The deliverance of Baldwin was no longer, he said, in the power of man: that prince had died in prison; and the manner of his death is variously related by ignorance and credulity. The lovers of a tragic legend will be pleased to hear that the royal captive was tempted by the amorous queen of the Bulgarians; that his chaste refusal exposed him to the falsehood of a woman and the jealousy of a savage; that his hands and feet were severed from his body; that his bleeding trunk was cast among the carcases of dogs and horses; and that he breathed three days before he was devoured by the birds of prey.
He related the wonders of his escape, his adventures, and his penance, among a people prone to believe and to rebel: and, in the first transport, Flanders acknowledged her long-lost sovereign. A short examination before the French court detected the impostor, who was punished with an ignominious death; but the Flemings still adhered to the pleasing error; and the countess Jane is accused by the gravest historians of sacrificing to her ambition the life of an unfortunate father.
In all civilised hostility a treaty is established for the Edition: current; Page: [ 18 ] exchange or ransom of prisoners; and, if their captivity be prolonged, their condition is known, and they are treated according to their rank with humanity or honour. But the savage Bulgarian was a stranger to the laws of war; his prisons were involved in darkness and silence; and above a year elapsed before the Latins could be assured of the death of Baldwin, before his brother, the regent Henry, would consent to assume the title of emperor.
His moderation was applauded by the Greeks as an act of rare and inimitable virtue. Their light and perfidious ambition was eager to seize or anticipate the moment of a vacancy, while a law of succession, the guardian both of the prince and people, was gradually defined and confirmed in the hereditary monarchies of Europe. In the support of the Eastern empire Henry was gradually left without an associate, as the heroes of the crusade retired from the world or from the war.
The doge of Venice, the venerable Dandolo, in the fulness of years and glory, sunk into the grave. The marquis of Montferrat was slowly recalled from the Peloponnesian war to the revenge of Baldwin and the defence of Thessalonica. Some nice disputes of feudal homage and service were reconciled in a personal interview between the emperor and the king; they were firmly united by mutual esteem and the common danger; and their alliance was sealed by the nuptial of Henry with the daughter of the Italian prince.
He soon deplored the loss of his friend and father. At the persuasion of some faithful Greeks, Boniface made a bold and successful inroad among the hills of Rhodope: the Bulgarians fled on his approach; they assembled to harass his retreat. On the intelligence that his rear was attacked, without waiting for any defensive armour, he leaped on horseback, couched his lance, and drove the enemies before him; but in the rash pursuit he was pierced with a mortal wound; and the head of the king of Thessalonica was presented to Calo-John, who enjoyed the honours, without the merit, of victory.
It is here, at this melancholy event, that the pen or the voice of Jeffrey of Villehardouin Edition: current; Page: [ 19 ] seems to drop or to expire; 37 and, if he still exercised his military office of marshal of Romania, his subsequent exploits are buried in oblivion. In the double war against the Greeks of Asia and the Bulgarians of Europe, he was ever the foremost on shipboard or on horseback; and, though he cautiously provided for the success of his arms, the drooping Latins were often roused by his example to save and to second their fearless emperor.
But such efforts, and some supplies of men and money from France, were of less avail than the errors, the cruelty, and the death of their most formidable adversary. When the despair of the Greek subjects invited Calo-John as their deliverer, they hoped that he would protect their liberty and adopt their laws; they were soon taught to compare the degrees of national ferocity, and to execrate the savage conqueror, who no longer dissembled his intention of dispeopling Thrace, of demolishing the cities, and of transplanting the inhabitants beyond the Danube.
Many towns and villages of Thrace were already evacuated; an heap of ruins marked the place of Philippopolis, and a similar calamity was expected at Demotica and Hadrianople by the first authors of the revolt. They raised a cry of grief and repentance Edition: current; Page: [ 20 ] to the throne of Henry; the emperor alone had the magnanimity to forgive and trust them. No more than four hundred knights, with their serjeants and archers, could be assembled under his banner; and with this slender force he fought and repulsed the Bulgarian, who, besides his infantry, was at the head of forty thousand horse.
In this expedition, Henry felt the difference between an hostile and a friendly country; the remaining cities were preserved by his arms; and the savage, with shame and loss, was compelled to relinquish his prey. The siege of Thessalonica was the last of the evils which Calo-John inflicted or suffered; he was stabbed in the night in his tent; and the general, perhaps the assassin, who found him weltering in his blood, ascribed the blow, with general applause, to the lance of St.
