with parts of the body as in English: cortou-me o brago, he cut my arm, is used instead of cortou meu brafo. At the same time the bold use of the possessive is occasionally emphatic: estou na minha casa, I am in my own house; deixa-me com a minha dor, leave me with my grief. The possessive seu, sua, seus, suas, his, her or your, is used also idiomatically and colloquially to express uncertain value or quantity: tem seus vinte annos, he or she is about twenty years old.

For the. The demonstrative pronouns may be used either with or without their nouns. When used with them they precede the nouns, agreeing with them in gender and number. IBH este esta estes estas this esse essa esses essas j "these aquelle aquella aquelles aquellas that, those Isso, isto, and aquillo are neutral forms of the demonstratives used to refer to a preceding idea, expression, or subject, and may be regarded as equivalents of essa cousa or essas cousas, esta cousa, aquella cousa.

They have neither feminine nor plural forms, nor are they used to refer to persons or animals. The difference between este and esse in their various forms is that the first is used to refer to that which is near the speaker, while the second refers to that which is near the person addressed.

Portuguese dictionary: Words & Meanings in English

The forms o, a, os, as, are identical with the definite articles in forms, sounds, and origins. They are used as the equivalents of aquelle, aquella, aquelles, aquellas when followed by a determining expression: a provincia de Minho e a que tern mais vegetacao entre as de Portugal. When these forms are preceded by the prepo- sition a they combine with it forming ao, aos, a, and as as do the definite articles. Preceded by em they similarly form no, na, nos, nas, and preceded by per they form pelo, pela, pelos, and pelas. The demonstrative pronouns este, esse, aquelle, etc.

Um e outro literally one and other , means both. Mesmo means same and self as here illus- trated: a mesma cousa, the same thing; o mesmo homem, the same man. It is also used in such expressions as e mesmo, that is true, it is just so. Mesmissimo is an augmentative form of mesmo meaning precisely or exactly the same; e a mesmissima cousa, it is precisely the same thing.

Um tal means such a one. Que tal? Tal qual means just so. E tal qual, it is just so, it is just as you say; nao ha tal, it is not true, it is no such thing; nao ha tal lugar, there is no such place. Fulano de tal is a name used for any fictitious person; it is often equivalent to the English John Doe or to Mr.

Fuao, Beltrano, and Sicrano are similarly used. The interrogatives are : que? It is not considered elegant nowadays to begin an Interrogation with o que. Que tern? Not que tem? Of the relative pronouns quern refers to per- sons only; the other forms refer to either persons or things. O que, o qual, a qual, os quaes, and as quaes, literally, the which, mean what or that.

These latter forms are used when the antecedent needs to be made clear or prominent. A gloria de Deus a qual nao se pode escurecer, the glory of God which cannot, etc. O livro que esta lendo, the hook you are reading; but livro da bibliotheca o qual esta lendo, the hook of the lihrary the which you are reading. Where quern would follow sem, o qual is used instead for the sake of euphony: sem o qual nao deve, without which you should not.

Cujo is equivalent to do qual, and is followed immediately by the object possessed: O soldado cujo cavallo foi morto, the soldier whose horse was killed. Cujo without antecedent and the object possessed is a classic but archaic form of expression: cujo e esta casa? Instead one would now say: de quern e esta casa? Literally, of whom is this house? The indefinite pronouns may be classified as nouns or adjectives. The nouns are: al invariable , something else, the rest. Algo when used as a pronoun refers to things and means alguma cousa.

It is sometimes used as an adverb meaning algum tanto : elle esta algo doente, he is some- what ill. Tudo is a neutral form of todo. When followed by que it requires the definite article: tudo o que elle disse. Nenhum may be used with an affirmative sense, and is equivalent to qualquer in the expression mais que nenhum, more than any one.

A negative is strengthened by doubling the nega- tion: nao sei nada, I know nothing; nao diz nada, he says nothing. Fago tanto quanto qualquer outre, I do as much as any one else. Quanto pagou? Quantas vezes foi la? Quanto antes, as soon as possible. Todo with the article means the whole; without the article it means every; toda cidade, every city; toda a cidade, all of the city.

It is sometimes used as an adverb but retains its gender for the sake of euphony: ella esta toda molhada. Em quanto means while. Espera em quanto eu tiro uma vista, wait while I take a view. Cada qual and cada um have approximately the same meaning. Cada qual stands next to the verb, how- ever, cada um does not: cada um dos soldados andava or cada qual andava, each of the soldiers walked.

