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While similar attacks by colonists on Indian villages were called "raids" or "battles", successful Indian attacks on white settlements or military posts were routinely termed "massacres". Knowing very little about the native inhabitants of the American frontier, the colonists were deeply fearful, and as time passed, "far more white Americans eagerly consumed Indian atrocity stories around the family table and in popular literature and newspapers than ever interacted with Indians or witnessed an Indian raid.

In some instances motivated by politics, in Colorado for example, "stories in the News continued to stir those fears: wild rumors of Indian conspiracies were heralded as fact; any violence at all between whites and Indians was reported as an Indian 'massacre'". The phrase eventually became commonly used also to describe mass killings of American Indians.

Killings described as "massacres" often had an element of indiscriminate targeting, barbarism, or genocidal intent. Army campaigns to subjugate Indian nations of the American West beginning in the s. In an older historiography, key events in this history were narrated as battles. Since the late 20th century, it has become more common for scholars to refer to certain of these events as massacres, especially if there were large numbers of women and children as victims.

Some scholars have begun referring to these events as "genocidal massacres," defined as the annihilation of a portion of a larger group, sometimes to provide a lesson to the larger group. It is difficult to determine the total number of people who died as a result of "Indian massacres". Osborn compiled a list of alleged and actual atrocities in what would eventually become the continental United States, from first contact in until His parameters for inclusion included the intentional and indiscriminate murder , torture , or mutilation of civilians, the wounded, and prisoners.

His list included 7, people who died from atrocities perpetrated by those of European descent, and 9, people who died from atrocities perpetrated by Native Americans. He found evidence that during this period at least 9, to 16, California Indians were killed by non-Indians. Most of these killings occurred in what he said were more than massacres defined by him as the "intentional killing of five or more disarmed combatants or largely unarmed noncombatants, including women, children, and prisoners, whether in the context of a battle or otherwise".

This is a listing of some of the events reported then or referred to now as "Indian massacre". This list contains only incidents that occurred in Canada or the United States, or territory presently part of the United States. After the Fall of Tenochtitlan the remaining Aztec warriors and civilians fled the city as the Spanish allies, primarily the Tlaxcalans, continued to attack even after the surrender, slaughtering thousands of the remaining civilians and looting the city.

The Tlaxcalans did not spare women or children: they entered houses, stealing all precious things they found, raping and then killing women, stabbing children. The survivors marched out of the city for the next three days. One source claims 6, were massacred in the town of Ixtapalapa alone. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Not to be confused with List of massacres in India. This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries. Stannard; Oxford University Press, ; Pg. National Register of Historic Places.

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Spillix Publishing. Page University of Oklahoma Press. Tucker; James R. Arnold; Roberta Wiener 30 September A History of St. Macmillan Caribbean. Retrieved July 9, Arcadia Publishing. Revisiting the Attack on Pavonia.

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New Jersey Historical Society. San Francisco: Harper Collins. Jersey City A to Z. New Jersey City University. Retrieved February 17, Tutelo and Neighboring Groups. Sturtevant, William C. Fogelson, volume editor. Handbook of North American Indians: Southeast. Volume A History of Canada. Boston: The Page Company. With contributions on topography and land titles by Angevine W. Sketches by the author. Banks, Boston, Vol.

Davids and Peyser, Joseph L. The Roanoke Times. Archived from the original on September 30, Retrieved November 14, Blue Grass Roots. Quarterly Journal of the Kentucky Genealogical Society. Frankfurt, Kentucky. Archived from the original on February 15, Wilcox, Squire Boone's Grandson in a letter to Hon. Kentucky Genealogy 28, June , accessdate December 28, History of Painted Stone Station. Painted Stone Settlers Organization.

Army — , pp. The Tragic Saga of the Indiana Indians. Turner Publishing Company, Paducah. Clarke County Historical Museum. Retrieved November 27, University of Alabama Press p.

Florida: University Press of Florida. The conquest of the Karankawas and the Tonkawas, Conner Prairie. Archived from the original on April 23, Retrieved April 16, Huntington, Vol. Harvard University Press. Lyon to Major E. John Nugens to Lieut T. Wright, December 31, , pp. North Coast Journal. Retrieved December 26, The Conquest of Apacheria. University of Cincinnati. Archived from the original on June 19, Retrieved June 6, Archaeological Institute of America, accessdate December 26, History of Indian depredations in Utah. Fenestra Books. Archived from the original on February 27, The New York Times.