If he ceded some doubtful limits, an ample kingdom was reserved for himself and his feudatories; and his reign, which lasted only ten years, afforded a short interval of prosperity and peace. Far above the narrow policy of Baldwin and Boniface, he freely entrusted to the Greeks the most important offices of the state and army; and this liberality of sentiment and practice was the more seasonable, as the princes of Nice and Epirus had already learned to seduce and employ the mercenary valour of the Latins.
It was the aim of Henry to unite and reward his deserving subjects of every nation and language; but he appeared less solicitous to accomplish the impracticable union of the two churches. His valour was a vulgar attribute which he shared with ten thousand knights; but Henry possessed the superior courage to oppose, in a superstitious age, the pride and avarice of the clergy. In the cathedral of St. Sophia, he presumed to place his throne on the right hand of the patriarch; and this presumption excited the sharpest censure of Pope Innocent the Third.
The virtuous Henry died at Thessalonica, in the defence of that kingdom, and of an infant, the son of his friend Boniface. In the two first emperors of Constantinople, the male line of the counts of Flanders was extinct. But their sister Yolande was the wife of a French prince, the mother of a numerous progeny; and one of her daughters had married Andrew, king of Hungary, a brave and pious champion of the cross. By Edition: current; Page: [ 22 ] seating him on the Byzantine throne, the barons of Romania would have acquired the forces of a neighbouring and warlike kingdom; but the prudent Andrew revered the laws of succession; and the princess Yolande, with her husband, Peter of Courtenay, count of Auxerre, was invited by the Latins to assume the empire of the East.
The royal birth of his father, the noble origin of his mother, recommended to the barons of France the first-cousin of their king. His reputation was fair, his possessions were ample, and in the bloody crusade against the Albigeois the soldiers and the priests had been abundantly satisfied of his zeal and valour. Vanity might applaud the elevation of a French emperor of Constantinople; but prudence must pity, rather than envy, his treacherous and imaginary greatness. To assert and adorn his title, he was reduced to sell or mortgage the best of his patrimony.
By these expedients, the liberality of his royal kinsman, Philip Augustus, and the national spirit of chivalry, he was enabled to pass the Alps at the head of one hundred and forty knights and five thousand five hundred serjeants and archers. After some hesitation, Pope Honorius the Third was persuaded to crown the successor of Constantine; but he performed the ceremony in a church without the walls, lest he should seem to imply, or to bestow, anyright of sovereignty over the ancient capital of the empire. The Venetians had engaged to transport Peter and his forces beyond the Adriatic, and the empress, with her four children, to the Byzantine palace; but they required, as the price of their service, that he should recover Durazzo from the despot of Epirus.
Michael Angelus, or Comnenus, the first of his dynasty, had bequeathed the succession of his power and ambition to Theodore, his legitimate brother, who already threatened and invaded the establishments of the Latins. After discharging his debt by a fruitless assault, the emperor raised the siege to prosecute a long and perilous journey over land from Durazzo to Thessalonica.
He was soon lost in the mountains of Epirus; the passes were fortified; his provisions exhausted; he was delayed and Edition: current; Page: [ 23 ] deceived by a treacherous negotiation; and, after Peter of Courtenay and the Roman legate had been arrested in a banquet, the French troops, without leaders or hopes, were eager to exchange their arms for the delusive promise of mercy and bread. The Vatican thundered; and the impious Theodore was threatened with the vengeance of earth and heaven; but the captive emperor and his soldiers were forgotten, and the reproaches of the pope are confined to the imprisonment of his legate.
No sooner was he satisfied by the deliverance of the priest and a promise of spiritual obedience, than he pardoned and protected the despot of Epirus. His peremptory commands suspended the ardour of the Venetians and the king of Hungary; and it was only by a natural or untimely death 43 that Peter of Courtenay was released from his hopeless captivity. The long ignorance of his fate, and the presence of the lawful sovereign, of Yolande, his wife or widow, delayed the proclamation of a new emperor.
Before her death, and in the midst of her grief, she was delivered of a son, who was named Baldwin, the last and most unfortunate of the Latin princes of Constantinople.
