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The various effects of one colour used over another or even of some four or five differ ent tones used together to produce one colour will he discussed later, under the heading "Chiffon shades. Therefore choose the colour with exceeding care. For the blue room, the before-mentioned rose and cherry colour are good and the effect of a golden yellow shade is a little less hackneyed and very beautiful.

Yellow always gives a cheerful light and is one of the safest colours to use, particularly in a room that has an abun dance of green. For the yellow room rich cream colour and coppery shades are harmonious and pleasing. A word of warning in regard to the use of yellow for shades, may not be amiss here.

Yellow with a greenish hue is not satis factory as it is quite apt to be pallid and colour less when lighted ; this can be somewhat obviated by the use of coloured bulbs but on the whole it is simpler to choose a yellow that inclines to the warm tones of orange or red, which does not necessarily absorb more light, but does give a richer note of colour. Besides considering the effect in general of light on certain colours, it is well to remember that different colours absorb varying amounts of light and if the lamp is to be one for use as well as ornament, this aspect of the matter is serious.

A grey shade for instance, may be lovely in a room of soft grey and rose, but unless the light is particularly strong there will be very little illumination left, by the time the rays have pierced such an absorbing colour. In choosing fabrics and materials there practically no limit to the latitude that can be allowed. Where the light is for decoration rather than utility, an almost opaque shade can be used, but when the light from the lamp is needed for the comfortable reading of the even ing paper, it is just as well to keep the idea of transparency well in mind.

Of course the per son sitting immediately under the lamp will not complain if the shade is opaque, but the rest of us who are darning our best silk hose a few feet away will have cause in plenty to grumble. China silk is a very favourite and practical fabric for a utilitarian shade, but even a good quality China silk is often too thin unless it is well shirred or has a fairly heavy lining. Trimmings and stitch-cov ering braids can be made of the same silk as the body of the shade, if preferred.

The making of these self-edgings will be described elsewhere. The next most popular shade is that made of paper. Not the old-fashioned paper shade that some of us remember in "aunt's best parlour" which seemed chiefly designed to give straying particles of dust a peaceful resting place, but paper shades that look as if they were made of anything in the world but paper. Parchment and vellum are inaccessible to most people, but parchment paper can be substi tuted and camouflaged so that none but the maker of the shade will ever realize the decep tion.

The treatment of papers of all sorts, to give a variety of effects, will be given in detail hereafter, as well as the use of paper twisted and treated until it looks like some jungle fibre ; this can be woven into shade frames that look for all the world as if they had been imported from the Orient. Thin velour, perhaps dyed and toned to have an antique appearance, is rich and lovely where mellow tones are all that are required from the lamp. Metal cloth, lace, Chinese em-, broidery are all very much in favour for making decorative shades.

More individual and need ing a little more apparatus and specialized skill are the lampshades made of wood, metal, mica, card-board, tooled leather, straw, beads, palm leaves or glass. The ornamentation of lampshades almost i -L i i. In the first place, rather use too little decoration than too much. It is much safer to err on the side of severity than run the risk of having the shade look like the up-set contents of a lingerie shop.

In the majority of cases, happier results are ob tained by having the decoration in the fabric itself, rather than obviously arranged and bring ing to mind the horse dressed up for the county fair. Colour and form studied sincerely and simply will be found to be the most satisfying in the long run, and a lampshade designed with these essentials in mind will prove the most pleasing to live with. Many of the foregoing suggestions are appli cable to the making of candle shades, and many people will prefer to try their hands at a sim ple candle shade or two before attempting the more ambitious work of making a lampshade.

Needless to say, the colour of the base should be in harmony or direct contrast with the room decorations. A lamp standard should be well weighted at the bottom, as otherwise, spreading feet are the only thing that will help it maintain its equilib rium, if it is carelessly knocked against; and spreading feet have a peril all their own for the unwary passerby who is likely to get all tangled up in them.