November 20, Loring" PDF. November 24, The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. University of Regina. Retrieved March 28, Nez Perce Summer The U. Army and the Nee-Me-Poo Crisis. Retrieved March 17, Meeker Colorado Chamber of Commerce. Archived from the original on November 17, Retrieved March 16, October 7, Archived from the original on October 7, January 17, Lists of massacres. List of events named massacres List of massacres at sea.

List of genocides by death toll. Massacres Massacres by country Massacres by year. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Colony of Virginia. The first originally termed instance of "Indian Massacre" occurred in at the Virginia colony of Jamestown.

The victims and perpetrators were both unknown groups of Native Americans. Annihilation of the Otomi of Tecoac. Cholula Massacre. Cholula , modern day Mexico. They admitted that they had been ordered to resist by Moctezuma, but they claimed they had not followed his orders. Regardless, on command, the Spaniards seized and killed many of the local nobles to serve as a lesson. Alvarado Massacre. Tenochtitlan , modern day Mexico.

The Massacre in the Great Temple, also called the Alvarado Massacre, was an event on May 22, , in the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan during the Spanish conquest of Mexico, in which the celebration of the Feast of Toxcatl ended in a massacre of Aztec elites.

Massacre after the fall of Tenochtitlan. After defeating resisting Timucuan warriors, Hernando de Soto had executed, in the first large-scale massacre by Europeans on what later became U. The Choctaw retaliated against Hernando de Soto 's expedition, [21] killing soldiers, as well as many of their horses and pigs, for their having burned down Mabila compound and killed c. After the invading Spaniards seized the houses, food and clothing of the Tiguex and raped their women, the Tiguex resisted.

The Spanish attacked them, burning at the stake 50 people who had surrendered. According to Spanish sources, Tompiro Indians were killed. Lord De la Warr sent 70 men to attack the Paspahegh Indians. They destroyed their main village near Jamestown , killing between 16 and 65 people. Gumpond is a post-office in the eastern part. The census of gives this county dwellings, families, 2, white males, 2, white females; free coloured males, 17; free coloured females, 7; total free population, 4, ; slaves, 3,; deaths, ; farms, ; manufacturing establishments, The population is supposed now to exceed 10, There are several saw and grist mills in this county, among which are Tift and Brisbane's, on the Kinchafoona Creek, two miles north of Albany, Hampton and Harris's steam-mill, one mile east of Albany, and Lawton's steam-mill, several miles southwest of Albany, each of which is capable of cutting four thousand feet of timber per day.

The county is rapidly improving. Should the season prove favourable, it is estimated by resident merchants that the cotton crop of Baker, for , will reach 30, bales. Intelligence, industry, and hospitality are prominent traits in the character of the citizens. Among the first settlers of this county were the Tinslys, Howards, Halls, Hobbys, Wheelers, Jarnigans, and the persons whose names appear in the list of the first Grand Jury. January Term, The following persons appeared, and were sworn as the Grand Jury: 1. John S. The Grand Jury made the following report:.

The Grand Jury for the County of Baker having had nothing laid before them for consideration, and from the peaceable and orderly condition of their county, know of no grievance of sufficient magnitude for presentment. Court adjourned. Moses Fort, J. Thomas F. Whittington, Clerk. This was the hardest fought battle of the war with the Creek Indians, in The Chickasawhachee Creek has a swamp, several miles in extent, lying partly in the second and partly in the third districts of Baker County, covered with timber and a dense undergrowth, and in a great many places to a considerable depth with water.

In the latter part of June, , the Creek Indians, after burning Roanoke, in Stewart County, and committing other depredations, departed for Florida, with the purpose of joining the Seminole Indians. Captains Rich and llentz, with two small companies of militia, who were volunteers from Baker and adjoining counties, followed their trail into Baker County ; and on the 26th of June, at night, knowing they were in the vicinity of the Indians, dispersed in small squads to protect their own families and those of their friends and neighbours.

The next morning they heard the report of guns, and taking the trail, they found the Indians had murdered a gentleman, whose name we have forgotten, with his wife and three children, also Mr. William Hicks, and a Mr. Padget and his two children. Hollaway and their daughter were wounded, but made their escape. The dead bodies were shockingly mangled. The Indians, to the number of three hundred warriors, penetrated the Chickasawhachee Swamp, and took possession of an island in the middle of it, where they prepared to defend themselves against any attack which might be made by the whites.

The Baker militia, after burying the dead, devoted themselves to the security of the inhabitants, until other troops arrived. On the 3d of July, a week after the Indians had entered the swamp, the two Baker companies, having been joined by Captain Jarnigan's company from Stewart County, Captain Holmes' company from Early County, a company from Thomas County, and a company of cavalry from Bibb County, numbering together about five hundred men, the whole under the command of Colonel Beall, it was determined to attack the Indian camp.

