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Middle Ages an introductory curriculum at a medieval university involving grammar and logic and rhetoric; considered to be a triple way to eloquence. Middle Ages a higher division of the curriculum in a medieval university involving arithmetic and music and geometry and astronomy. Word Family. I for one learned some great tips. And the food was delicious!
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Start now. Learn more. Specific needs in French Prepare your naturalization interview. Merci beaucoup pour la visite ce matin. Thank you so much for the tour this morning. It was extremely interesting, informative and enjoyable. I learned so much about the town, how do you find out about the history? Do let me know how to promote your tours and events for my visitors. Belgium, July Nicola B. Pauline G. GB, Oct Highly recommended Pastry workshops! Glynis H.
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The others were raised to that level on Aug. Subsidization takes several forms. For example, a journalist in France phones, cables, or telexes his story at half the ordinary rate, and newspapers are mailed to subscribers for only a fraction of the cost for other material of the same weight. If a reporter has to travel anywhere in France on a story, he pays half fare on French railways. Sometimes the subsidy is direct.
The state also subsidizes overseas sales of French newspapers. It does not require publishers to pay a purchase tax, and it exempts them from the corporation tax on profits if the money is reinvested within five years. In spite of all this help, the French press is in a chronic state of crisis. Well-organized, intransigent unions impede modernization, and the practices of some managements are equally obsolete. Other difficulties are the uncertainties of transportation, the fact that advertising is hard to get, and the fact that production costs are higher in France than in any other European country.
Publishers cannot relieve their situation by buying television stations; the law forbids them to own any.
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Efforts to solve these problems have caused mergers and the disappearance of papers in Paris, while the provincial press has become more healthy. Its health, however, is partly the result of mergers and of advertisement agreements. The French press comprises about 15, titles newspapers and magazines together , with a total circulation per issue of about million.
Its approximately daily newspapers print about 12 million copies a day, a figure that has not fluctuated significantly since the mids. In Paris, there are 11 French-language papers of general interest, 7 of them technically morning and 4 evening.
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The others are specialized journals — 2 are devoted to horseracing, 2 are economic and financial publications, and 1 is a sporting paper. The combined print order of these papers approaches 5 million, but the actual sales are nearer 4 million. Between and , about dailies disappeared in France, but gains have exceeded these losses because of the growth of weeklies and of the provincial press in general, which accounts for more than half of the daily circulation.
France-Soir is the circulation leader, with 1. It prints six daily editions around the clock, and its circulation is the highest in France — , in the Paris region, , elsewhere. Le Monde is a serious quality paper, the most influential in France, read everywhere in Europe and considered one of the three or four "best" newspapers in the world.
Its circulation is about , The Paris press publishes more than 60 nondaily newspapers of general interest and over 8, periodicals, printing about million copies. Foreign-language newspapers and periodicals appear in 19 languages, nearly all of them published in Paris, including the International Herald Tribune now owned jointly by the former owners of the New York Herald Tribune and by the New York Times and the Washington Post.
Of the other Parisian papers, the most noteworthy is Le Figaro, traditional organ of the conservative and liberal middle classes, with a circulation of , and a distinguished past. These are regional papers; the Rennes paper has nearly 50 different editions. Of the 95 dailies in the provinces, almost all are morning papers. It is not easy to separate the periodical field from the newspaper business in France because there are so many interlocking ownerships and because the line between some weekly newspapers and some of the magazines is not clear-cut.