Their influence has been subtle as has been their appeal to many students who affection for the discipline finds its promise in a discerning self-awareness and a critical understanding of others and their worlds. This volume is not simply a collection of personal chronologies which might inspire or lend appreciation to a younger generation. Our contributors cover a broad swath of the second half of the 20 th century, the century of psychology. Nurturing the discipline from within various philosophical, social-political, and cultural roots, their autobiographies exemplify marginality, if not alienation, from the mainstream, even as their professional and personal lives give expression to engaged scholarship, commitment to vocation and, straightforwardly and reflectively, a love of the heart.
Buy eBook. It stood out for the clarity of its epistemological approach and the way it defined the boundaries of the field and the limitations of psychological research. His deep understanding of the psychodynamic analysis of the religious attitude was supported not only by his vast knowledge of philosophical and theological anthropology Vergote, , but also by the vast and refined empirical analysis which he himself conducted. I had discovered Flournoy by chance in the library of the Cattolica in a volume in which there was a collection of his most important articles published in the Archives de Psychologie and translated into Italian.
Ever since then, these two authors have been a fundamental point of reference for me in my methodology in the psychology of religion. As an associate of the chair for religious psychology, I had the opportunity of working with Godin and was responsible for translating his lecture notes from French into Italian. From Godin I learned to unite the rigor of psychological research with its possible pastoral application, without any overlapping or cross-contamination.
Godin had great organizational abilities and knew how to inspire his collaborators to strive for the renewal of the Catholic Church and of catechesis, for which Vatican Council II had already paved the way. At the Salesian University, as at the other pontifical universities, many lecturers and students priests, clerics, and the few lay people , believed that pastoral action should not be limited to verbal proclamation but should also involve bearing witness.
For some, a desire for fidelity to the Gospel teaching and to researching the meaning of the words they were proclaiming, led to their sharing their life with families and communities of squatters, which were quite numerous on the outskirts of Rome. For some academics, existential doubts and pastoral demands became a 2 My Concern with Psychology of Religion… 25 further stimulus and raised more questions for their research.
Or to put it more radically, what is religion, what is God, and what is the Church for believers? These themes would inspire not only general surveys but also a broadening of research into the specific fields of psychology of religion, psychology of communication, developmental psychology, social psychology, and so on. Milanesi conducted a great deal of rigorous research in various Italian regions into the teaching of religion in schools, into the transition from a sacral family to a secular one, into the tensions among youth groups within the Church institutions, into the values held by youngsters and into their rapid development in those years of great ferment.
I published a considerable amount in those years, most of which was related to the teaching of courses in psychology and sociology of religion held by Milanesi, and there is still a great deal of unpublished material in my bottom drawer, awaiting inclusion in a scientific biography which I hope one day to write.
As regards my occasional involvement in research, I tended to work on the purely psychological aspects, which interested me more than the surveys and the big sampling numbers of sociological investigation. In fact, I was slowly beginning to convince myself of the difficulty in finding proper instruments to measure accurately the psychology of the religious personality. I became convinced that psychology should concern itself with the study of the actual experience of psychic functioning, as opposed to historically and culturally determined religion, that which the believer encounters in his own environment.
My conviction remains to this day and I refute the idea that one can equate religion and spirituality, transcendental religion and dedication to a set of values that Gordon Allport called absolute substitutes. My search for valid instruments for empirical research entailed both the adaptation and the application of the tests and classical questionnaires that are found in the Anglo-American literature and the attempt to develop new ones. For the study of how notions about God — as taught by the Catholic Church — are acquired, I adopted the Piagetian semiclinical interview method.
Basing my approach on the research by Vergote and his collaborators into the relationship between parental figures and God representations, I applied the semantic differential. I adopted an instrument based on verbal association similar to the one adopted by Deconchy, based on the model proposed by Osgood, Suci, and Tannebaum I had previously used this instrument, which was combined with an appropriately developed objective proof of religious knowledge Aletti, , on samples from various Italian regions over a number of years.