Accordingly, two hundred men were stationed outside of the swamp, to prevent the escape of the enemy; and these were subsequently joined by Captain Bostwick's company from Pulaski County. The remaining force penetrated the swamp, through undergrowth, mud, and water, sometimes to their waists, to the Indian camp, when a warmly-contested battle of more than half an hour was maintained, until the Indians were driven from the field, leaving nine dead, together with their horses and plunder.

Several dead were seen to be carried off the field during the battle, and some were afterwards found by the whites. Of the Georgia troops, twelve or fourteen were wounded—one mortally. When they reached Prospect Bluff, Francis was waiting for them as was McQueen, who had arrived with a few of his warriors on a second vessel. Although food was still not in plentiful supply, they had been saved. The British gave them fresh beef and barrels of flour while the upriver towns of Yellow Hair, Mulatto King, Thomas Perryman and William Perryman sent down corn and any other supplies they could spare to relieve the suffering of the refugees.

For Milly Francis, the arrival at the British Post must have been a moment of inexplicable thanksgiving. Hungry and suffering from the elements, with her clothing reduced to rags, she found herself in a place where white men and traditional chiefs came to assist her instead of attacking her as they had done on the Alabama.

Lieutenant Colonel Edward Nicolls, who soon arrived to take command of the fort, provided some insight to the condition of the people in groups like the one in which Milly had arrived: …[S]uch objects I never saw the like of, absolute skin and bone, but cheerfull and resolved to do their utmost against the common enemy. An old man told me, when I asked him how far it was to where the enemy were, and if he knew the way to lead me to them, he said it was seven days journey to them, that he could not miss the way for it was marked by the graves of his five children.

Milly and her older sister Polly somehow survived, as did their mother and other members of the family. Many of their friends and acquaintances, however, died along the way. The demon of war had unleased its greatest horrors on children and innocents. Pearson to Brig. Joseph Graham, June 1, published in the Raleigh Minerva. May 21, Most of the surviving families of the Red Sticks who fled to Florida made the long trek to Prospect Bluff where they were fed by the British.

At the height of the operation, the villages surrounding the fort contained thousands of residents. Milly Francis was among them. It is not known whether she, her sister and her mother stayed there when the Prophet returned to Pensacola with Colonel Nicolls later in the summer, but it is known that many of the families made the journey back to the Spanish city. They then violated the neutrality of Spain by using the old city as a base for an attack on Fort Bowyer, the U. Headed by CaptainWilliam H. Twenty of the Marines then took up a position to block access to Mobile Point from Bon Secour while the rest of the land force marched west to the point and erected a battery in the sand dunes within range of the fort.

On September 15, , Percy cleared for battle, formed his ships in line and closed on Fort Bowyer, which was held by Major William Lawrence and men from the 2nd U. Lawrence and his men watched as the British ships drew closer. The Americans opened fire at p. The ships responded and the British land battery opened fire with a howitzer. Return fire from the fort quickly silenced the firing of the land battery, but the battle with the ships continued for almost three hours. The citizens and U. Few believed that the little fort could hold.

When the guns finally fell silent, the Star Spangled Banner still flew over the fort. Despite his illness, Colonel Nicolls had taken part in the battle and suffered the loss of an eye when a wooden splinter was driven into it after an American cannonball struck the side of the ship. The magazine on the Hermes exploded at 10 p. Another of the British ships was severely damaged and what remained of the flotilla broke off the battle and limped back to Pensacola. The warriors and British Marines of the land force made their own way back to the Spanish city, doing considerable damage to the scattered homes along their route as they went.

The Battle of Fort Bowyer had been a disaster for the British and a stunning victory for the Americans. After praising Major Lawrence and his men for their gallant stand, the general concluded that Pensacola should be occupied and the British expelled. Scouts brought news into the city that U. Protected by the warriors who had concentrated at Pensacola, the woman and children were moved across the bay to a place of safety.

Milly was then around 11 years old and for at least the third time in her life, she had been forced to flee ahead of oncoming American troops. Even the anticipated sanctuary of Spanish Florida had proved to be unsafe. The British blew up Fort Barrancas and sailed out of the bay after threatening to level Pensacola with their guns but then deciding not to subject its citizens to artillery barrages. Having expelled the British, Jackson soon handed Pensacola back over to the Spanish and marched back to American territory. He was determined, however, to put an end to the Red Stick threat once and for all.