His birth endeared him to the barons of Romania; but his childhood would have prolonged the troubles of a minority, and his claims were superseded by the elder claims of his brethren. The first of these, Philip of Courtenay, who derived from his mother the inheritance of Namur, had the wisdom to prefer the substance of a marquisate to the shadow of an empire; and on his refusal, Robert, the second of the sons of Peter and Yolande, was called to the throne of Constantinople. But his reign was an era of calamity and disgrace; and the colony, as it was styled, of New France yielded on all sides to the Greeks of Nice and Epirus.
After a victory, which he owed to his perfidy rather than his courage, Theodore Angelus entered the kingdom of Thessalonica, expelled the feeble Demetrius, the son of the marquis Boniface, erected his standard on the walls of Hadrianople, and added, by his vanity, a third or fourth name to the list of rival emperors. The relics of the Asiatic province were swept away by John Vataces, the son-in-law and successor of Theodore Lascaris, and who, in a triumphant reign of thirty-three years, displayed the virtues both of peace and war.
Under his discipline, the swords of the French mercenaries were the most effectual instrument of his conquests, and their desertion from the service of their country was at once a symptom and a cause of the rising ascendant of the Greeks. By the construction of a fleet he obtained the command of the Hellespont, reduced the islands of Lesbos and Rhodes, 45 attacked the Venetians of Candia, and intercepted the rare and parsimonious succours of the West.
Once, and once only, the Latin emperor sent an army against Vataces; and, in the defeat of that army, the veteran knights, the last of the original conquerors, were left on the field of battle. But the success of a foreign enemy was less painful to the pusillanimous Robert than the insolence of his Latin subjects, who confounded the weakness of the emperor and of the empire. His personal misfortunes will prove the anarchy of the government and the ferociousness of the times. The amorous youth had neglected his Greek Edition: current; Page: [ 25 ] bride, the daughter of Vataces, to introduce into the palace a beautiful maid, of a private, though noble, family of Artois; and her mother had been tempted by the lustre of the purple to forfeit her engagements with a gentleman of Burgundy.
His love was converted into rage; he assembled his friends, forced the palace gates, threw the mother into the sea, and inhumanly cut off the nose and lips of the wife or concubine of the emperor. Instead of punishing the offender, the barons avowed and applauded the savage deed, 46 which, as a prince and as a man, it was impossible that Robert should forgive. He escaped from the guilty city to implore the justice or compassion of the pope; the emperor was coolly exhorted to return to his station; before he could obey, he sunk under the weight of grief, shame, and impotent resentment.
It was only in the age of chivalry that valour could ascend from a private station to the thrones of Jerusalem and Constantinople. The titular kingdom of Jerusalem had devolved to Mary, the daughter of Isabella, and Conrad of Montferrat, and the grand-daughter of Almeric or Amaury. She was given to John of Brienne, of a noble family in Champagne, by the public voice, and the judgment of Philip Augustus, who named him as the most worthy champion of the Holy Land.
The veteran king of Jerusalem might have disdained the name and office of regent; they agreed to invest him for his life with the title and prerogatives of emperor, on the sole condition that Baldwin should marry his second daughter and succeed at a mature age to the throne of Constantinople. I tremble to relate that, instead of defending the city, the hero made a sally at the head of his cavalry; and that, of fortyeight squadrons of the enemy, no more than three escaped from the edge of his invincible sword. Fired by his example, the infantry and citizens boarded the vessels that anchored close to the walls; and twenty-five were dragged in triumph into the harbour of Constantinople.
At the summons of the emperor, the vassals and allies armed in her defence; broke through every obstacle that opposed their passage; and, in the succeeding year, obtained a second victory over the same enemies. In the double victory of John of Brienne, I cannot discover the name or exploits of his pupil Baldwin, who had attained the age of military service, and who succeeded to the Imperial dignity on the decease of his adopted father.
He thrice repeated these mendicant visits, in which he seemed to prolong his stay and postpone his return; of the five-and-twenty years of his reign, a greater number were spent abroad than at home; and in no place did the emperor deem himself less free and secure than in his native country and his capital. On some public occasions, his vanity might be soothed by the title of Augustus and by the honours of the purple; and at the general council of Lyons, when Frederic the Second was excommunicated and deposed, his Oriental colleague was enthroned on the right hand of the pope.