This research made it possible for me to identify specific psychic functionings related to God representations among Italian Catholic youngsters, and the link between these modalities and the religious knowledge learned from the systemic teaching of religion. I published a synthesis of the results of this vast research Aletti, a , which was later summarized in English Aletti, a. Aletti A Psychology of Religion The epistemological and methodological approach which, thanks to Flournoy and Vergote, both I and my thesis had assimilated, was fully shared by Milanesi.
It is reflected in his book Psicologia della religione, to which I also contributed. The book was the first Italian manual for this new discipline. It was published in three substantially identical editions , , A total of 9, copies were sold and it is considered the manual for the formation of generations of students and scholars, and a fundamental focal point for the few manuals that were published subsequently in Italy. Psychology of religion was presented as an empirical-phenomenological discipline, based on observation and interpretation, and examines constants and variables of religious behavior according to the categories and models of psychological sciences.
Religion was understood as an intentional relationship with that which the subject considers Transcendent, within a determined symbolic-linguistic system. That being said, it is worth noting that the discipline does not study God, but belief in God. Basically, it is the methodological exclusion of the Transcendent, both as an object of investigation and as a factor for explaining religious behavior.
Neutrality means also holding a position of equidistance between reductive psychological attitudes and crypto-apologetic temptations. The following example illustrates the kind of difficulties that the discipline had to face in those days. It also serves to explain the late arrival of psychology of religion in Italy.
One has to keep in mind that in those days any book written by a priest, and Milanesi was a priest, or published by a Catholic publishing house, like our publisher, had to be vetted by an ecclesiastical authority appointed by the local Bishop, which would declare nihil obstat quominus imprimatur. The L. That particular phrase was mine and I firmly objected to its removal. It was a phrase that gave clear expression to the epistemological layout of the whole discipline.
Then, as today, it was for me a fixed point in my understanding of religious language from a psychological point of view. Furthermore, it found various connections with a socalled apophatic theology, which holds that God could be addressed in what He is not per viam negationis , and not for what He is.
Ultimately, the book was published without censure or corrections. Often they stay to discuss their studies and happily prolong these conversations over a pizza and a good red wine. During my time at the Salesian University I also had the opportunity to examine other epistemological approaches.
One Roman pontifical university had started offering courses in psychology of religion.
B. F. Skinner
However, generally speaking, the content was determined primarily by apologetic or pastoral interests. Later she would also take an enthusiastic and active part in the organizations that support this discipline. In contrast, the attitude at the prestigious Gregorian University towards the discipline was varied and ambivalent. Fruitful collaboration with the Roman psychoanalytic world had begun thanks to the efforts of Padre Giovanni Magnani, founder and director of the Institute of Religious Sciences.
Later, in , an Institute of Psychology was founded at the same university, with the specific intent of tackling serious pastoral problems, mainly the large-scale defections which numbered in the thousands from the Society of Jesus over a period of just a few years. The two institutes, although coexisting within the same university, 28 M. Aletti conducted their activities in parallel, without any interaction, also because of differences in organization and scope.
Magnani, together with Godin, was closer to American ego psychology and to French psychoanalytic literature. Rulla, was meant to be a school for the training of trainers for the clergy. This school remained quite alien to and distant from the Italian world of psychoanalysis, psychology in general, and psychology of religion in particular. My own position was, inevitably, closer to that of Godin and Magnani, with whom I had worked for years. It was evident from the start that this school was incapable of entering into a dialogue with the international mainstream of psychology and with the psychology of religion around the world.
The improper use of terminology borrowed from psychoanalysis has led to its remaining in cultural isolation right up to the present day. A Psychoanalytic Reading of the Religious Discourse Moving to Milan in the mids, I started a formation curriculum in psychoanalysis that followed the rigorous guidelines of the Italian Psychoanalytic Association, which formed part of the IPA, the International Psychoanalytic Association.
