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WordPress Shortcode. Imhotep Virtual Medical School Follow. Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. Denise Bryant How can I lose weight in three days? Sana Ahmad. Show More. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Pathophysiology of Diabetes Mellitus 2 3. PancreasIslets of Langerhans 3 4. Islets of Langerhans Islet of Langerhans, normal, microscopic2.


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Islet of Langerhans, immunoperoxidase staining with antibody to insulin on right and glucagon on left , microscopic3. Islet of Langerhans, insulitis in type I diabetes mellitus, microscopic4. Islet of Langerhans, amyloid deposition in type II diabetes mellitus, microscopic5. Islet of Langerhans, islet cell adenoma, low power microscopic6.

Endocrine System, Part 1 - Glands & Hormones: Crash Course A&P #23

Islet of Langerhans, islet cell adenoma, medium power microscopic7. Islet of Langerhans, islet cell adenoma with immunoperoxidase staining with antibody to insulin, insulinoma , microscopic 4 5. Islet of Langerhans, normal, microscopic Here is a normal pancreatic islet of Langerhans surrounded by normal exocrine pancreatic acinar tissue.

The islets contain alpha cells secreting glucagon, beta cells secreting insulin, and delta cells secreting somatostatin. Islet of Langerhans, immunoperoxidase staining with antibody to insulin on right and glucagon on left , microscopic Immunoperoxidase staining can help identify the nature of the cells present in the islets of Langerhans. On the right, antibody to insulin has been employed to identify the beta cells. On the left, antibody to glucagon identifies the alpha cells. Islet of Langerhans, insulitis in type I diabetes mellitus, microscopic This is an insulitis of an islet of Langerhans in a patient who will eventually develop type I diabetes mellitus.

The presence of the lymphocytic infiltrates in this edematous islet suggests an autoimmune mechanism for this process. The destruction of the islets leads to an absolute lack of insulin that 7 8. Islet of Langerhans, amyloid deposition in type II diabetes mellitus, microscopic This islet of Langerhans demonstrates pink hyalinization with deposition of amyloid in many of the islet cells. This change is common in the islets of patients with type II diabetes mellitus. Islet of Langerhans, islet cell adenoma, low power microscopic An islet cell adenoma is seen here, separated from the pancreas by a thin collagenous capsule.

A few normal islets are seen in the pancreas at the right for comparison. Islet of Langerhans, islet cell adenoma, medium power microscopic The islet cell adenoma at the left contrasts with the normal pancreas with islets at the right. Some of these adenomas function. Those that produce insulin may lead to hypoglycemia. Those that produce gastrin may lead to multiple gastric and duodenal ulcerations Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Islet of Langerhans, islet cell adenoma withimmunoperoxidase staining with antibody to insulin, insulinoma , microscopic This is an immunohistochemical stain for insulin in the islet cell adenoma.

Thus, it is an insulinoma. Alpha cell stimulation"Inputs to alpha cells and effects of glucagon, including negativefeedback, which increases plasma glucose levels"Robert H. Parsons, Ph. Beta cell stimulation"Inputs to beta cells and effects of insulin, including negativefeedback on glucose and amino-acids levels. KetogenesisKetogenesis is the process by which ketone bodies are produced as a result of fatty acid breakdown.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Dilated cardiomyopathy Restrictive cardiomyopathy. Pericarditis and pericardial effusion Cardiac tamponade. Rheumatic heart disease Endocarditis Myocarditis. Premature ventricular contraction Premature atrial contraction. Atrial fibrillation Atrial flutter AV nodal reentrant tachycardia. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.

Atrioventricular block Bundle branch block. Long QT syndrome and Torsade de pointes Ventricular tachycardia. Brugada syndrome Ventricular fibrillation. Peripheral vascular disease Arterial disease. Vasculitis Kawasaki disease Behcet's disease. Deep vein thrombosis Varicose veins Thrombophlebitis Chronic venous insufficiency. Nutcracker syndrome Superior mesenteric artery syndrome. Patent ductus arteriosus Ventricular septal defect Atrial septal defect Coarctation of the aorta. Tetralogy of Fallot Transposition of the great vessels Truncus arteriosus Hypoplastic left heart syndrome.

Vascular tumors Arteriovenous malformation. Cardiac tumors Vascular tumors Angiosarcomas. Miscellaneous lipid-lowering medications. Positive inotropic medications Central anti-adrenergics Peripheral postsynaptic anti-adrenergics: Alpha blockers Peripheral postsynaptic anti-adrenergics: Beta blockers Peripheral presynaptic anti-adrenergics. Cardiovascular anatomy and physiology Lymphatic anatomy and physiology Normal heart sounds Abnormal heart sounds.

Blood pressure, blood flow, and resistance Resistance to blood flow Laminar flow and Reynolds number Compliance of blood vessels Pressures in the cardiovascular system. Stroke volume, ejection fraction, and cardiac output Frank-Starling relationship Pressure-volume loops Changes in pressure-volume loops. Baroreceptors Renin-angiotensin aldosterone system Chemoreceptors.