And while on the subject of being tangled up, beware of the ensnaring electric light cord, which in many a house is allowed to stray over the floor at its own sweet will, usually in just the place where it will trip the unobserv ant guest. These shade holders can "be bought in almost any department store; they fasten ronnd the candle with a spring clip, which holds in place a rod with a circular wire at the top.

The shade is dropped over this ring and supported at a sufficient distance from the candle flame to prevent scorching. In the case of very small shades however, especially if the shape has very little flare, it is safest to use a mica lining, as an impromptu fire at a dinner party adds a little too much to the excitement. These mica linings come in standard sizes and are obtainable at most city department stores. The seam is made, by over-lapping the ends and joining them, either with glue or patent fasteners, snch as split pins.

Figure 1 Figure 1 shows the segment of a circle that can be used for a pattern for this type of shade. The flare of the shade depends upon the size of the segment cut from the circle. The proportion shown in the diagram gives a good spread; it is a little more than half and a little less than three quarters of the circle.

Figure 2 ghows made shade. Figure 3 shows a four sided shade, cut in one piece ; this can also be joined with clips or if an invisible seam is preferred a good mucilage or paste may be used. By the way, few people realize the wonderful sticking qualities of what is known as "paper hanger's paste. When cutting the original pattern, it is perhaps easiest to fold the paper in four and draw a diagram of the shape In pencil, allowing an extra half inch at one end to form the overlapping piece for the seam.

This same four sided shade can be made in four separate pieces if preferred, and the pieces fastened together with strips of pas-partout linen tape on the inner side, or card-board strips may be pasted inside to hold the edges together. The pas-partout tape can also be used on the outside and painted in accordance with the decoration of the shade. These shades can be made of a variety of materials. The chief requirement that must be kept in mind, is that the material used should be fairly stiff; if it is at all flimsy, the shade loses its freshness before it is completed.

It should also not be too opaque,' as it must be re membered that candle light is not so very pow erful. Parchment paper is very good to use, and can be decorated in any number of ways. It takes colour satisfactorily, and, if the craftsman is anything of an artist as well, designs may be painted on with water colour. If this sounds a little ambitious, those who cannot draw, can find a ready help in transfer patterns, such as are used for stamping linen for embroidery. It is then an easy matter to 11 in the design thus outlined, with pleasing colours.

Another suggestion is to use good quality drawing paper. This can be made translucent with a coating of sweet oil and can be tinted any desired shade with a thin solution of oil paint, in which there is a large proportion of turpen tine. The decoration of this should be done in oil colours, free-hand. In using oil paint it is sometimes hard to get a fine line with even the finest of regulation oil brushes; it will be found much easier if camel's-hair brushes such as are used for water colour are tried.

Flowers and forms can be cut from cretonne or figured silk, but be sure to choose a translucent fabric, or the light will be obscured when the design is pasted on. These silhouettes can be made by the unskilled craftsman, by searching through a magazine or two and finding some form that has a distinct outline and using this as a pattern by which to cut the motif. The chosen design should be cut out carefully and pinned to thin paper, which has been folded to make four thicknesses. Cut round the edge of the pattern and there will be four silhouettes ready to be pasted on the four sides of the shade.

The seedman's catalogue will be found to have many suitable foundations for cut-outs. Another good candle-shade material is heavy wall-paper; this, if it has enough substance to it, will be found one of the easiest things to use and an effective shade can be made very quickly. No ornamentation is needed, unless it is a nar row band painted round the upper and lower rim, to give a finish and hold the design together.

Small floral patterns are very charming for bedroom candle shades and many interesting ex periments can be tried with very little cost. The circular shape is best for this type of shade. A considerably more difficult shade to make is illustrated in Figure 4. This is extremely ef fective when made from linen canvas, or window shade material, which comes in many very lovely colours. A circle ten inches in diameter makes a very good size for the shade, although of course details of this sort are matters of in dividual taste.

Having cut the material, cut from the centre a smaller circle, about two inches across; the opening thus formed becomes the top of the completed shade. After pleating, place the shade on the table with the pleats momentarily extended and flat, and sew millinery wire to the two edges these will form the upper and lower rim when completed. Flat tape wire is the easiest to handle, but if this is not available the round silk covered wire will do very well.