From the beginning of the s my main profession was that of a psychoanalytic psychotherapist. However, my experiences as a psychoanalyst have been enriched by my capacity to interpret religion, as experienced by the individuals I have encountered, using the methodology learned from my empirical research in the psychology of religion. The psychoanalytic perspective has taught me to decode what lies behind human language about God. Sustained by my new familiarity with Freudian psychoanalysis, I sought to consult critically the works of various French-speaking theologians and scholars who had become interested in psychoanalysis primarily through the work of Jacques Lacan.
Many of them saw in psychoanalysis an iconoclastic function, that is, a means of purifying religion from cultural and historical sediments and being able to free religious discourse from the imaginary order and to direct it towards the symbolic order. My rereading of these authors was attentive and critical, and occasionally enriched also by personal contact. I began to appreciate the unbiased search for the psychological truth of religion undertaken by some of these writers, especially Pohier, who started with a critical evaluation of his own experience as a believer.
This approach led Pohier to question his previous work as a theologian and to renounce a systematic presentation of doctrine. The question was crying out for a personal answer and personal involvement. Pohier attempted to provide a response in a book that immediately drew my attention on account of the fact that its title, Quand Je Dis Dieu When I Say God; Pohier, , echoed the question that had so long fascinated me. Rather, I found myself oriented more towards the authors of the object relations theory and to Winnicott in particular.
His concept of illusion, in the sense of deceiving oneself in a real world, seemed to me illuminating. The transitional phenomenon model, derived from the childhood stage specific experience of the transitional object, provided a new reference model that could also be adapted to adult relational and cultural experiences. Art, eroticism, culture, religion, and also science, and even the clinical environment itself could be understood as transitional experiences. This developed into a friendship and a collaboration that has lasted many years now. The adoption of the Winnicottian model had brought considerable hope to the psychologists of religion who were also believers and who saw new apologetic potential.
The model is useful insofar as it helps understand psychologically what takes place in the mind of the believer, but not to justify religion. In fact, the model of the illusionary transitional phenomenon can be applied just as well both to the 30 M. Also in this case I had to acknowledge the legitimate restrictions and the limitations of research in psychology of religion. Teaching Psychology of Religion in Italy: A Bumpy Road As already mentioned, my main profession is that of a psychoanalytic psychotherapist.
I continue to pursue my profound interest in psychology of religion as a side activity, but not as a true profession. It might be described as a hobby, although a demanding one. Even though in these last 10 years I have often taught as many as three courses in one academic year, I still consider the teaching an extra. My employment as a university lecturer was ongoing but peripheral, and did not offer any real future in terms of an academic career.
During those years I was completing my 3-year specialization course in work and organizational psychology. There was no post in psychology of religion, therefore I was first seconded as an assistant to the professor of general psychology and subsequently to the head of developmental psychology. I held lectures and seminars mostly on psychology of religion in early development and tutored students in their dissertations relating to this subject. This was an excellent opportunity for me to fill in my knowledge of international literature on psychology of religion.
I have made a habit of reading the same texts as my students and I discuss all the chapters of their essays with them sentence by sentence. Not having any research funds, nor in those days the authorization to order books for the university library, I decided to buy them with my own money. In this way, I gradually managed to build up my own personal library of books on psychology of religion in my home.
As I broadened and updated my knowledge of the literature, I became aware of developments in psychology of religion at an international level. This also increased my frustration, as I was increasingly conscious of the limitations in this field in Italy. It made me realize how important it was for me to have contact with foreign scholars.
I also experienced, with a certain frustration, the old sterile opposition between the psychoanalytic and the ecclesiastical worlds. It was not the first time that a university authority would ask how it was possible for me to combine my profession as a psychoanalyst with teaching at a Catholic university and with my own Christian faith; as a psychoanalyst, I was considered to be a sexist and an atheist! My specialization in psychology consisted in research on a large sample of Italian adolescents and their understanding of the concept of God.
It identified five different psychic modes, the institutional, the rational, the relational, the naturalistic, and the problematic. In the elaboration of the data, I made use of cluster analysis. It was the first time that this method had been used in the psychology of religion in Italy.