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When a proposition has a negative sense either algum may be placed after, or nenhum before the noun: homem algum podera saber i. VERBS 69 Certain idiomatic expressions have meanings analogous to those of the indefinite pronouns: seja quern f or , ,. The expression nao ha de que used in reply to obrigado, muito obrigado, etc.

VERBS The Portuguese verbs are either transitive or intransitive, reflexive, or impersonal. They have voice, mood, tense, number, and person. The verbs have three conjugations which are distinguished by the endings of the infinitives. Regular and Irregular Verbs. The following are the terminations of all the forms of the regular verbs.

These are to be added to the roots of the verbs, except in the cases of the future and conditional of the indicative where the infinitive is used as the root. When it is used in place of the imperative it is translated as a command or request. Formerly the third person plural of the in- dicative present of the first conjugation ended in ao; now it is written am; only the future indicative retains the ao ending except in short words where the ao is the predominant sound as sao, dao, hao.

The following changes a. Verbs ending in a. In the third conjugation verbs that have u in the final syllables change it to in the present: consume, 3d per. The principal auxiliary verbs are ter, to hdve, and haver, ser, and estar, to he. These verbs, however, are not used exclusively as auxiliaries, while other verbs are often used as such, especially andar and ir, to go, and vir, to come. In such uses of these verbs, ter shows that the thing is done by necessity, as temos de morrer, we must die; while haver is used to indicate that it will be done with certainty, or the resolution to do it.

These particular auxiliaries are often used in place of the regular future forms of the verbs: hei-de ir for irei, ha-de ir for ira, etc. The hyphen is not always used before the de ; it may be written ha de ir. In the use of haver with the preposition de the latter is joined to the verb form: hei-de escrever; hao-de dizer. In general ter is used more than haver. When andar is used as an auxiliary it is either followed by the present participle of another verb or by a and the infinitive, and conveys the idea that the subject of the first verb constantly practises the action implied by the second : Jose anda vadiando or Jose anda a vadiar means that Jose is idling constantly.

Haver is generally defined as meaning to have, but in the third person it is more nearly equivalent to the verb to be. It is used as an auxiliary, but only in the passive voice: a terra e cultivada, the land is cultivated. Estar is sometimes used to indicate nearness in point of time where ser indicates remoteness, as elle esta morto means he has just died, whereas elle e morto implies that he died long ago. Sometimes either ser or estar can be used with equal propriety as: e claro que or esta claro que, it is evident that The verb estar followed by the preposition a or para and an infinitive means that the action of the second verb is to take place shortly: Carlos esta para casar, Charles is on the point of marrying; o vapor esta a partir, the steamer is ahout to start.

Estar a indicates an act in process at the time of the remark : ha mais de meia hora esta aquelle menino a chorar, for more than half an hour that hoy has heen crying. The English auxiliary do has no equivalent in Portuguese. It is called a mixed verb on account of its being made up of different verbs: sou, somos Lat.

Jui serei, seria, seja Lat. Past Part. Some of the irregular verbs are so nearly regular that they are omitted from the following reference list of the verbs most commonly regarded as irregular. Such are verbs ending in ahir and air. These follow the succeeding models in the Present Indicative and Subjunctive but are otherwise regular.

Verbs ending in uzir take uz instead of uze in the third person of the present indicative: produzir, to pro- duce, produz; reluzir, to shine, reluz. Crer, to believe. Dizer, to say. Estar, to be, see page Fazer, to do, to make Lat. Past Part, feito. Haver, see page Jazer, to lie, to repose. Ler, to read. Perder, to lose. Poder, to be able. The Imperative of this verb is wanting. Per, to put, to place.

Part, pondo. Part, posto. Similarly are conjugated the compounds antepor, oppdr, compor, contrapor, dispdr, imp6r, etc. Prazer, to please Impersonal. Querer, to wish. This verb has no Imperative form and the Subjunctive is used in its stead. Requerer, to request. Saber, to knoiv. Ser, to be. See page Ter, to have.