The securely fastened wire is then bent to conform with the pleats and a partially closed Japanese umbrella effect is obtained and really is extremely effec tive. Mica, that has been previously suggested as a lining, can be used in itself for shades. For this purpose it must be a fairly heavy weight or it will not stand the handling necessary to make it. The tinting of mica takes a little practice in order to achieve satisfactory results. Oil paint thinned considerably with turpentine, is the best medium for colouring mica and thin oil paint should be used when executing the decoration.

These mica shades take more than a little skill, espe cially if one wishes to produce a good one-piece OAED-BOARD figure 5 shade; it is really more practical when used in conjunction with card-board.

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There is quite a little to be said about the use of card-board for candle shades, and it is used in the making of the more elaborate ones rather than for one-piece shades, A razor blade makes a? If an amateurish appearance is to be avoided.

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Using the same shape as one side of Figure 3, cut four pieces of cardboard and from the centre of each, cut a piece the same shape only smaller by about half an inch. This will give a frame Fig. In this frame all manner of materials can be in serted. Anyone with originality will be able to think up various alternatives and make fascinat ing experiments. Possibilities will be seen for inserting cretonne, silk, shirred chiffon or lay ers of chiffon, wall paper, mica, in fact any of the materials mentioned for the making of shades and many more besides.

Imagination and courage to try out ideas are requisite for the producing of shades that are "different. This type of card-board shade is also better cut in separate pieces, and fastened with strips on the inner side. The frame shape just described for produc tion in card-board, can be used as a pattern for tin or other metal.

Tin frames can be painted with oil paint that has been thickened with dryer. The edges of the frame can be per forated, and various fabrics and materials can be held in place in the opening , by sewing through the perforations, using tinsel thread, thus making the stitching part of the decoration. The sides of the shades can be sewed together in the same way. It is not so absolutely necessary to have the colour in harmony with the dining room decorations as it is to be sure that it will be becoming to the complexion of the diners. The descriptions and diagrams for these candle shades can be made practical in some measure for larger shades for lamps, provided that the material used has substance enough.

Of course they are likely to lose their shape quickly, if they have not the support of a wire frame, A good frameless lamp shade can be made by the use of a lamp " throw"; these are not really frameless, but they do not have the work to them of a regular "made-on-a-frame" shade. A simple round or empire wire frame should be used and over this is thrown a piece of fabric, weighted at the edges.

These weights are used in order to make the fabric hang well and to keep it in place. Throws are a happy subter fuge to use after the old lamp shade has seen its best days and the new shade is not yet made. Some people like to have a summer "throw" that goes into service when the furniture dons its slip covers. Used over kerosene lamps the throw Figure 6 should have a hole cut in the centre.

The mate rial can be cut either round or square and can be caught up with an ornament as shown in the dia gram Fig. The size of course depends on the lamp and individual taste, but care should be taken however not to make them too long, as the effect is sad and droopy. Also one suspects a supremely ugly base! An open weave in willow, either made dome shape or with a circular opening at the top, can be lined, either with a flat lining cut after the same pattern as shown in Figure 1 or shirring can be used.

The basket work can be painted the same colour as the woodwork in the room and lined with a contrasting colour. A fringe hanging from beneath the lower edge, softens the lines and adds greatly to the appear ance of the shade, A good stiff glue will prob ably be found more satisfactory than a needle and thread for this part of the work. These are perfectly good for the average needs, but heavier makes, if desired, with a strongly reinforced lower rim, can be obtained from houses that specialize in shade frames.

Having decided, perhaps, that the size and shape of the shade in use is not so good as it might be, and having concluded what will be more satisfactory, take a measure and figure out the exact depth and width that the new one is to be. Many of the shades that will be under consid eration have more or less standard names ; and Figure 7 all the varieties of shapes made, and they are legion, are based fundamentally on these orig inal shapes. There is a great temptation, per haps to bny one of the freak styles, that have the Inre of novelty, but beside the fact of the dif ficulty of covering their tricky curves, they are not in such good taste as the simpler designs, whose lines though familiar never become mon otonous and which fit in with good surroundings in a way that the "queer" ones never can.