At that time the technique was extremely rare and the machines needed to carry it out were cumbersome and expensive. The research with this method continued for a decade and more than 5, Italian adolescents were interviewed. The results were published first in journals, and later were summarized in two chapters of a book Aletti, a. In reality, the two approaches embody two different modes of understanding, not only in psychology of religion but also in psychology in general: one is qualitative and hermeneutical, the other more quantitative and experimental.
The scientific experimental model aims at identifying aspects, factors, and variables that have an operational definition and that can be isolated in a research design that demonstrates replicability, correlations, and causal connections and therefore, to a certain extent, lends a certain amount of predictability to the process. However, because of its nature, this cumulative collection of data can only refer to general, and consequently, artificial categories when it comes to religious characteristics common to a group of individuals.
Psychoanalytic investigation, on the other hand, acts within a dual relationship that cannot be repeated. It involves longitudinal observation of the conscious and unconscious motivations from a subjective account. Psychoanalysis as a narrative is characterized by anecdotes and interaction in its structure. Psychoanalytic interpretation is post-dictive rather than pre-dictive. This allows a deeper understanding of the characteristics of the idiographic personal religious experience, but only if the patient wants to include it in the personal account within an analysis and in a spontaneous way Aletti, , It should be emphasized that although the approaches are distinct from each other, for a psychology researcher they are mutually inspiring.
Empirical research should be conducted on some of these processes in a quantitative manner and on a sample of subjects. Although I have not received adequate support and often been discouraged by the organization of the syllabus, the course has given me much satisfaction as well as some disappointments. On the positive side, the students have always been motivated and full of enthusiasm. Some of them have become my collaborators and friends, contributing with their research and publications to the development of the discipline.
The low point was when 1 year I had only one student in my class. Today the students are not numerous there are about 50 , but they are keen and interested. Generally speaking, in Italy, the attitude of the academic world and of mainstream psychology seems geared towards a certain change and it appears, at least in theory, open to the possibility that psychology of religion might find a place in state universities. There are already, in fact, some encouraging signs Aletti, a. The Milanesi Award offered by the SIPR Italian Society for Psychology of Religion: the association that includes all Italian psychologists interested in this field for the best thesis in psychology of religion, always attracts between 15 and 20 new participating graduates.
This is a confirmation of the renewed and widened interest in the field. Distribution of the bulletin Psicologia della Religione-News reaches 2, copies in Italy as well as another abroad. Certainly my dream to see psychology of religion find its place as a relevant discipline in the psychology faculties has not been realized. But some change is already visible. There has been a constant increase in the number of lecturers interested in the subject, as well as an increasing recognition of the autonomy of the discipline and its place within the psychological rather than the theological or pedagogical disciplines Aletti, b.
In compensation for the lack of interest shown by the academic world, adherents to the discipline have a strong personal commitment to it, which is evident in their work with study groups and other cultural associations. Only members genuinely interested in the subject, and not in an academic career or in economic benefits, have adhered to it.
This has led to a situation where those interested in the subject have had to have another source of income and a profession that left them free time to devote to psychology of religion, as if it were a hobby. They have included psychoanalysts, psychiatrists, and psychologists who have chosen to put their expertise at the service of their intellectual curiosity, as well as philosophers, priests, and sometimes university lecturers from other disciplines 2 My Concern with Psychology of Religion… 33 with a personal interest in psychology of religion untainted by conditioning or academic pretensions.
These included psychoanalysts, doctors, psychologists, and anthropologists. I myself joined for about 10 years, starting from , and took part in some of the conferences. For this reason I sought other paths. In , a group of psychoanalysts, philosophers, and theologians, united by a common interest in relating depth psychology to religion, held a conference in Frascati, near Rome.
Although poorly funded, the association was sustained by the enthusiasm of its founder, Franco Morandi, and organized several meetings over the course of a few years; in some cases, the proceedings of these meetings were even published. But the association, which was limited to acting as a network for these meetings, came to an end as the result of a lack of a proper organization and an institutional structure with paying members and scientific contributions.
