The book consisted of a series of colour lithographs with an accompanying text, Kokoschka's own poems. Originally Kokoschka planned to produce a children's book, but the end product was a dark legend based on Symbolist ideas, a story of youth's breaking out of protecting covering into sexual maturity. The central themes in Kokoschka's plays were sex, violence, submission, and the antagonism between man and woman.
Murderer, the Women's Hope was first performed in at the little open-air theatre of the Kunstschau, where it was set in darkness illuminated by torches. The actors' faces were painted, and their costumes had lightning patterns familiar from Kokoschka's paintings. The artist himself insisted that the tickets for the play were sold out a week before the performance, thanks to the notoriety of his paintings. In the story a nameless Man, in conflict with his basic animalistic drives, frees himself from enslavement in a sex nightmare.
He throttles a nameless Woman and then kills all her female companions. Later in , the composer Paul Hindemith based his opera on the work. In Der brennende Dornbusch , the lover abandons the woman of his desires. In his intense portraits Kokoschka wanted to go beyond physical appearance, the bourgeois facade, and used distortions, wiry and feverish lines, which did not only seem to reveal something essential about his model's inner life, but also were full of the artists's own nervous, restless energy.
In the story a woman tries to turn the hero into a beast. Kokoschka's solo exhibition in at the Folkwang Museum in Hagen received good reviews by the magazine Der Sturm. It was founded in Berlin by Herwath Walden, who persuaded the young Kokoschka to move to Berlin, the art centre of Germany. There he made for Der Sturm portrait sketches, dividing his time between Berlin and Vienna.
Other artists connected with the magazine were Marc and Campendonk, who contributed woodcuts, Paul Klee, and Kandinsky, who wrote theoretical articles on abstract form. Der Sturm also reprinted Marinetti's Futurist Manifest. During this period he became a friend of Alma Mahler, the widow of the famous composer Gustav Mahler And I had the impression that she was not indifferent to me, either. Kokoscha gave up his post at the School of Arts and Crafts, but he taught in a private school. Kokoschka's poem, 'Alos makar,' appeared in his book Dramen und Bilder.
Its title was an anagram of Alma and Oskar. Kokoschka's mother was strongly against the relationship and she threatened to shoot Mahler. Kokoschka's Expressionist paintings in this period came close to poetry with their surreal elements and dream-like quality. In Vienna dreams had gained a new kind of respect and status in the beginning of the century.
Sigmund Freud had published his famous study Die Traumdeutung The Interpretation of Dreams in , and artists and writers eagerly probed the uncharted depth of the unconscious. While recuperating from his wounds in Brno and Vienna, he started to write the play Orpheus und Eurydice , in which he dealt on mythological level his obsession with Mahler. To consider the doll as an artistic project, both as material art and as a kind of performance art, makes Kokoschka's biography significant—not only because he linked it publicly to his doll project, but also because biography was an integral aspect of the modernist agenda of bridging art and life—exemplified in the works of such artists as Giorgio de Chirico, James Joyce, and Virginia Woolf.
Certainly this process reveals Kokoschka's nostalgia for the traditional masculine artist-genius, embodied in the figure of Pygmalion. But what I find most fascinating about the subject is the women who inspire and create Kokoschka's infamous doll, especially Alma Mahler and Hermine Moos, who complicate Kokoschka's efforts to reinvent himself as the modernist masculine artist-genius. I speculate that the influence of these women is most evident not in Kokoschka's autobiographical writings and published letters, which generally conform to stereotypically masculine traditions, but instead in the three paintings Kokoschka creates of the doll and himself.
These works betray a more subtle discomfort with the traditional masculine persona of Pygmalion as Kokoschka increasingly portrays himself as doll-like. They reveal that Kokoschka came to find himself a feminized object, even as his artistic gaze often disempowered and objectified the women who inspired him.
Bethusy-Huc, Reinhold Graf
The paintings and the doll have garnered more tabloid interest than critical interest over the years. Perhaps this is because the earliest sources to document this event in Kokoschka's life dismissed the incident as temporary insanity: "If the story of the doll became the most notorious of the antics of Project MUSE promotes the creation and dissemination of essential humanities and social science resources through collaboration with libraries, publishers, and scholars worldwide.