From Fort Montgomery, a new U. The inhabitants of the camp had evacuated ahead of the troops and the houses were empty when Blue and his men stormed the settlement. Assessing the situation, he decided it would be impossible for him to continue on to the Apalachicola. With the Choctaw warriors, he fell back to the Escambia and Alabama while ordering the Tennesseeans to strike due north as fast as they could move for the American forts on the Tallapoosa. Both divisions suffered greatly from hunger, but eventually made their way to safety. Although she was not named, Milly Francis was one of the children.

Jackson had forced the Creeks to cede some 8,, acres to the United States as reparations for the cost of the war. The ceded lands included the entire section of the Nation bordering Spanish Florida, including all of what is now Southeast Alabama and Southwest Georgia. Many of the Creeks, including warriors who had allied with the United States during the war, were outraged by the severity of the terms.

They felt punished even though they had supported and fought alongside American troops in putting down the Red Stick movement. Surviving Red Sticks still in the nation, meanwhile, realized that the Prophet had been right about white aims on their territory. Hundreds of warriors who just one year earlier had been in arms against each other began to make their way to the British Post on the Apalachicola. Five hundred new Creeks had arrived there from towns within the American lines in November alone.

Even so, the settlement formed by the British survived and grew. Warriors trained for combat while their families remained secure behind the protection of the heavy guns of the fort. The fort became home to Milly Francis for the winter of Based on a map drawn the following spring by Spanish surveyor Josef Pintado, the British Post was an extensive affair.

An earthwork battery built in the shape of pointed angle or projection had been constructed on the edge of the low bluff where it projected slightly into the river. The heavy artillery, including naval pounders, was mounted here. Directly to the rear of the battery was an octagonal citadel surrounded by a moat. Built of earth and massive timbers, it served as a magazine for the massive stockpile of arms brought to Prospect Bluff for use in supplying the warriors and African allies of the British. Stockades ran from the citadel to the river, connecting with the Apalachicola on each side of the battery to form a giant triangle.

In addition to the Red Stick and Seminole warriors congregating at the Bluff, Nicolls and Woodbine were forming and training companies of Colonial Marines from the Africans who came there both from Spanish Florida and the United States. Some were escaped slaves but many were free. Uniformed and equipped, they were given traditional British military instruction with both small arms and artillery. This was the scene that Milly Francis saw taking place around her during the winter of Once again she witnessed important figures and events that would play a significant role in American history.

In addition to her father and Peter McQueen, she undoubtedly came to know Kenhajo Cappachimico , the head chief of the massive Seminole town of Miccosukee; Garcon, the former slave of the Forbes company who became the Sergeant Major of the Colonial Marines battalion formed at the Bluff; Colonel Nicolls and Captain Woodbine as well as a variety of important Seminole and Creek chiefs. By all indications, Nicolls and Woodbine admired their Creek, Seminole and black allies and came to know them as human beings.

In his letters, Nicolls speaks of conversations with various chiefs including the Prophet Francis and of the suffering they and their families had experienced. Not all British officers, however, were so convinced of the humanity of their allies. Despite their service to his country, Codrington obviously considered them as something less than human.

But they are now all in hats some cocked, gold-laced ones , and in jackets such as are worn by sergeants in the Guards, and they have now the appearance of dressed-up apes. The prophets who animated Red Stick forces at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend wore headdresses made from birds, as did other prophets seen, captured or killed by American forces. The headdress described by Codrington may well have been worn by the Prophet Francis himself. Even Andrew Jackson, the hated enemy of the Red Sticks, did not refer to them in such terms.

They returned to the Apalachicola to tell the story: …They were beaten in every battle by night and by day. Their large Vessels could not come near the land, they sent their troops in barges who were attacked as they were landing, and at night after landing. He saw the decisive battle on the 8th. The Americans had double ditches which were not discovered til they got up to the first, the first who attempted to storm the works were driven back with great loss. A second attempt was made, which met a similar fate, when the Commander in Chief went forward with his best troops, who met with a greater loss, he was killed and the next in command.

The ground appeared to him covered with dead wounded and the British had many wounded who retreated in action or were carried off. A second fort was built on the east bank of the Apalachicola at what is now Chattahoochee Landing just below the confluence of the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers. Even as the main army was being devastated by Jackson at the Battle of New Orleans, British officers on the Apalachicola were able to report that by January their force had grown to include 3, warriors.

This total did not include the battalion of black Colonial Marines inducted into the British service by Nicolls and Woodbine or the Red Sticks still hiding along the Conecuh and Choctawhatchee Rivers. In addition, they were much better equipped. The British had provided them with thousands of muskets and carbines, as well as sabers, powder, shot, gunflints, cartridge boxes and bayonets. They also had received at least rudimentary training in small arms tactics and were supported by both Colonial and Royal Marines.