See Figures 7, 8, 9, The two former are sometimes Figure 8 varied by the addition of a collar at the top and a wired border at the bottom. Square, hexag onal Fig. Pagoda shaped frames are good in a drawing-room, if the room is in character, but such lampshades are rather more difficult to mate, and are likely to bear the stamp " ama teur. If the decision is in favour of a fabric shade, having secured the frame, the next step is to cover the wire, preparatory to actually making the shade.

While the omission of the binding may seem like a short cut at the outset, it is likely to take longer in the end to produce a craf tsmanlike piece of work. The wire should be covered with a cotton or silk tape, about three-eighths of an inch in width. As an alter native to the tape, strips of the fabric about half an inch wide, and turned under at one edge, may be used. These strips are best cut on the bias.

The tape or fabric can be used wider than these suggested widths, but while the wire might be covered more quickly, it is difficult to do the binding well and firmly with any but quite nar row materials. When frames are neatly bound, the lining may be put outside, that is, over the framework; but if the binding is omitted it is necessary to put the lining on the inside to cover up the unsightly wires.

This latter method takes considerably more skill, but is really very much to be preferred. Next, fasten a tape securely to the Figure 11 top rim, at the head of each of the ribs, and wind downwaxds Fig. Do not use a white lining except in very rare cases, as when there is a need to intensify the outer colour. Pale flesh colour is much to be preferred, as it takes the "edge" off the natural yellow of the light In the case of a very cold colour being used for the shade, pinks and even rose tones are much better than white.

There are four distinct methods of lining: the seamed, the shirred, the stretched, and the sep arate panel lining. For a square or an allied shaped frame, the seamed method is best; for a shirred shade, a shirred lining may be used, while the lining may be stretched for an empire or similarly shaped frame. In the case of an empire shade that does not have a simple form, it is rather better for the beginner to line each panel separately. To make a seamed lining, take the frame and carefully make a paper pattern of the panel or panels if the panel shapes vary. IJiese turnings are afterwards trimmed to an eighth of an inch, for if they are left any wider they are very apt to show through the outer covering.

The seams are sewn up on the machine and the lining is fitted over the frame, with the seam edges uppermost, and fastened securely. Taking for granted that the wires are bound neatly, this gives a very finished effect to the inner side. It is always advisable to pin the material in place before stitching so that each seam will come in its proper place at each rib.

It is far from pleasing, if this precaution is neglected, to find when the sewing is practi cally all done, that there is an extra inch of fabric with no place to go. Of course it could be folded over in a pleat, but if you are that Mnd of a person, do not attempt to make a lamp shade. The next method, that of shirring the lining material, is really the easiest and is good for drum or oblong shapes, when the outside fabric is going to be shirred as well. Cut the material, then, the length of the circumference and the same depth as the frame, allowing sufficient fab ric always to take care of the turnings.

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Sew the lining, smoothly stretched, to the bottom rim, using the cross-over stitch shown in enlarged detail in the diagram of the stretched lining. The top edge should be shirred and drawn tightly and securely round the top rim. To get the fabric to set evenly, divide the lining at the upper edge into four equal parts and shir each quarter separately and stitch to the top rim, which has previously been marked off in fourths. To do this, place the frame flat on the table, and put a square of the lining material right over it.

The outer edge secure, pull the material up towards the centre and fasten it with pins to the upper rim. Perhaps the lining will have to be pinned and repinned several times in order to make it quite taut. Sew it firmly to the binding tape Fig.

The whole operation is really not so complicated as it sounds and with a little practice the results are very professional looking. For the more elaborate empire shade, whose fantastic shape may have proved irresistible, there is the separate panel lining. For this, cut the pattern in paper carefully for each panel, and line alternate panels, stretching the fabric taut and sewing it to the covered ribs; then stitch in the remaining panels, working so that the rough edges of the material come on the top side of the frame.