But how often was the exile, the vagrant, the Imperial beggar humbled with scorn, insulted with pity, and degraded in his own eyes and Edition: current; Page: [ 29 ] those of the nations! In his first visit to England he was stopt at Dover by a severe reprimand that he should presume, without leave, to enter an independent kingdom.
After some delay, Baldwin, however, was permitted to pursue his journey, was entertained with cold civility, and thankfully departed with a present of seven hundred marks. His birth and misfortunes recommended him to the generosity of his cousin, Lewis the Ninth; but the martial zeal of the saint was diverted from Constantinople to Egypt and Palestine; and the public and private poverty of Baldwin was alleviated, for a moment, by the alienation of the marquisate of Namur and the lordship of Courtenay, the last remains of his inheritance.
But these expectations if Baldwin was sincere quickly vanished like a dream; the troops and treasures of France melted away in his unskilful Edition: current; Page: [ 30 ] hands; and the throne of the Latin emperor was protected by a dishonourable alliance with the Turks and Comans. Some usurious loans were dealt with a scanty hand by the merchants of Italy; and Philip, his son and heir, was pawned at Venice as the security for a debt. But in this abject distress the emperor and empire were still possessed of an ideal treasure, which drew its fantastic value from the superstition of the Christian world.
The merit of the true cross was somewhat impaired by its frequent division; and a long captivity among the infidels might shed some suspicion on the fragments that were produced in the East and West. But another relic of the Passion was preserved in the Imperial chapel of Constantinople; and the crown of thorns, which had been placed on the head of Christ, was equally precious and authentic. It had formerly been the practice of the Egyptian debtors to deposit, as a security, the mummies of their parents; and both their honour and religion were bound for the redemption of the pledge. In the same manner, and in the absence of the emperor, the barons of Romania borrowed the sum of thirteen thousand one hundred and thirty-four Edition: current; Page: [ 31 ] pieces of gold, 63 on the credit of the holy crown; they failed in the performance of their contract; and a rich Venetian, Nicholas Querini, undertook to satisfy their impatient creditors, on condition that the relic should be lodged at Venice, to become his absolute property if it were not redeemed within a short and definite term.
The barons apprised their sovereign of the hard treaty and impending loss; and, as the empire could not afford a ransom of seven thousand pounds sterling, Baldwin was anxious to snatch the prize from the Venetians, and to vest it with more honour and emolument in the hands of the most Christian king. In the purchase of relics, the saint would have started at the guilt of simony; but, if the mode of expression were changed, he might lawfully repay the debt, accept the gift, and acknowledge the obligation. His ambassadors, two Dominicans, were despatched to Venice, to redeem and receive the holy crown, which had escaped the dangers of the sea and the galleys of Vataces.
On opening a wooden box, they recognised the seals of the doge and barons, which were applied on a shrine of silver; and within this shrine the monument of the Passion was enclosed in a golden vase. The reluctant Venetians yielded to justice and power; the emperor Frederic granted a free and honourable passage; the court of France advanced as far as Troyes in Champagne, to meet with devotion this inestimable relic; it was borne in triumph through Paris by the king himself, barefoot, and in his shirt; and a free gift of ten thousand marks of silver reconciled Baldwin to his loss.
The success of this transaction tempted the Latin emperor to Edition: current; Page: [ 32 ] offer with the same generosity the remaining furniture of his chapel: 65 a large and authentic portion of the true cross; the baby-linen of the Son of God; the lance, the spunge, and the chain of his Passion; the rod of Moses; and part of the scull of St. John the Baptist. For the reception of these spiritual treasures, twenty thousand marks were expended by St.
Louis on a stately foundation, the holy chapel of Paris, on which the muse of Boileau has bestowed a comic immortality. The truth of such remote and ancient relics, which cannot be proved by any human testimony, must be admitted by those who believe in the miracles which they have performed. About the middle of the last age, an inveterate ulcer was touched and cured by an holy prickle of the holy crown: 66 the prodigy is attested by the most pious and enlightened Christians of France; nor will the fact be easily disproved, except by those who are armed with a general antidote against religious credulity.