The latter organization had brought ashore a battery of field guns to add additional firepower to the assembled force that numbered well over 4, men. It was not to be. Although British forces came ashore on Cumberland and St. Simons Islands on the Georgia coast and Nicolls dispatched some small raiding and scouting parties into the interior of Georgia, news of the Treaty of Ghent arrived on the Apalachicola even as the British were preparing to battle a force of U.

Both Francis and McQueen were on hand and in British uniform at the upper fort when news of the treaty arrived. The War of was over, but they were assured by British officers that the 9th article of the treaty required that the two nations return to the borders they had occupied at the beginning of the conflict. The British believed this meant that the Treaty of Fort Jackson was invalid and that the lands ceded under it would be returned to the Creeks. The chiefs also swore allegiance to King George III and agreed that future land sales would be subject to British consent.

They agreed also to grant land to any British subjects who came and settled among them. The chiefs who met in council at the upper fort had nominated Francis to go back to England with Colonel Nicolls to represent them to the Prince Regent. He agreed to go and it was probably at this time that he relocated his family from the bluff to the Wakulla River. The new town site was chosen for the security it offered as well as its proximity to the Spanish post of San Marcos de Apalache Fort St. It was and still is a place of remarkable beauty.

Milly was around 12 years old when her family relocated to its new home on the banks of the Wakulla. Although houses needed to be built and fields cleared, it seemed that the specter of war had disappeared. Her father and her young brother Earle left with Colonel Nicolls in May , but Milly and the rest of the family was now in a place of security where they could obtain food and begin to settle down and return to life as normal.

Benjamin Hawkins to Gov. The beautiful river was ideal for swimming and play and supplies were plentiful and available from the nearby Seminole towns of Tallahassee Talofa and Miccosukee. Trade goods could be obtained from the Spanish fort. Slowly but surely the family recovered from its great losses.

A new home was built and Milly and her sister played along the river. The sound of laughter returned to their town. He tried to secure a meeting for Francis with Earl Bathurst, but received little in the way of a response. The Earl did order that Francis be presented with a pair of custom pistols, but expressed no interest in meeting with him.

Nicolls pleaded the case of his guest, pointing out to British leaders that the Prophet had come from thousands of miles away as a representative of Indians who had been firm allies of the British during the recently closed war. With the exception of a handful of Choctaws, the warriors soon returned to their villages, leaving the fort under the command of Garcon, the sergeant major, who promised to defend it. The total population at the bluff dwindled to around men, women and children. With the artillery, however, there were enough men to wage a strong defense should they be attacked by an enemy.

Red Stick and Seminole chiefs and warriors came and went from time to time to secure arms or to replenish their ammunition, but the fort evolved into a settlement occupied almost exclusively by free blacks. Fields were cleared for miles above the fort and the inhabitants settled into new lives in the presumed security of Spanish Florida. On July 27, , however, Milly and her friends on the Wakulla heard a distinct roar and felt the ground shake beneath their feet.

Her head likely was filled with memories of the New Madrid earthquakes she had experienced in , but this time the explanation was not natural phenomena. A red hot cannonball fired from a U. Navy gunboat sailed through the entrance to the gunpowder magazine and the fort exploded in a blast that could be felt as far away as Pensacola.

Of the men, women and children in the fort, were killed in an instant. American officers described how pieces of their bodies were thrown for great distances, in some cases even landing in the tops of the tall longleaf pines that surrounded the destroyed fort. Most of the 50 survivors were seriously wounded and many died in the hours and days after the blast. The shot that hit the magazine of the Fort on the Apalachicola was the deadliest cannon shot in American history.

Milly Francis and the other residents of her village on the Wakulla were close enough to feel the blast. Hundreds of warriors from throughout the region had started out to oppose the Americans as soon as word spread that an attack against the depot was in the making. Clinch that he would have to fight his way back upriver. When the Americans reached the scene of the anticipated battle, however, the Red Stick and Seminole force had disappeared.

The explosion so stunned the warriors that they withdrew from the confrontation until they could better determine what had happened. The chiefs and warriors were outraged over the attack and by the confiscation of their weapons and ammunition from the surviving magazines. The Americans kept the cannon for themselves, but the small arms and powder by pre-arrangement was given to William McIntosh and his U.

Since McIntosh was a mortal enemy of Francis and McQueen, the delivery to him of the stockpile left behind for their use by Colonel Nicolls was a severe blow. Josiah Francis was still in England when the attack took place and did not learn of the disaster until his return to the Caribbean that winter. Although he received a number of personal gifts for himself and his family, he began his return trip home in December without the British support he had hoped to secure.