Having observed these difficulties from close range, I realized how important it was for a nonacademic cultural association to have a structural and organizational basis. The first board was elected in He assumed some kind of interface between psychology and religion, which presupposed a relationship of mutual influence between the two. Within the division there were other scholars, including myself, who were much more in favor of complete autonomy in research in that particular field of psychology, which saw religion as an object of scientific research.
Aletti The second approach implied a nonconfessional and autonomous stance towards religious institutions. Both positions were present within the same division, but the second the nonconfessional one became more popular, as my election as secretary testified. Since taking on this responsibility, I have to this day been involved in carrying out the organizational tasks of the division.
I have been its president from the outset. The association has professional and academic psychologists, and acts as a cultural stimulus, as well as providing organizational support. It holds study days and conferences, publishes its bulletin, Psicologia della Religione-News, three times a year, and every other year holds a competition known as the Giancarlo Milanesi Award, for the best thesis on a subject related to psychology of religion. From its beginning, the SIPR was always careful to consider a variety of psychological approaches to religion and all the subdisciplines, theories, and models of mainstream psychology.
In each of these conferences special attention is given to the epistemological and methodological evaluation of the various approaches undertaken and to their validity and usefulness for the psychological study of religion. Being directly involved in the preparation and organization of these conferences, and in the editing and publication of the proceedings, I myself have always found them useful as a vehicle for deepening, presenting, and eventually publishing my own personal interpretation and evaluation of these single approaches and methodologies.
- Autobiographical Narratives Definition!
- Saint Augustine (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy).
- Drive the Deal!;
- Making the Bank Wait !!
- Autobiography and the Psychological Study of Religious Lives.
Quite naturally, this psychic phenomenon called religion shares the complexities of the human being. None of the psychological approaches provides total understanding of the religious attitude, but all reconstruct some aspect of it. This perspective follows the individual in his or her personal history, through developmental processes that are not always harmonious and synchronized, but which go through difficulties and crises with unpredictable outcomes Aletti, b.
The SIPR conferences are open to foreign scholars and there is always a highprofile international figure among the speakers. The proceedings are published, at least in part, also in English, providing a contribution to the international debate. In addition, the society encourages its members to participate in international 2 My Concern with Psychology of Religion… 35 psychology of religion organizations and at their conferences.
This international dimension has provided me with the opportunity to meet some of the most important figures in psychology of religion from Europe and the United States. On more than one occasion they have been my guests, and friendships have been formed. Time spent with them has always been pleasant, and they have enriched me with their friendship and insights. For my part, I have also been invited twice to hold a series of conferences and meetings with colleagues in Brazil.
In , together with my wife Daniela, I participated in the Fifth Symposium of the European Psychologists of Religion in Lund, Sweden and presented a paper on my research on adolescent religion Aletti, a. It was the first time that an Italian scholar had taken part and the chairperson of the International Committee of European Psychologists of Religion, Jan van der Lans, invited me to their meeting. I have remained a member of this group and thus been able to learn, not only through books but also through direct contact with the protagonists, about developments abroad, where conditions have always been more favorable than in Italy.
Conversely, I have also been able to offer some contributions from my own experience with the national association of psychology of religion SIPR , which did not in fact have an equivalent in Europe. I subsequently took part in all the conferences of the European group, which at the Glasgow meeting of adopted the name of IAPR, International Association for the Psychology of Religion. Since then, I have accepted positions on the boards of other international associations, as well as on the editorial boards of the major journals dealing with the subject. With time, the number of Italians participating in international meetings has increased.
At first, it was only myself and my collaborators who took part, and this at our own expense, on account of our not being able to avail ourselves of university funds. At the Vienna conference of , in contrast, 15 Italians made presentations. Conclusions: Small Steps on a Long Journey On rereading the story of my year journey through the field of psychology of religion, I perceive that progress has been made and milestones passed, which suggests to me that there has been continuity and coherence in the history of the discipline, even if my ultimate goal has not yet been achieved.