Forged from a partnership between a university press and a library, Project MUSE is a trusted part of the academic and scholarly community it serves. Pierce [who later provided him with the shed for his Merzbarn; ann. Meidner seems to have been an exception, as he expressly did not want to assimilate at all: Ich merkte hier gleich [in England; ann.
Ich hatte 55 Jahre in Deutschland gelebt und war unwiderruflich der Deutschheit verfallen. Those solely mounted by the FGLC consisted of works by about 40 to 50 artists, as Heinz Worner, who was mainly in charge of organising the exhibitions, recalled. The former exhibited paintings by Alva in Oct. Lowry religious and other works by Hans Feibusch in and 35 exhibits by Jack Bilbo in Oder fast niemand. Man kann nicht beides zugleich sein. As a result, refugee organisations dissolved. It is not known, when the Czechs closed their various clubs.
However, there is no record of an exhibition taking place after Additionally, repatriation and overseas migration had created a decrease in the number of members, thus reducing the financial means of the AC. Besides, the leases for the club houses terminated on 28 February Die Liquidation beginnt am 1. They refused to be immigrants or prospective citizens of another country [ As it turned out the Communists who returned soon after the war to Eastern Germany were to be bitterly disappointed; after a short honeymoon they were shunned and denounced as tainted by Western formalism.
Their work was considered incompatible with the stern Soviet canon of heroic Realism, their murals in public places were overpainted and their teaching assignments terminated. His experience was different from that of John Heartfield, who returned to East Germany on 21 August and settled in Leipzig. Seine Werke wurden — in noch von ihm selbst gestalteten Ausstellungen — als Botschafter eines antifaschistischen Staates in die Welt geschickt — und kamen so auch ins andere Deutschland [to the West; ann.
In common with all the other artists who remigrated to East Germany, he saw his task as helping to create the GDR as a communist country. The reasons for their return varied.
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At this precise moment, Meidner, sitting unrecognised among the audience, stood up and made himself known, surprising the audience and art world. Like the latter, who declined an invitation to teach in Dresden, they did not want to go back to the countries of their former persecution. At first, this had not been encouraged by the government as already mentioned above: There was a strong tendency in official quarters to regard the German emigration in Britain as a temporary rather than a permanent addition to the population.
It was often said that the Jewish refugees in this country were terrified of returning to Germany. We should not be influenced by this attitude. It was possible that post-war Germany would abandon antisemitism altogether. This view was not, however, translated into an official policy of encouraging the repatriation of German refugees. In receiving citizenship, the latter had been particularly unfortunate. He had received notification of his naturalisation as early as , because, at that time, everyone who had been living in Britain for five years could receive it.
When WWII broke out, only a few weeks of the required period were lacking. Thus his naturalisation did not go through and he had to wait until the end of the war. George Richard Woolway, ann. Much loved by his students, his method of teaching and painting was often derided by some members of the staff. It has been suggested that perhaps he was ahead of his time. This aside, many students were devoted to him and his methods, and his masterful understanding of how colour and light affect atmosphere. Undoubtedly his success as a teacher was in no small way due to his persuasive persona.
The Ben Uri Gallery was again one of the most prominent galleries which exhibited works by artists, such as Jankel Adler in , Martin Bloch and Josef Herman in and in , Bloch alone in a memorial exhibition , Jacob Bornfriend with Alfred Harris in and Fred Feigl in and The former show was so successful that it toured throughout Britain including Leeds, Nottingham, Edinburgh, Dumfries, Aberystwyth, Newcastle and Leicester , finally being displayed at the South London Art Gallery a year later.
Charoux and Peri produced sculptures, the former a colossal group entitled The Islanders and the latter a concrete relief called Sunbathers of City Art Gallery, Leeds that initiated many commissions later. Although the latter never believed he could become an Englishman himself, he entitled his autobiography The Making of an Englishman. Artists assessed their exile period according to their experience.