The following compounds of ter are similarly conjugated : abster, ater, center, deter, entreter, manter, obter, reter, and suster. Trazer, to bring. Valer, to be worth. Ver, to see Lat. Similarly conjugated are the compoundes antever, entrever, pre ver and re ver. See Pedir below. Frigir, to fry. Medir, to measure. Ouvir, to hear. Pedir, to ask. The compounds despedir and impedir are conjugated in the same way. Rir, to laugh. Past Part, vindo. In the same way are conjugated the compounds: advir, avir-se, contravir, convir, desavir, intervir, sobrevir. These participles are not always interchangeable, however, as will be seen from the following examples: Naquelle tempo ja meu irmao era morto, at that time my brother was already dead.

Naquelle tempo ja meu irmao tinha morrido, at that time my brother had already died. Muitos povos eram sujeitos a Roma, many people were subject to Rome. Roma tinha sujeitado muitos povos, Rome had sub- jected many people. It should be observed that one form is regular and the other irregular or rather contracted. In addition to those already mentioned in the list of irregular verbs, the following verbs are defective : advir colorir descommedir-se emollir empedemir extorquir fallir florir renhir retorquir II. In the main verbs agree with their subjects in number and person as they do in English, but such a general rule is not always applicable in Por- tuguese.

The following rules cover the most im- portant cases in which there is a departure from English usage. In case of compound subjects the verb may be plural as in English, as o sol e a lua sac brilhantes; but in certain cases it is singular, as follows: h. It is singular when a gradation is emphasized: luna palavra, um gesto, um olhar bastava. It is singular when an enumeration ends with tudo, nada, nenhum, ninguem or cada um. O euro, os dia- mantes, e as perolas tudo e terra e da terra. Quando eles ofereceram estas coisas, o rio os seguiu no caminho de casa.

Certa vez, pessoas ignorantes mataram alguns. Mas os galos ressuscitavam sempre. Desde que o prato estivesse pronto, Os galos saltavam da tigela, Batiam novamente suas asas — Puf! E o curso de ambos tornou-se um mesmo. Juntos, eles correm para a lagoa. Ele viveria no alto, percorreria o mundo sem parar.

Soma-se, a isto, a ideia de querer atribuir aos povos negros costumes e pensamentos que pertencem a outras culturas. A pessoa ficava quieta, se afastava e ele continuava sozinho retirando as pedras, chorando e gritando:. Estamos presos entre duas pilastras.

O filho se lembrou da promessa do pai. Elas costuram casais de bonecos Alguns elas amarram juntos Outros elas separam. Elas continuam a andar Bamboleando os quadris. Na maioria das vezes elas Tem cheiro de perfume Mas em outros momentos cheiram A bebida, a rosas, a velas, a morte. E quando a missa acaba Escolhem um ou dois E destes fazem capacho. A mais velha tem quatrocentos anos As mais novas trezentos cada E cada ano que passa elas ficam maiores. Maria Padilha, soberba esculpida em ouro. Maria Mulambo, o desprezo bordado em fio de seda. As Marias gargalham e dizem:.

Espero que tenham gostado Quem quiser encomendar desenhos Pode me chamar no whatsapp Obrigado! Yeye Otin Filha de um homem rico de Otan Ela nasceu para ser como uma princesa Para viver no luxo Mas escolheu ser guerreira. Mas guerreiras tem estar na guerra E a guerra chegou para ela. Ela decidiu se juntar a Oluku e Oke-Agbona Para defender a cidade.

Foram muitas batalhas Mas o trio conseguiu afastar os inimigos E fazer da cidade um lugar de paz. Ele a amava. Foi um amor a primeira vista. Ogun era velho, Sango era jovem. Rapidamente sem nem pestanejar Ogun empunhou a espada Montou em seu cavalo E saiu a perseguir os dois. Mas Ogun disse a ela que so queria Que ela voltasse para casa. Mas nem isso a prenderia mais. Ela era uma linda princesa, que nasceu com quatro seios. Quando ela cresceu, seu nobre pai continuou a recusar todos os pretendentes dela, temendo o constrangimento que poderia acontecer quando a anomalia da menina fosse descoberta.

Eles viveram felizes por algum tempo. No mesmo instante o homem chegara em casa e a viu manipulando suas ervas medicinais. Enfurecido, ele a despiu e viu seus quatro seios. Tombam um reino sem que o Rei perceba. Ah e a beleza? Observe como elas andam, como falam, e principalmente Observe os olhar dessas feiticeiras.

O olhos delas correm em grande velocidade. Osun era guerreira vestida de dondoca. Coroadas Rainhas de si mesmas. Belas filhas de Osun