The Latins of Constantinople 68 were on all sides encompassed and pressed: their sole hope, the last delay of their ruin, was in the division of their Greek and Bulgarian enemies; Edition: current; Page: [ 33 ] and of this hope they were deprived by the superior arms and policy of Vataces, emperor of Nice. From the Propontis to the rocky coast of Pamphylia, Asia was peaceful and prosperous under his reign; and the events of every campaign extended his influence in Europe. The strong cities of the hills of Macedonia and Thrace were rescued from the Bulgarians; and their kingdom was circumscribed by its present and proper limits, along the southern banks of the Danube.
The sole emperor of the Romans could no longer brook that a lord of Epirus, a Comnenian prince of the West, should presume to dispute or share the honours of the purple; and the humble Demetrius changed the colour of his buskins, and accepted with gratitude the appellation of despot.
His own subjects were exasperated by his baseness and incapacity: they implored the protection of their supreme lord. After some resistance, the kingdom of Thessalonica was united to the empire of Nice; 69 and Vataces reigned without a competitor from the Turkish borders to the Adriatic gulf. The princes of Europe revered his merit and power; and, had he subscribed an orthodox creed, it should seem that the pope would have abandoned without reluctance the Latin throne of Constantinople.
But the death of Vataces, the short and busy reign of Theodore his son, and the helpless infancy of his grandson John suspended the restoration of the Greeks. The emperor Baldwin had flattered himself that he might recover some provinces or cities by an impotent negotiation. His ambassadors were dismissed from Nice with mockery and contempt. If your master be desirous of peace, let him pay me, as an annual tribute, the sum which he receives from the trade and customs of Constantinople.
On these terms I may allow him to reign. If he refuses, it is war. I am not ignorant of the art of war, and I trust the event to God and my sword. If a victory was followed by a defeat; if the race of the Comneni or Angeli survived in those mountains his efforts and his reign; the captivity of Villehardouin, prince of Achaia, deprived the Latins of the most active and powerful vassal of their expiring monarchy.
Pride and interest attached the Venetians to the defence of Constantinople: their rivals were tempted to promote the designs of her enemies, and the alliance of the Genoese with the schismatic conqueror provoked the indignation of the Latin church. Intent on his great object, the emperor Michael visited in person and strengthened the troops and fortifications of Thrace. The remains of the Latins were driven from their last possessions; he assaulted without success the suburbs of Galata; 73 and corresponded with a perfidious baron, 74 who proved unwilling, or unable, to open the gates of the metropolis.
His instructions enjoined him to approach, to listen, to watch, but not to risk Edition: current; Page: [ 36 ] any doubtful or dangerous enterprise against the city. The adjacent territory between the Propontis and the Black Sea was cultivated by an hardy race of peasants and outlaws, exercised in arms, uncertain in their allegiance, but inclined by language, religion, and present advantage to the party of the Greeks.
They were styled the volunteers , 77 and by their free service the army of Alexius, with the regulars of Thrace and the Coman auxiliaries, 78 was augmented to the number of five and twenty thousand men. The weakness of Constantinople, and the distress and terror of the Latins, were familiar to the observation of the volunteers; and they represented the present moment as the most propitious to surprise and conquest. A rash youth, the new governor of the Venetian colony, had sailed away with thirty galleys and the best of the French knights, on a wild expedition to Daphnusia, a town on the Black Sea, at a distance of forty leagues; 79 and the remaining Latins were without strength or suspicion.
They were informed that Alexius had passed the Hellespont; but their apprehensions were lulled by the smallness of his original numbers, and their imprudence had not watched the subsequent increase of his army. If he left his main body to second and support his operations, he might advance unperceived in the night with a chosen Edition: current; Page: [ 37 ] detachment. While some applied scaling-ladders to the lowest part of the walls, they were secure of an old Greek, who would introduce their companions through a subterranean passage into his house; 80 they could soon on the inside break an entrance through the golden gate, which had been long obstructed; and the conqueror would be in the heart of the city, before the Latins were conscious of their danger.
From the loss of Constantinople to his death, he consumed thirteen years, soliciting the Catholic powers to join in his restoration: the lesson had been familiar to his youth; nor was his last exile more indigent or shameful than his three former pilgrimages to the courts of Europe. His son Philip was the heir of an ideal empire; and the pretensions of his daughter Catherine were transported by her marriage to Charles of Valois, the brother of Philip the Fair, king of France.
The house of Courtenay was represented in the female line by successive alliances, till the title of emperor of Constantinople, too bulky and sonorous for a private name, modestly expired in silence and oblivion. After this narrative of the expeditions of the Latins to Palestine and Constantinople, I cannot dismiss the subject without revolving the general consequences on the countries that were the scene, and on the nations that were the actors, of these memorable crusades.