Er lehnt ab; im gleichen Zusammenhang wird er in eine Kunsthandlung als Expertise eines Modigliani- Werkes gebeten. Considering, however, that his recognition had already been fading in the s, it may well be that he used emigration as an excuse. He became seriously ill in Britain and, as a result, aged prematurely.
The following semantic analysis is motivated by the fact that, in the history of modern art, many movements came into being in two opposite ways: either the artists gave themselves a name e. Constructivists or they were labelled by their critics e.
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Impressionists, Abstract Expressionists. Having to leave their home country and becoming uprooted triggered off a need to reconstitute their identities. How did they redefine themselves? Answering these questions will reveal appropriate designations for the artists in question and their artistic productions. The first section of this chapter examines the reception both of refugees in general and refugee art and artists in the context of modern art. The examination of the self-representations is based on publications and documents of the groups and institutions.
The Studio since its first publication in —Dec. In contrast to the newspapers mentioned above, most letters to The Times and The Spectator were critical of the decision of the British government and sympathetic towards the internees: Germans and Austrians who have suffered martyrdom of one kind and another at Nazi hands are being interned as potential pro-Nazis, though it is frankly admitted that many of them are persons against whom no suspicions have been entertained [ Though we cannot afford to take undue risks, neither can we afford to be harsh — especially to our friends.
This must surely mean both that the refugees can and should look to the High Commissioner for Refugees as their protector and that the British Government can and should make that fact known to the refugees, not merely by a wireless announcement but through the camp commandants, and also inform those it has transported abroad. Why has he not been recognised as their proper representative and given a staff adequate to the job? Once this were done, the refugees could immediately be recognised as differing in status from Prisoners of War, the internment camps could be recognised as Refugee Centres, and the refugees could receive that free legal assistance which they desperately need.
Posing as a refugee from Nazi occupied territory he came to this country last autumn and produced documents to that effect. But his real mission as a spy was detected before he could do any mischief. It provides new and damning evidence in the case against Nazi tyranny. It began, of course, before the declaration of war. It was quite untrue. The Government has repeatedly stated — what any careful study of the question proves to be the truth — that refugees in England have created far more jobs than they have taken.
All have become the butt of a campaign of virulent hostility. All these terms, however, have in common that they branded the refugees as different from the British. Gordon had been an artist and art critic, who had regularly reviewed London exhibitions in The Studio. In all these cases neither nationality nor refugee status was mentioned. Furthermore, refugee artists showed their works together with their British colleagues in exhibitions whose titles indicate that only British art would be shown. Sutton may well have seen its last act, which was performed in London in In the first decade of the century, two articles in The Burlington Magazine tried to characterise German art.
In the same vein, the second article on the character of German art declared that German artists were ruined by the influence of Rome. Here he reviewed the show: No very great interest has been shown until recently by the rest of Europe in modern German painting and drawing, but the pronouncements of the head of the German State establishing a new criterion have inevitably aroused a desire to see the works of artists so much in question — one result of which was a comprehensive exhibition held in London at the New Burlington Galleries. About a group called the Blue Riders Blaue Reilir [sic!
These are broadly termed Expressionists, who attempted to express feeling rather than portray the natural. Others, influenced by French Cubism, became either abstract or freely translated natural forms in terms of construction. Such are Feininger, Beckmann, Hofmeister. Otto Dix painted the horrors of war; Kathe [sic] Kollwitz drew the miseries of the poor; George Grosz attacked the vices of the profiteer.
With respect to the impending war, such a labelling ran the danger of being not only an artistic assessment but also a political statement. Apart from triggering reviews by art critics such as Eric Newton, Herbert Read and Anthony Blunt, the show inspired the first book on modern German art to be published in Britain; it was written by Peter Thoene, the pseudonym of Oto [sic] Bihalji-Merin.
What are the grounds on which it is so bitterly taken to task? It is accused of reflecting the world in a manner which is untrue and distorted. The difference, however, was that the Nazis based their concept on racial grounds. The Studio, albeit rarely, commented on contemporary art and exhibitions held in Nazi Germany; some of the reviews appeared even before the show.