At New Providence in the Bahamas he met with Captain Woodbine and Governor Cameron, both of whom were more optimistic about the prospects of supplying the Indians. Woodbine in particular sought to secure an alliance with the Prophet. No longer in the British military, he had converted his career to one of an adventurer and filibusterer. Probably to the detriment of his proposed alliance with the Red Sticks and Seminoles, however, he also helped himself to some of the gifts that had been given to the Prophet Francis.

Francis had reached New Providence just as the trader Alexander Arbuthnot was about to leave on a journey to open trade with the Seminoles and Red Sticks. His return after a two-year absence must have been cause for great celebration with his family and followers.

Milly was now 14 and her sister was a year or two older. Francis returned to Florida just as tension was again surging in the borderlands. Infantry in December , Red Stick warriors went to the post and burned it to the ground. News of this incident spread up through channels and Major General Edmund P.

Gaines ordered two companies from the 4th Battalion, U. Captain Samuel Donoho and his men reached Fort Scott in June and started the slow and laborious process of rebuilding the buildings and defenses. Twiggs and his company from the 7th U. Twiggs had barely assume command at Fort Scott when he was confronted by the Fowltown chief who warned him not to cross to or cut wood from the opposite bank of the Flint River. Pursued by the U. The chief had not been a party to the Treaty of Fort Jackson, which ceded away all of Southwest Georgia to the Americans, and did not consider himself bound by it.

Even as the confrontation grew between Neamathla and the U. Army, Josiah Francis began to preach caution. As they marched by land, Major Peter Muhlenburg brought their artillery, munitions, spare uniforms and other supplies from Mobile to the Apalachicola River by way of the Gulf of Mexico. He was still on the lower river when Lieutenant Richard W.

Scott was ordered downstream with a detachment of 40 men to assist the vessels in coming up to the fort. As the water operations were underway, the main body of the First Brigade reached Fort Scott on November 19, General Gaines had preceded the troops to the fort and immediately ordered Major Twiggs to take men to Fowltown and bring back Neamathla and his leading men. They were to avoid conflict if possible, but given the discretion to defend themselves if necessary. Twiggs marched out on November 20th and reached Fowltown before dawn the next morning.

The American plan was to quietly surround the town in the dark so that its inhabitants could be captured without gunfire. As the troops moved into position, Neamathla and his warriors discovered their presence and opened fire. Although the chief and most of his people, escaped into the surrounding swamp, the first shots of the Seminole Wars had been fired. Aside from taking a few head of cattle, the troops were restrained from looting Fowltown. The various houses and buildings were examined.

In the home of Neamathla was found a red British uniform coat and a letter from a British officer testifying that the chief had always been a loyal friend. His mission unsuccessful, Twiggs returned to Fort Scott and informed General Gaines of what had taken place. Short of supplies and learning from Twiggs of the presence of a large amount of corn in the Indian corncribs, the general ordered a second strike against Fowltown.

Infantry Regiments. Reaching Fowltown on November 23, , they found the village abandoned and began to fill their wagons with corn from the Indian storehouses. Neamathla suddenly emerged from the surrounding swamp with 60 warriors and with a war cry opened fire on the American soldiers.

The U. Private Aaron Hughes, a fifer in the 7th U. Infantry, was killed. He was the first American soldier to die in the Seminole Wars, a series of conflicts that continued until the eve of the Civil War four decades later. Alarmed by the ferocity of the attack, Arbuckle pulled his men back to the river crossing at present-day Bainbridge and threw up a blockhouse that he named Fort Hughes. The unfortunate fifer was buried on the grounds and Captain John McIntosh was left with 40 men to hold the new outpost.

The rest of the soldiers returned to Fort Scott, having consumed all of the captured supplies by the time they arrived. News of the fighting electrified the Seminole, Red Stick and African towns along the border. Neamathla logically believed that he and his people had been attacked and called for reinforcements. General Gaines, meanwhile, did not consider his raids on Fowltown to have been provocations and instead blamed the warriors of the village for opening the war by firing on his troops instead of allowing themselves to be captured. Aware that U.

Probably due to his Creek War experience, the chiefs selected the Prophet Francis to lead the operation. Also on board were 7 women and 4 children, family members of soldiers at the fort. The detachment was guarded by 20 armed soldiers. The attack ended in bloody massacre.

The lieutenant, 34 men, 6 women and 4 children were killed. The dead were scalped and otherwise mutilated and Lieutenant Scott was killed by having lightwood splinters driven into his body and then set afire. According to Elizabeth Stewart, the only female survivor, he begged her to take a hatchet from one of the warriors and kill him, but she would not. Five of them were wounded by Red Stick gunfire.. The people of Tomatly, a nearby town that had not joined the war effort, took care of them and helped them get to Fort Scott where they arrived on December 2, Calhoun and Major General Andrew Jackson to inform them of the attack.