Electrical conduction in the heart Action potentials in pacemaker cells Action potentials in myocytes Cardiac conduction velocity Excitability and refractory periods Cardiac excitation-contraction coupling. Cell Physiology. Cellular structure and function Cell membrane Selective permeability of the cell membrane Extracellular matrix Cell-cell junctions Endocytosis and exocytosis Osmosis Resting membrane potential Cell signaling pathways Nuclear structure Cytoskeleton and intracellular motility.

Inflammation Ischemia Free radicals and cellular injury Necrosis and apoptosis Atrophy, aplasia, and hypoplasia Metaplasia and dysplasia Hyperplasia and hypertrophy Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Pathology Physiology. Atopic dermatitis.

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Stevens-Johnson syndrome Erythema multiforme Toxic epidermal necrolysis. Psoriasis Lichen planus. Bullous pemphigoid Pemphigus vulgaris. Albinism Vitiligo. Acne vulgaris. Skin cancer. Skin anatomy and physiology Hair, skin, and nails Wound healing. Human development days Human development days Human development week 2 Human development week 3. Ectoderm Mesoderm Endoderm. Development of the digestive system and body cavities Development of the placenta Development of the umbilical cord Development of the fetal membranes Development of twins Hedgehog signaling pathway.

Development of the cardiovascular system Fetal circulation Development of the respiratory system Development of the gastrointestinal system Development of the renal system Development of the reproductive system Development of the axial skeleton Development of the muscular system. Pharyngeal arches, pouches, and clefts. Emergency Medicine. Cushing syndrome Hyperaldosteronism. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Addison's disease Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome. Diabetes mellitus.


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  • Acromegaly Gigantism Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion Hyperprolactinemia Diabetes insipidus Pituitary apoplexy Growth hormone deficiency Constitutional growth delay Hypopituitarism Sheehan's syndrome Hypoprolactinemia Pituitary adenoma. Hyperparathyroidism Hypoparathyroidism. Graves' disease Hyperthyroidism Toxic multinodular goiter Thyroid storm Hypothyroidism Euthyroid sick syndrome. Hashimoto's thyroiditis Postpartum thyroiditis Riedel's thyroiditis Subacute granulomatous thyroiditis.

    Pituitary adenoma Thyroid cancer Prolactinoma. Pheochromocytoma Carcinoid syndrome Neuroblastoma Multiple endocrine neoplasia Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Glucocorticoids Mineralocorticoids and mineralocorticoid antagonists Adrenal hormone synthesis inhibitors. Hyperthyroidism medications Hypothyroidism medications. Endocrine anatomy and physiology. Thyroid hormone Growth hormone and somatostatin Adrenocorticotropic hormone. Synthesis of adrenocortical hormones Cortisol. Glucagon Insulin. Parathyroid hormone Calcitonin Vitamin D. Gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Peptic ulcer. Dental caries disease Gingivitis and periodontitis Dental abscess Sialadenitis Aphthous ulcers Pulpitis Temporomandibular joint dysfunction. Familial adenomatous polyposis Juvenile polyposis syndrome Peutz-Jeghers syndrome Colorectal polyps. Crohn's disease Ulcerative colitis. Small bowel ischemia and infarction Intussusception Volvulus Diverticulosis and diverticulitis Appendicitis Irritable bowel syndrome Gallstone ileus.

    Celiac disease Tropical sprue Lactose intolerance. Gallstone Gallstone ileus Primary sclerosing cholangitis Ascending cholangitis Acute cholecystitis Chronic cholecystitis Biliary colic. Cirrhosis Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease Primary biliary cirrhosis Alcoholic liver disease Hemochromatosis Wilson's disease Autoimmune hepatitis Cholestatic liver disease Neonatal hepatitis Hepatitis. Biliary atresia. Chronic pancreatitis Acute pancreatitis.

    Hirschsprung's disease Gastroschisis Omphalocele Intestinal atresia. Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis Thyroglossal duct cyst. Warthin's tumor Oral cancer Colorectal cancer Pancreatic cancer Gallbladder cancer Hepatocellular carcinoma Benign liver tumors. Acid reducing medications. Antidiarrheals Laxatives and cathartics. Gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology Anatomy and physiology of the teeth. Chewing and swallowing Esophageal motility Gastric motility and secretions Enteric nervous system and slow waves Satiety.

    Pancreatic secretion Bile secretion and enterohepatic circulation Liver anatomy and physiology. Carbohydrates and sugars Hydration Proteins Fats Prebiotics and probiotics. Down syndrome Edwards syndrome Patau syndrome. Fragile X syndrome Huntington disease Myotonic dystrophy Friedreich's ataxia. Turner syndrome Klinefelter syndrome. Angelman syndrome Prader-Willi syndrome. Cri du chat syndrome Williams syndrome. Alport syndrome Marfan syndrome. Mendelian genetics and punnett squares Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium Inheritance patterns Independent assortment of genes and linkage Gene regulation Lac operon Epigenetics Evolution and natural selection.