These were mainly written by Adolf Behne, a Nazi opponent living in Berlin. The following quotation was taken from such a review; it was published in and examined a show of the same year held in Munich: While this is the second exhibition that has been held since the change-over in government, it is actually the first in which one is justified in looking for the effects of that change in works of art. For in the upheaval was too recent and too bewildering, and artists, like the rest of the populace, were too much occupied in getting into line.
Since then, much has been done in the way of organisation; every artist must now be a registered member of the Chamber of Culture, a body whose leaders are nominated by Dr. Goebbels, Minister for Propaganda. And yet the national socialist mentality was stamped clearly enough upon this exhibition. Apart from the comparatively few reviews of modern German art, modern art was regarded as mainly French or, as we have already seen above, at least influenced by French Impressionists, French Post-Impressionists, the Fauves, the Cubists or, in the later years, the Surrealists.
In an article published in The Studio in , he first listed various artistic movements and then described them, such as Abstractionism Constructivism : Investigation into the emotional properties of shape, form, line and colour freed from all representational bondage. Study of materials and methods [ An emphasis on the auto-suggestive elements of truth, or feeling liberally translated into form, colour, etc.
In conclusion, the British critics concentrated on artistic criteria when talking about refugee art. Talking of French, German and Austrian art, however, became increasingly a problem, since it had a side effect: with WWII impending, such art criticism could also be understood as propaganda for or against the enemy. To steer clear of such a reading, those who appreciated the art produced by German and Austrian refugees did not mention any nationality. Despite this fact, the art produced by the refugees was regarded as different from British art, in, for example, using rich colour.
His solution consisted in defining art by referring to the city where the artists worked. He did not, however, apply this to art produced by the refugees. They were hardly acknowledged at all. Additionally, as modern art met with such a bad response, the refugee modern artists were even more marginalised. Jewish refugee organisations, such as the Central British Fund for German Jewry and the Jewish Refugee Committee, were more involved in the immigration process than in offering the refugee artists a platform for their artistic output.
Particular Jewish artistic associations, including the Group of Jewish Artists and the Ohel Club, the latter open to Jewish artists and intellectuals, played a minor role, since only four artists are known to have been members: Jankel Adler member of both groups , Martin Bloch, Josef Herman both members of the Ohel Club and Ludwig Meidner belonging to the Group of Jewish Artists; he left the group, however, before it was actually founded.
Thus the most significant associations for the refugee artists were those mentioned at the beginning of this paragraph. The latter was not only an ordinary member, but also the president of the organisation from summer to Die freie, deutsche Kultur zu erhalten und fortzubilden; 2. It is composed in the main of the works of artists who have been uprooted, deprived of their studios, their materials, their very tools. They work tentatively with great difficulty, without adequate economic support in their exile.
In its issue of 14 April , V. Millers had accused the Communists of being responsible for strikes in mines, factories and railways. Fladung countered this: The membership of the Free German League of Culture represents a cross-section of all shades of democratic political opinion amongst German anti-Nazi refugees. There are also Communists among its members. They all, however, are fervent anti-Nazis. Nationality was also an important consideration. Despite the fact that not all members of the FGLC were German92 and the works exhibited at their shows were not exclusively by German artists, the members nevertheless portrayed themselves as such.
Dies wurde immer wieder deutlich in den Werken der verschiedenen Ausstellungen. According to him, internment art is not defined by the depiction of the small world of the camps, but by the atmosphere of strong moral concern and by the inclusion of contemporary events happening outside the camp.
The members of the FGLC never ascribed political attitudes to those exhibitions organised solely by them and only once did they specify an artistic movement in naming a show: this was the Exhibition of German Expressionism held in The titles of all other exhibitions referred to the time of the exhibition e. Christmas , to the organiser i. Its sections, as mentioned above, were divided into the various fields of art. The FGLC did not classify groups by origin, nor care about either the reason for emigration or religious beliefs.