The details of his report were published in newspapers along the route as it made its way north to Washington, D. An infuriated President James Monroe directed that General Jackson be ordered to the frontier and that the Seminoles and Red Sticks be punished without regard to whether they were in the United States or across the border in Spanish Florida. War parties surrounded both Fort Scott and Fort Hughes, sniping at any person who showed his or her head in the open.

William Perryman, the chief from the lower Chattahoochee River who had fought on the side of the British during the American Revolution and War of , realized the futility of opposing the Americans and at their request had gone down to protect Hambly and Doyle. The Prophet Francis in person led the main force against Major Muhlenburg and the supply flotilla on December 15, More than one dozen soldiers fell killed or wounded and the fire poured into the boats was so severe that the sailors could not show themselves to navigate. Forced to drop anchor at midstream, the men on the vessels were exposed to fire day and night.

Other war parties spread up and down the Apalachicola River to skirmish with a detachment of soldiers on its way downstream in a boat to look for any signs of provision vessels then expected at the bay. Fort Hughes was evacuated and Fort Scott had been cut off and its garrison placed at risk of starvation. The Apalachicola River was blocked and small war parties ranged deep into Georgia to strike isolated homes and unwary travelers.

Her father had returned from England bearing gifts for his family, among them beautiful dresses for his daughters and wife. Now a girl of 14, Milly was a beautiful young woman, but it had been so long since she had dressed in European style clothing that she was unable to decide how various parts of her new wardrobe should be worn. For help she went to the only person who might know, the newly arrived former lieutenant Robert Ambrister. He had been part of Colonel Nicolls force on the Apalachicola River three years previous and he and Milly were at least acquainted. The story of the friendship that grew between Milly Francis and Robert Ambrister is known from only one source, Dr.

Rodgers of Tennessee. Marks after it was taken by the Americans in April While he spoke to her only on occasion, Rodgers did have several long conversations with Ambrister, who was then being held as a prisoner in the bombproof of the old Spanish fort. When the father unpacked the presents for Milly and gave them to her, she was at some loss to know how to use them.

(PDF) Milly Francis: The Life & Times of the Creek Pocahontas | Dale Cox -

The dresses were not such fits as could have been made in Paris or London. In the last extremity Milly applied to Ambrister for help, and, to his utter astonishment, he was quite as much at a loss as the girl. As he became familiar and was accepted in the home — at least according to the story as told by Ambrister to Dr. Rodgers — Josiah Francis suggested to the adventurer that he would not be opposed to him taking Milly as his wife: [I]t was not long before he became a decided favorite with the family and town. Francis gave intimation that he should be pleased to give his daughter in marriage to Ambrister with three hundred negroes, which Ambrister knew he dared not, at the peril of his high position, refuse to treat with becoming consideration and respect.

He and Milly entered into a courtship of sorts. They helped her better fit her dresses and she appears to have been constant friends with them: …She was most beautiful, he said; he loved the girl for her virtue and modesty.

Berrien Skirmishes, the Battle of Brushy Creek, and the Indian Maiden

She could talk enough English to make herself understood, and she understood the Spanish and Indian. Ambrister, in all his visits to the young ladies in the fort, was accompanied by Malee i. Milly as his interpreter, and she often played off her little pranks on him, telling the young ladies at one time that they were married, at another that he was in love with her, but she had discarded him, and like pranks. Rodgers, as noted in the description just quoted, was the source of the name Malee or Princess Malee, which is often used to identify Milly Francis.

Josiah Francis and his wife, Polly, both had and used Anglicized names. Their three known children also were given Anglicized names: Polly, Milly and Earle. While Milly may have had a name in the Alabama language, the identified herself using her English name throughout her life, just as did the other members of the Francis family. Despite the intimate friendship — or courtship — that developed between the two, Ambrister swore to Dr. Rodgers that their relationship never became physical. Rodgers, is remarkable in that it sheds much light on Milly Francis as a person.

She was a virtuous young woman, but not just in affairs of the heart. The story of her friendship with Robert Ambrister is filled with details about her sense of humor, athleticism and equestrian skills. Her hair was long and black and she was conscious of her appearance, so much so that even after receiving help with her dresses from Ambrister, she went straight to the Spanish girls at the fort for guidance and assistance. The description of her leaping from the ground directly into her saddle demonstrates a remarkable state of physical conditioning.