A Psychologist of Religion I consider myself a psychologist of religion, seeking, through the study of lived religion, a better understanding of the human psyche. This almost always takes the form of the religion to which they belong Aletti, b, p.
SELF AND AUTOBIOGRAPHY IN NOTES FROM THE UNDERGROUND AND CONFESSIONS OF ZENO
At the same time, precisely because I am a psychologist, I deem it necessary to know the religion to which the believer makes reference. However, judgment should be limited to the psychological truth. Nor is it a question of a specific dimension of the personality, which — according to some — is present in all the various cultural and historical forms of religion. In short, I hold that psychology of religion should defend its specificity as a psychological discipline, while on the other hand respecting the specific contents of any religion Aletti, b. Defending Psychology in Psychology of Religion In my opinion, it is obvious that psychology is not interested in the essence, origin, or the truth content of any religion.
I am concerned not with God, but with the believing in God. Psychological research is centered not on the religion, but on the individual believer and her attitude towards her religion. The psychological relevance of faith lies in the satisfaction of the desire for God to exist and not in the validation of the content. From a psychological point of view, the most important thing about faith is the act of believing. What really counts in faith is not belief, but the process of believing.
Accordingly, I think that the study of atheism is also part of psychology of religion because, as Oskar Pfister told Freud, atheism is a negative faith. This is very often done not only for theoretical but also for pragmatic purposes, such as pastoral objectives, spiritual counseling, vocational discernment, and the like. However, it tends to distort research as well as the acquisitions brought about by psychology Aletti, b. This kind of criticism should be heeded by the researcher. I am fortunate in that teaching in a theological faculty helps me keep up to date with the theoretical reflections and pastoral practices of religious professionals as well as with the religion as it is actually lived by believers.
As a result, I have maintained my view that the human individual lives her religiosity in a specific institutional context, with beliefs, liturgies, and determined associational and organizational forms. Psychological study, although in theory concerned solely with the interaction between the individual psyche and these cultural and historical manifestations, in practice also needs to take account of what these manifestations actually are. The institutional perspective dogma, cult, organization is essential for the symbolic-religious language.
Given the amount 38 M. In Latin terms, I would define it as otium rather than negotium.
The same holds true for a number of my collaborators and students, who devote their free time to research and organizational tasks. This sense of friendship and the sharing of common interests is one of the most appealing aspects of our work as SIPR leaders. It is an atmosphere we seek to re-create in our meetings with colleagues around the world. Our conferences are occasions for international cultural exchange, and sharing food and wine at table is equally important.
This cultivation of relationships with colleagues is not just a matter of responding to a sentimental need, but a guarantee of sound research collaboration. In order to study religious behavior it is, in fact, important to integrate the various psychological approaches through the collaboration of many researchers, as the single approaches give us only partial understanding. Today in our field it is rare to find scholars with horizons broad enough to include the whole range of possible approaches and models necessary for a unified and integrated vision of psychology of religion.
Some of our mentors had far wider knowledge and they are sorely missed. They were enormously cultured and taught us that one does not become a psychologist of religion simply by researching and reading studies on psychology of religion, for the simple reason that, although everything which is human is psychological, in religion not everything is psychic. Psychoanalysis and Faith: Two Journeys, One Goal: The Truth About Man Psychoanalytic knowledge about the biological and pulsional roots of language, as well as practical experience of the efficacy of the word in psychoanalytic practice, have helped me and guided me in the reading of religious language.
My knowledge of the theology of the religion that I study has allowed me to recognize meanings as well as signs and symbols in religious language. In the same way, psychology of religion studies the syntax of religious language and not its doctrinal content. Rather, its interest is in the conscious and unconscious processes, or, in other words, the pathways, conflicts, and outcomes of becoming a religious person. There is therefore no such thing as confessional psychology of religion, just as there no such thing as Christian psychotherapy. The psychological truth like the psychoanalytic truth of the human being is not something that can conflict with, or even restrict, the truth concerning the religious person.