Each of these panels will need careful adjusting and pinning before sew ing. A frame work of material other than wire is used for some shades. Card-board, such as was suggested for the candle shade frames, can be used effectively. The lamp shades must not be too large, however, if they are to retain their shape and in any case a considerably heavier card-board should be used.

More elaborate inserts can be used in these larger shades than can be managed in the little candle shades. The voile is varnished, as otherwise it would be too transparent to use; the varnish forms an extra film to filter the light. Light wooden frames for the square cornered shapes, such as the four, sis, and eight panelled shades, can be made to one's own design by the local cabinet maker, and many and various are the materials that a craftsman with a taste for experimenting, can use for the panels. Glass can be cut to fit by the glazier; a frosted glass does not have to be treated further to become opaque, and it is not hard to decorate with oil colours if a sufficient amount of dryer is mixed with the paint, to encourage it to stay where the brush puts it rather than follow a tearful sort of course down the glass.

Parchment paper or mica can be substituted for the glass by those who like to work with less fragile substance. Pierced metal. These shades do not need any lining as a rule, unless for the colour effect obtained by the use of an underlying tone and it is surprising how much beauty can be brought out by the addition of a second colour under a paper or mica shade. Shades of these materials made on the same principle as the candle shade designs as a rule need the support of a wire frame, when made on a scale large enough for the average lamp.

If they are not lined, tape or braid should cover the wire in order to have the inside look finished. These details which may seem over-emphasized really cannot be treated with enough respect and should be constantly watched. The outside of this may be managed in much the same way as the panelled lining, that is, the seams may be machined and the complete cover fitted over the top. As with linings for complicated frames, so with their covers the panels should be pieced in separately. Plenty of pinning is essential here again. Where the ribs are straight, sew the bottom of the panel to the frame first, then the top, and lastly secure the sides to the ribs.

THs separate panel method of cov ering, of course necessitates the nse of trimming or braid down the seams to hide the stitching. For a shirred shade again the same steps may be followed as were employed when putting in the shirred lining. In the case of thin mate rial, it is better to make the outside covering "full shirred. In either case the lower edge of the material should be treated in a similar manner to the top of the shirred lining, that is, shirred in quarters and sewn to equal 'divisions of the lower rim.

The more even the stitches taken for this shirring, the more even, laturally, will the little pleats be and the better the shade will look. In fact there is no part of a lamp shade that allows for sloppy workman ship, as the slightest clumsiness of technique seems to affect the whole shade.

The shirred shade allows for any number of variations and many of the loveliest shades are made without the addition of elaborate trim- FABRIC SHADES 43 ming, relying simply on the clever arrangement of the fabric in itself. Extra rows of shirrings and rufflings are always attractive, and little shirred tucks running round the shade an inch or so from the top and bottom are effective Fig. In cutting, when this self trimming is used, be sure to allow sufficient extra material to take care of the thickness of the cord used. The shirred silk is stitched to the top and bottom rims and the extra fullness falls below the lower edge of the shade.

A second shirring is arranged about one third of the way from the top, to hold the material in place, forming a gay little puff and preventing Figure 14 the untidy balloon-like effect that would result if the material were not confined in some way. A crisp material, such as taffeta, is best for this type of shade and of course it is a matter of per sonal taste as to whether the "over-hang" shall be greater or less; even an inch added to the original pattern will make quite a difference and the effect will be a definite deviation from the PABE1C SHADES 45 taut sMrred shade Fig.

A strip of the teilk, either sMrred or straight can be hung un derneath, from the lower rim, like a little petti coat and makes another variation. In the same list with the shirred shade comes SHADE the ruffled shade, Usually about twice the circumference of the frame, at the point where the ruffle is to be sewn, is ample or each ruffle. Any number of ruffles can be used of course, and they may be arranged to over-lap slightly, or so that the top of one meets the lower edge of the one above or in groups, as preferred. Euffles can be made on a circular pattern or may be sMrred from straight pieces, in which case they are likely to set better if the strips are cut on the bias.