It is a feat rarely seen today. Twiggs, who as a brevet major led the first U. Major General Edmund P. He ordered the attacks on Fowltown, sparking the First Seminole war. Neamathla Eneah Emathla. Brigadier General William McIntosh. He battled U. Caused by the inconceivable amount of ash poured into the atmosphere by a massive volcanic explosion in the Pacific Ocean, the sudden shift in climate caused crop failures and starvation around the world.

Hundreds of thousands of people died and food riots shattered the peace even of Switzerland. In North America, the light of day glowed in a strange orange or golden color and unseasonable and severe cold persisted far longer into the growing season than anyone could remember. The unusual weather patterns continued through the winter of As he assumed command of the stockade on the morning of March 10 th, he found himself at the head of an army of more than 2, men with nothing more in the way of supplies than about one pint of corn per man and 1, head of hogs.

The army pushed down the high bluffs that dominate the east side of the Apalachicola River, passing through what is now Gadsden County to Alum Bluff in Liberty County. The old British water battery was still intact, as were the outer ditches and breastworks, but the central citadel of the fort was just a crater surrounded by mounds of earth.

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The effects of the explosion of the magazine during the attack of July 27, , could be seen everywhere: …We found some of their arms and cannon ball lying in the mud. The guns, although they had been exposed to the weather for four years [sic. Here we erected a new fort upon the ruins of the old one and called it Fort Gadsden. The former British water battery was used to form the river front of the fort with a rectangular bastioned affair being added onto it. During the time that the soldiers were engaged in building Fort Gadsden, many of the men found themselves with idle time on their hands.

Among them was a young solder named Duncan McCrimmon and — at least according to the story as told in — the lure of finding a good fishing hole along the banks of the river or one of its tributary creeks was too strong for him to deny. His unit had been formed in January by order of Governor William Rabun in response to a call for Georgia to provide additional troops to support the U. Army during the coming campaign. The men accompanied Jackson on his way south to Fort Scott where they were joined by the regular soldiers of the 4th and 7th U. Why McCrimmon would drift so far away from Fort Gadsden and become lost in the woods is questionable, especially with the sure knowledge that Red Stick and Seminole scouts were in the vicinity watching the activities of the Americans.

Trying to make his way back to the fort from his day of fishing, he found himself turned around and confused. Having obtained the satisfaction they wanted respecting the strength and position of the American army, they began to prepare for the intended sacrifice. They appear to have been based on an account provided to the editors by Lieutenant Colonel Matthew Arbuckle, then commanding at Fort Gadsden. A man who enjoyed writing, Arbuckle was a regular correspondent of the Milledgeville papers. The editors may have benefited as well from conversations with McCrimmon himself, who by that time had returned back home in Georgia.

The youngest daughter of the prophet, who is about 15 years of age and represented by officers of the army we have conversed with to be a woman very superior to her associates was sad and silent the whole time — she participated not in the general joy, but was evidently, even to the affrighted prisoner, much pained at the savage scene she was compelled to witness. She had been playing on the banks of the Wakulla River with her sister when they heard the war whoop of warriors. Marks, for seven gallons and a half of rum.

Like most fathers, he loved his children and wanted only the best for them. The Prophet had seen to the education of his young son, Earle, before leaving England and he had returned to Florida with extravagant gifts for his daughters. Throughout the Creek War and War of , he had seen to the safety of his family and — American opinions of him aside — there is no reason to believe he was anything other than a devoted father and husband.

Marks and turned over to the commandant there. Evidence exists that the Spanish officer did in fact ransom the young citizen soldier for a supply of rum. McCrimmon joined two other prisoners — William Hambly and Edmund Doyle — who already were under the care and protection of the Spanish. The three prisoners were allowed freedom within the perimeters of the post but the commandant cautioned them not to stray past those lines lest they be recaptured by the Red Sticks. Updates on her condition and whereabouts were published throughout the years and by newspapers all over the United States.

Americans have always loved heroes, and Milly Francis became the heroine of her day. Milly told the story many times over the years that followed to dozens of interested people, but her actual words were not recorded until more than two decades later when Lieutenant Colonel Ethan Allen Hitchcock found her living in the Creek Nation of present-day Oklahoma. Sent west to investigate conditions among the tribes and to get to investigate reports of frauds committed on the Indians, Hitchcock was at Fort Gibson in the Cherokee Nation when he learned that the famed Creek Pocahontas lived nearby.

In his conversation with Mr. Hill, Hitchcock learned that Milly Francis lived only one mile away. Fascinated, he sent a messenger to see if she would consent to come and visit him. She soon appeared with her youngest son, who was then around 14 years of age: …I spoke of the story of her having saved the life of a white man and she at once told me the whole story. She went to them and began to plead.