For obvious reasons, the members of the FGLC did not describe themselves as enemy aliens, though this was their official label. For the AC, politics and nationality were bound together. When reviewing its annual shows, the critics only rarely emphasised that the exhibited works were produced by an Austrian artist. One critic also spoke of an Austrian style that would consist of using deeper and more intensive colours than the English. Generally speaking, however, artistic events such as exhibitions played a less important role in the house newspaper of the AC than in that of the FGLC.
The former was not concerned with refugee status or politics. Nationality, however, played an important role. Despite being open to Czechs and British sympathisers, it only exhibited artists of Czech citizenship. They, however, were concerned with the description as such. Thus the last issue with this subtitle was the one published on 22 April In , the description as Sudeten Germans was discussed in essays. Ludwig Winder, who also published under the pseudonym of G.
Despite this, the artists among them exhibited together and were members of more than one organisation. Thus their profession came first and their nationality second. As all associations and clubs examined above were concerned with refugees, the status as such mattered, too, though the FGLC and the AC seem to emphasise it more than the other groups. However, as shown above, for the self-representation of the majority of the artist members of the associations, politics played a less important role; artists rarely made a political statement when giving a title to their art exhibitions.
This apolitical tendency, however, was possibly part of strategy, by which the political attitude was hidden, but in fact played an important role. Since the review was published in , this label had occurred before the refugees used it themselves, which was only in the s see above. Indeed, the critic here did not distinguish between Austrian and German developments.
There was frequent sensibility, good colour nearly always, and usually vigorous movement, the effect sought for was more often impressionist than structural but the impressionism was ably realized. The sculptors included the grave and refined Georg Ehrlich, and the sensitive Karl Vogel whose work is becoming deservedly known in London. Other sculptors whose work seemed worthy of note were S.
Charoux, Paul William Henle and A. Amongst the paintings were some fine studies, notably a broadly handled but stirring Landscape by Oskar Kokoschka, some sensitively atmospheric scenes by Fred Uhlman, a brightly appealing view of Richmond by Yaroslav Dub, a strong forest scene by Ernst Stern, a figure picture, Tommy that had character by Wolfgang Schlosser, a Rouault-ish Living Room in Refugee Camp by Karl Nolde, and studies of Witches and of Magicians by Walter Trier which owed something to Hieronymus Bosch. At the same gallery Hilda K. All three reviews of the exhibitions organised by the FGLC, however, were positive about the exhibits.
While the second one pointed out their individual qualities, the third went a step further: it considered the exhibits as a whole, thereby setting the entire output of refugee artists in contrast to British art. Here, as in the first review, the exiled artists were subsumed under one label, distinguishing them from British artists and their art. The same is true of another review published in The Studio and again written by Jan Gordon.
Whatever answer Gordon would have given to this question, for all the critics and — if their opinion is taken pars pro toto — for the British public, art produced by artists from the AC and FGLC was united in being different from that produced by British artists. At the Czechoslovak Institute Jakob Bauernfreund showed gay little pictures, extremely sophisticated yet childlike.
His experience of the various modern movements began with cubism. Usually cubists who have seceded from their early enthusiasm carry through their lives an intense sense of volume, but with Bauernfreund this is not so noticeable. What he does possess is good spacing, colour, movement and fun. Both reviews, however, did not mention refugee status. Positive remarks were written by declared anti-Nazis and those who were interested in German culture.
Millers and addressed to the editors of The Catholic Herald who published it on 14 April Millers asked: Could you draw the attention of the public towards Communist elements who are stirring up trouble in mines, factories and railways, with the object of further strikes? These individuals, Communist agents, are mostly German refugees or Austrian — Jews mostly, who are now serving in railway offices, factories, etc. All of them are fervent Communists. Nevertheless, it proves that there were negative and racist, anti-semitic British attitudes towards refugee organisations.
We see that Fascism not only cripples and lowers the conditions of the working class, but, in fear of liberty of expression, deliberately exterminates progress in art and culture, and persecutes professional and manual alike in its endeavour to crush freedom of thought and speech. All of them, however, received help from individuals, who wrote prefaces, introductions and reviews to the exhibitions. The most important in this respect was Herbert Read. The public in general will not accept him at his face value [ That such a situation has its dangers is proved by recent events in Germany.