Circular ruffles are best when made of some soft material, such as chiffon. Shirred ribbon makes a dainty ruffle, particularly when a ribbon that has a picot edge is used. A plain shirred shade may be trimmed with straight bands of the same material, at the upper and lower rim. As an alternative, a narrow band shirred top and bottom will make a pretty finish.

For this, the material is pleated in single folds. If the material is at all bulky it is a little difficult to make it set well when side- pleated, but the effect is good with thin fabrics when the light is lighted, as the many layers at the top are too thick for much light to penetrate, while it filters through easily near the lower edge, giving a very charming sunburst effect.

Shades of Empire

This type of shade is particularly happy as a floor lamp. The best way to handle these pleated shades is to do the pleating right on the frame. Meas ure the size of the desired pleats and mark off, with pins, equal divisions the same size, on the lower rim of the shade. It will take some little adjusting of sizes to make this come out even, but the time that it takes to get accurate meas urements will be found well spent when a lamp shade that looks "well tailored" is the result.

Care and nicety of an adjustment make just the difference between a tailored and the average home-made suit, and lampshades are no less sen sitive than clothes. The measurements made, , pin the pleats accordingly and then cross-over stitch them, always sewing the lower edge first and arranging the pleats as they fall at the top. Do not hesitate to coax them a little, though, if they show signs of falling with anything less than mathematical precision.

These collars are made in one with the wire frame and can be bound and covered in the same way as the rest of the shade. They give great possi bilities for trimmings and need not be covered with the fabric used for the body of the shade, but the bound wires used as a foundation for a skeleton effect in trimming. Brocade and other such rich textiles are excellent for flat em pire shades, though individual preference is again the chief factor in the decision as to whether these heavier materials should be stretched or put on in sections.

In place of the ubiquitous fringe, a secondary lower rim is sometimes added to the empire shade. Tbis, like the collar,, usually forms part of the deco ration, being used as a border or to hold in place an ornamented band. Various types of bands, fringes and edgings will be described in tte chapter devoted to such accessories. Its popularity is undoubtedly de served, but it is a little overdone and tiresome when there is so much else from which to choose, and the richer silks really make much handsomer shades.

For lining there is nothing better than. China silk, but for the new shade try something different. For an ornamental shade, taffeta is very smart, and particularly so when a striped TAFFETA design is used ; many unusual effects can be ob tained by the clever use of pleats in conjunc tion with the stripes, which can be revealed or concealed in the same alluring way that they vanish and reappear in a skilfully pleated striped skirt. If silk prices seem too high for the first ex- COTTON perimental shade, try one of the beautiful printed cottons, that are so plentiful nowadays.

Even a piece of gingham, left over from a sum mer frock could be made into a charming little shade. CHIWON "When the colour sense is sufficiently devel oped and a fair amount of skill as a shade maker is acquired, try a chiffon shade.

shades of empire threecon Manual

They are quite fun, as often they are a complete surprise when lighted. One shade was made with a double layer of yellow chiffon stretched tight as a lin ing and over this was a shirred layer of red chiffon and on top of all was a full-shirred layer of a rich dark blue. This shade was used in a room in which old-gold colour was the predomin ating tone of the decorations, and the shade, by day, gave an almost pure blue note, but by night the blue disappeared and the effect was purple and a luminous purple at that, by reason of the tone of the yellow lining through which the rays of light first had to pass.

Many experiments of this sort can be tried with small pieces of chif fon and a shade made when an especially happy colour combination is struck. This particular blue-purple shade was not a utilitarian affair, as the light was almost completely enclosed; the FABRIC SHADES 51 original shape of the frame was dram-shape but the chiffon was shirred and carried across the top and shirred again where it met the upper rim, stretched down to the lower rim, again shirred and finally drawn in to the stem of the lamp standard, thus completely enclosing the drum.