    Polymerase chain reaction Gel electrophoresis and genetic testing DNA cloning. Hematology and Oncology. Sickle-cell disease Glucosephosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Antiphospholipid syndrome. Hemolytic-uremic syndrome Disseminated intravascular coagulation Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Acute leukemia Chronic leukemia. Hodgkin lymphoma Non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia. Polycythemia vera Essential thrombocytosis Myelofibrosis. Acute intermittent porphyria.

    Endocrine Pancreas

    Anti-platelet medications Anticoagulants: Heparin Anticoagulants: Direct coagulation factor inhibitors Thrombolytics Anticoagulants: Warfarin. Hematopoietic medications DNA Alkylating medications Monoclonal antibodies Antimetabolites for cancer treatment Microtubule inhibitors Platinum containing medications Topoisomerase inhibitors Ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors. Blood components Platelet plug formation primary hemostasis Coagulation secondary hemostasis Role of Vitamin K in coagulation Clot retraction and fibrinolysis Blood groups and transfusions.

    Type I hypersensitivity Food allergy Allergic rhinitis Anaphylaxis. Type II hypersensitivity. Serum sickness Type III hypersensitivity. Type IV hypersensitivity Graft-versus-host disease. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Chronic granulomatous disease Leukocyte adhesion deficiency. Complement deficiency. Thymic hypoplasia DiGeorge syndrome. Adenosine deaminase deficiency. Introduction to the immune system Vaccines. Innate immune system Complement system. Contracting the immune response and peripheral tolerance B and T cell memory.

    Endocrine system introduction

    Internal Medicine. Homocystinuria Phenylketonuria Maple syrup urine disease.


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    • Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. Hunter syndrome. Folate Vitamin B9 deficiency Vitamin B12 deficiency. Fetal alcohol syndrome. Bacteriology Virology Mycology Parasitology Pharmacology. Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus epidermidis Staphylococcus saprophyticus. Streptococcus pneumoniae Streptococcus agalactiae Group B Strep.

      Clostridium perfringens Clostridium botulinum Botulism Clostridium tetani Tetanus. Bacillus cereus Food poisoning. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bartonella henselae Cat-scratch disease and Bacilary angiomatosis. Helicobacter pylori Vibrio cholerae Cholera Campylobacter jejuni. Neisseria meningitidis Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Tuberculosis. Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Chlamydia trachomatis. Treponema pallidum Syphilis. Herpes simplex virus Varicella zoster virus. Human papillomavirus. Influenza virus. Measles virus Mumps virus Respiratory syncytial virus.

      Zika virus. Rabies virus. Prions Spongiform encephalopathy.

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      Plasmodium species Malaria. Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas disease. Protein synthesis inhibitors: Aminoglycosides Antimetabolites: Sulfonamides and trimethoprim Antituberculosis medications Miscellaneous cell wall synthesis inhibitors Cell wall synthesis inhibitors: Cephalosporins DNA synthesis inhibitors: Metronidazole DNA synthesis inhibitors: Fluoroquinolones Miscellaneous protein synthesis inhibitors Cell wall synthesis inhibitors: Penicillins Protein synthesis inhibitors: Tetracyclines.

      Antifungal: Echinocandins Antifungal: Imidazoles Miscellaneous antifungal medications. Anti-mite and louse medications Anthelmintic medications Antimalarials. Herpes medications Protease inhibitors Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors Neuraminidase inhibitors.

      Rheumatoid arthritis Reactive arthritis Psoriatic arthritis Gout Ankylosing spondylitis. Dermatomyositis Polymyositis Inclusion body myopathy. Osteoarthritis Slipped capital femoral epiphysis. Septic arthritis Osteomyelitis. Lordosis, kyphosis, and scoliosis.

      Rotator cuff tear. Bone tumors. Congenital hip dysplasia. Cleidocranial dysplasia Achondroplasia. Acetaminophen Antigout medications Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Osteoporosis medications. Skeletal system anatomy and physiology Cartilage Bone remodeling and repair Fibrous, cartilage, and synovial joints. Muscular system anatomy and physiology Muscle contraction Slow twitch and fast twitch muscle fibers Sliding filament model of muscle contraction Neuromuscular junction and motor unit. Ischemic stroke Intracerebral hemorrhage Subarachnoid hemorrhage Subdural hematoma Epidural hematoma.

      Epilepsy Febrile seizure. Reye syndrome Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Alzheimer's disease Frontotemporal dementia Vascular dementia Lewy body dementia. Kluver-Bucy syndrome. Multiple sclerosis Transverse myelitis Central pontine myelinolysis Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.