Before the coming into power of the present dictatorship, modern art enjoyed in Germany an esteem unequalled in any other part of Europe [ Most of the leading German artists held positions as teachers in official art schools or were in more indirect ways supported by the State. For the British people, however, the members of these organisations were first and foremost different from them, and the art, if labelled according to nationalities at all, was foremost German or Czech. This may well be due to the fact that Czechoslovakia was an allied country.
The narrative and counter-narrative of refugee associations do not differ from those defined for refugees in general and refugee art; as outlined above, these were also based on the dialectic between the British and the refugees. This is particularly interesting in the light of the self-representations of the refugee associations. The latter defined themselves in opposition to the National Socialists. For the members of these associations, the narrative consisted in the Nazi construction of a racially based ideology of descent, which was put into practice, and caused the emigration of the artists in question.
Second in importance in their self-representations was refugee status. In this respect, the refugee associations defined themselves in contrast to both the National Socialists and the British. As we will see, it will provide further variations in the approach to exile. Bilbo characterised the gallery from the start on the invitation card for its opening in The modern art gallery opens its gates, in the midst of war, with the sole aim of giving the modern artist a free and unbiased platform and of creating for the people an oasis of sanity and construction in a world of false values, believing in the necessity also for an intellectual fight against Hitlerism and all it stands for.
All these painters were in their and our time avantgardists [sic], and, like every avant-gardist, persecuted, ridiculed and misunderstood. I t is essential to become a great human being before one can become a great painter How else could one find the strength to give so much for so little? Similarly many refugees from Nazi Germany who felt that the National Socialists had assaulted humanity also devoted their art works and writings to the causes of human good.
The choice of the exhibits was made purely according to artistic criteria, art being his prime interest. Art and humanity formed the axes of his world-view. Moreover, he spoke their mother tongue. The reason for the hidden image seems to be the socio-political reality; Bilbo met with problems involved when running a gallery as a foreigner. How this was perceived by the British public is analysed in the following. Generally speaking, the gallery received a good response. This may well be due to the fact that Bilbo was a friend of Jan Gordon and his wife Cora, who were both in charge of reviewing exhibitions for The Studio during the period in question.
According to Bilbo, the support of the press was brought about by the mutual understanding and similarity between the press and himself: They speak my language, and I think I speak theirs. Because the press is very much like myself: outwardly tough and heartless, outwardly cheap and dirty, outwardly vagabonds, and yet, somewhere, somehow, all that rottenness, cheapness and heartlessness is put on to cover up their decency, sense of fair play, and, above all, a sincere desire to help their fellowmen.
In between, I had interesting mixed shows of the French impressionists [ The modern art gallery was founded in October, , and in one year made a great name for itself. Yesterday, he opened an exhibition of Anna Mayerson, a Viennese refugee. Her work is direct, simple and colourful; she is a proletarian artist, making pictures from factories and workers, but she has struck out from the fashionable drabness of her predecessors.
Samson Schames shapes strange moving, tragic, incised and mosaic works on pieces of debris from bombed houses. Almost of Mr. Shames the paradox might be said that the unhappier he is the happier he is. The same critic, reviewing an exhibition of works by Oba Holloway and Cliff Tyrrell held at the Modern Art Gallery in , made a point of mentioning that these artists were black.
For him, their origins gave their works authenticity: Holloway seems genuinely able to effect a compromise between the worlds of African imagery and of Western suggestion. I feel that something of the amazing blend of the formal, the concrete and the illusory that African carving expresses has passed to Holloway. In this exhibition Schwitters gives evidence of two sides to his nature.
The calmer side shows in the examples of pure collage, which are massively designed but quiet in colour, thus aiding the mass and homogeneity of the design. The examples of oil painting plus collage are carried to the limit of daring and invention. The sculpture, abstract shapes in wood and wire, seem to express, perhaps, the strongest side of his intellect. These challenging, defiant shapes have an odd pride of balance and fine proportion.