My impression is that the call for dialogue stems from mutual suspicion. For the believer, as for the nonbeliever, one thing is certain: to the extent that psychological knowledge is true, it cannot but free the person and render him or her able to relate with that mysterious depth, which is alluded to by the name of God, in a more radical, affective, and subjectively conscious way.
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Bologna: Dehoniane. The psychology of religion in Italy. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 2, — Religious experience, gender differences and religious language. Aletti Ed. Nuovi fenomeni e movimenti religiosi alla luce della psicologia pp. Roma: LAS. Religione o psicoterapia? Le ragioni di un confronto.
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Per una lettura psicoanalitica del simbolo religioso. Rossi Eds. Allacciare legami, sciogliere nodi: Prospettive e problemi dei modelli delle relazioni oggettuali applicati alla religione. Torino: Centro Scientifico Editore. Aletti Aletti, M. Rizzuto Ed. Teaching psychology of religion in Italy. La psicologia della religione in Italia: Storia, problemi e prospettive.
Gorsuch Eds. La religione come illusione: Modelli, prospettive e problemi per una lettura psicoanalitica. De Nardi Eds. Eugen Drewermann tra psicologia del profondo e antropologia teologica: Osservazioni da un punto di vista psicoanalitico. Diana Ed. Religion, coping and psychoanalysis: A preliminary discussion. Teologia, psicologia, psicologia della religione: Alcuni snodi attuali di un rapporto complesso.
Teologia, 28, — Psicologia e nuove forme della religione. Aletti, G. Angelini, G. Mazzocato, E. Prato, F. Sequeri Eds. Milano: Glossa. Psicologia USP, 15 3 , — Religion as an illusion: Prospects for and problems with a psychoanalytical model. Between neurobiological findings, cultural contexts and individual attributions: The specificity of the psychological approach to religion. Aletti, D. New perspectives in psychology of religion pp. Ancona-Lopez Eds.
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Lieggi Ed. La teologia sfidata pp. Religious metaphor: Psychology, theology, aesthetics. Some clinical considerations. Allport, G. The individual and his religion: A psychological interpretation. Deconchy, J. Bruxelles: Lumen Vitae. Dumoulin, A. Flournoy, T. Psicologia religiosa. Pavia: Mattei, Speroni e C. Milanesi, G. Psicologia della religione. Torino: Elle Di Ci.
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The measurement of meaning. Pohier, J. Quand je dis Dieu. Paris: Seuil. Rossi, G. Torino: Borla. Original work Psychologie religieuse. Bruxelles: Charles Dessart. La teologia e la sua archeologia: Fede, teologia e scienze umane. Fossano: Esperienze. Winnicott, D. Children learning. In Home is where we start from: Essays by a psychoanalyst pp. London: Penguin. Zunini, G. Man and his religion: Aspects of religious psychology. London: Geoffrey Chapman. Milano: Il Saggiatore. Chapter 3 The Path of Least Resistance Donald Capps I began to think of myself as a psychologist of religion when I was a doctoral student at the University of Chicago from to It was during this year that I became interested in the psychology of religion and began searching for doctoral programs in this academic field.
I discovered, however, that although there were professors who specialized in psychology of religion, there were no doctoral programs as such. James E. Weaker attempts to explain personal sameness in time or personal stability are reviewed and argued to be more limited than autobiographical reasoning in their ability to bridge personal change. Furthermore, the role of narrative as point of reference for autobiographical reasoning is highlighted, linking our concept to that of narrative identity as originally conceived.
Finally, contextual and stylistic features of autobiographical reasoning are specified that render it beneficial for self-continuity and well-being. Keywords: self-continuity , autobiographical reasoning , life story , well-being , identity claims , biographical ruptures , life transitions , life narratives , autobiographical arguments , psychosocial identity. Access to the complete content on Oxford Handbooks Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription.
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