The upper and lower rims were trimmed with an old-gold ball fringe. A chiffon shade, made of less absorbing colours and with a wide flare to the frame, would allow the penetration of more light than a cover of any other fabric. Any other sheer material can be used, of course, for these layer shades. As a variation from the layer design, various coloured chiffons may be seamed to form one long strip and the seams hidden in the folds of the shirring or pleating; it is best to use the chiffon very full.

These variegated shades are best when several tones of the same colour are used, such as, perhaps, three tones of rose? Very pale rainbow colours make exceedingly dainty shades for use in a room where all the tones are dainty and subdued. Gauze can be used in the same way as chiffon, and metal cloth has possibilities in many rooms ; this latter can now be purchased in a great va riety of colours and weights, and subtle tones can be created by lining the thinner fabrics with a second colour.

Wide metal lace can be inter estingly used over a coloured foundation as well as taking one of the foremost places in trim mings, in the narrow widths. Lace of all sorts and coarse and fine nets are very adaptable to shade making and are particu larly good for the more elaborate shades used in conjunction with other materials. Or as a fac tor by itself, lace may be made very interesting, when augmented with embroidery, that is, by having the motifs picked out with gay coloured wools or silk.

Lace can very easily be dyed if it is unsatisfactory in the room in its original white or cream colour. A ribbon edge gives a pretty finish and in the case of ruffles, makes the lace hang better. At the opposite end of the pole is the shade made of velonr.

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For this, a thin grade should be chosen, in order to allow the filtering through of as much light as possible. It should be used absolutely simply, without shirring of any sort, and with a very dignified trimming, such as folds of itself or brocade. The trimming may be stitched on with a tinsel thread, which in itself becomes part of the decoration. From the above suggestions it will be seen that the opportunities for originality in the choice of material are practically endless and ingenious fingers have all the liberty in the world to be really creative.

Some of the most beautiful effects are obtained by decorating the fabric, rather than adding the decoration. By this is meant, the clever use of dyes and stencils on the textile itself. Mandarin skirts are a veritable harvest field for the seeker after Chinese fabrics; both the embroidered and the plain parts can be used in conjunction and the braid can also be utilized to cover the seams of the shade.

Shade Empire - 9in1

Even a quite badly worn skirt can be salvaged and the best pieces cut out and ap plied as medallions to a stretched silk shade; they should be sewn, on securely and the silk on the under-side cut away and turned in. In the event of the fragments being very fragile, they can be mounted on net before being applied. Chinese embroidery is also decidedly in keep ing on pagoda shaped shades; alternate panels look well in this case also. A narrow strip of the embroidery looks exceedingly well as a col lar or bottom banding on an empire shade that is otherwise untrimmed.

Bibbon, lace and flowers can all be mixed together in gay enough confusion, bnt the tumult resulting from any such addition to embroideries -or fabrics that have an interesting eastern flavour would be decidedly disconcerting. The art of "applique" is well worth consider ing as a charming method of embellishing a plain shade, and here again is a limitless field for the craftsman.

Silhouettes as previously described can be used and any kind of motif can be cut from brocade, figured silk or cotton and applied with some fancy embroidery stitch, or can be held in place by a narrow braid or ribbon, sewn flat. Wool can be used for a quick excellent effect and gold thread can be employed to double the parts of use and looks. One very good looking "modern art" shade had fruit shapes and leaves cut out of vividly coloured taffeta and appliqued to the flat side of a pongee shade.

Hand-dyeing Is an unlimited field of resource for the most individual shades. Of the many forms of dyeing, batik, which is the art of using a wax resist to produce a pattern on fabric, is undoubtedly the most interesting. Pieter Mijer's book, " Batiks and how to make them," will be found very helpful to craftsmen wishing to take up this beautiful art, and most libraries have Prof. Pellew's book, "Dyes and Dyeing, " which includes a chapter on tie-dyeing. By shaded silk is meant a deep tone of a colour grading to a pale hue. Briefly, this is accomplished in the following manner.

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