It is always a kind of tonic in rather strong doses, but somehow heartening. Sylvia Macartney, who was the star artist in August, can handle pigment well but does not, I think, make the best of her sense of space. The British critics did not brand the gallery as an institution run by a foreigner, referring neither to the status nor to the nationality of its owner or the artists who exhibited there. The images of the British critics and of Bilbo correspond in that the gallery showed progres- sive contemporary art.
Hoffentlich habe ich Erfolg — denn woran es am meisten fehlt, das ist das Geld At the end of September , the Segals moved the school to Oxford because of the fear of German air raids. Here the school flourished until the s. In addition, it trained teachers and offered special courses for physicians and psychologists. Treatment of the psychological causes alone may exert a favourable influence upon expression and effect a cure; treatment of the expressions may cure the inner malady.
But naturally a combination of both methods will usually be more successful. While the patient is disturbed and hampered in his expression by his inhibitions, he loses confidence in his expression and debars himself more and more from reacting outwards and so ridding himself of his inner complexes by action. If, however, he is given the possibility of expression through the removal of those constraints which falsify it — by showing him his mistakes and how they are to be corrected — he will gain confidence in his expression, take refuge in it with his inner conflicts, and liberate himself.
On the other hand, if a practising artist with a strong tendency to artistic expression is only treated from within, while he is not master of the technique of expression and its elementary laws, he will not achieve an artistic expression satisfactory to himself. And if he cannot so express himself, he will relapse into his previous diseased condition. But if the patient is in full command of his power of expression, then, should psychical disturbances arise, he has the chance to react away from them.
To any patient who is not master of the means of expression, the acquisition of these means constitutes a healing power. Segal believed that time and space had their counterparts in the inner world. Hence, the process of painting a three-dimensional object and thus transforming it into a two-dimensional image would reveal and heal psychological problems.
A self-assured man, for instance will behave differently from a timid man. His movements i. Always there is complete harmony between the expression and the inner reaction. Even when a man seeks to conceal his inner self by choosing an inadequate expression, this expression will, to the skilled observer, bear the stamp of constraint. Very few men can so control themselves as to reveal nothing [ The psychologist who knows all the elementary laws of the technique of expression — that is of the arts — is able, first, to deduce the psychical disorder from the symptoms and, secondly, by the elementary, normal laws of these arts of expression, to correct breaches of them and thus exercise influence from without.
If the expression becomes harmonious, the excitement is in time allayed. Moreover, it is then easier to treat the inner psychological causes which led to the neurosis.
Tobias G. Natter - Wikipedia
According to Norbert Lynton, the basis of the teaching was learning to see and paint. The process of observation would teach an instinctive ability for abstraction and construction, which would lead to inner harmony and self- confidence. Segal wrote in The amateur must learn that art exists for him as well as for the artist, just as the air exists for him as well as for both of them.
He must learn that the meaning and purpose of art consist not in lofty achievements, but in the vital necessity for artistic expression, which is inherent in most men. For if he can find no means to such expression he becomes psychically diseased. Life demands self-expression, and self-expression preserves health. Art is a therapeutic factor, a natural medicine, the breath of the soul.
Every man who pursues an art breathes with his soul; and every man must breathe to live. Everybody was equal, the consequence for Segal of his belief in individuality: Each individual reacts to his picture of the environment according to his own peculiar nature. The response of the individual to his visual environment is the result of what his brain presents to his consciousness from the picture of his environment as portrayed objectively by the eye, and of the sense of pleasure or pain released in consequence. His school and concept of painting were rooted solely in science.
Unlike the impression given by his own writings, these comments overtly spoke of Segal as a foreigner. Summary In this chapter, both British images of refugee groups and individuals and their self- representations have been discussed. Despite this diversity, all three terms acknowledged their otherness. In differentiating itself from them, the British public created a unity of its own. The attribution of nationality was typical at that time, although — and this may well be due to the influx of refugees and the outbreak of war — it was increasingly considered problematic, because first it was an incorrect concept and second, during WWII, it could be used as war propaganda.
Thus most often, the British critics who appreciated the works by refugees concentrated on artistic criteria. The hostile reaction towards modern art in Britain, however, was not applied to the art of the refugees; on the contrary, it received only little attention.