The faithful disciples of the prophet were never tempted by Edition: current; Page: [ none ] Edition: current; Page: [ 39 ] a profane desire to study the laws or language of the idolaters; nor did the simplicity of their primitive manners receive the slightest alteration from their intercourse in peace and war with the unknown strangers of the West. The Greeks, who thought themselves proud, but who were only vain, shewed a disposition somewhat less inflexible. In the efforts for the recovery of their empire they emulated the valour, discipline, and tactics of their antagonists.
The modern literature of the West they might justly despise; but its free spirit would instruct them in the rights of man; and some institutions of public and private life were adopted from the French. The correspondence of Constantinople and Italy diffused the knowledge of the Latin tongue; and several of the fathers and classics were at length honoured with a Greek version. If we compare, at the era of the crusades, the Latins of Europe with the Greeks and Arabians, their respective degrees of knowledge, industry, and art, our rude ancestors must be content with the third rank in the scale of nations.
Their successive improvement and present superiority may be ascribed to a peculiar energy of character, to an active and imitative spirit, unknown to their more polished rivals, who at that time were in a stationary or retrograde state. With such a disposition, the Latins should have derived the most early and essential benefits from a series of events which Edition: current; Page: [ 40 ] opened to their eyes the prospect of the world, and introduced them to a long and frequent intercourse with the more cultivated regions of the East.
The first and most obvious progress was in trade and manufactures, in the arts which are strongly prompted by the thirst of wealth, the calls of necessity, and the gratification of the sense or vanity. Among the crowd of unthinking fanatics, a captive or a pilgrim might sometimes observe the superior refinements of Cairo and Constantinople: the first importer of windmills 85 was the benefactor of nations; and, if such blessings are enjoyed without any grateful remembrance, history has condescended to notice the more apparent luxuries of silk and sugar, which were transported into Italy from Greece and Egypt.
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But the intellectual wants of the Latins were more slowly felt and supplied; the ardour of studious curiosity was awakened in Europe by different causes and more recent events; and, in the age of the crusades, they viewed with careless indifference the literature of the Greeks and Arabians. Some rudiments of mathematical and medicinal knowledge might be imparted in practice and in figures; necessity might produce some interpreters for the grosser business of merchants and soldiers; but the commerce of the Orientals had not diffused the study and knowledge of their languages in the schools of Europe.
Yet in a reign of sixty years, the Latins of Constantinople disdained the speech and learning of their subjects; and the manuscripts were the only Edition: current; Page: [ 41 ] treasures which the natives might enjoy without rapine or envy. Aristotle was indeed the oracle of the Western universities; but it was a Barbarous Aristotle; and, instead of ascending to the fountain-head, his Latin votaries humbly accepted a corrupt and remote version from the Jews and Moors of Andalusia.
The principle of the crusades was a savage fanaticism; and the most important effects were analogous to the cause. Each pilgrim was ambitious to return with his sacred spoils, the relics of Greece and Palestine; 87 and each relic was preceded and followed by a train of miracles and visions. The belief of the Catholics was corrupted by new legends, their practice by new superstitions; and the establishment of the inquisition, the mendicant orders of monks and friars, the last abuse of indulgences, and the final progress of idolatry flowed from the baleful fountain of the holy war.
The active spirit of the Latins preyed on the vitals of their reason and religion; and, if the ninth and tenth centuries were the times of darkness, the thirteenth and fourteenth were the age of absurdity and fable. In the profession of Christianity, in the cultivation of a fertile land, the Northern conquerors of the Roman empire insensibly mingled with the provincials and rekindled the embers of the arts of antiquity. Their settlements about the age of Charlemagne had acquired some degree of order and stability, when they were overwhelmed by new swarms of invaders, the Normans, Saracens, 88 and Hungarians, who replunged the Western countries of Europe into their former state of anarchy and barbarism.
About the eleventh century, Edition: current; Page: [ 42 ] the second tempest had subsided by the expulsion or conversion of the enemies of Christendom: the tide of civilisation, which had so long ebbed, began to flow with a steady and accelerated course; and a fairer prospect was opened to the hopes and efforts of the rising generations. Great was the success, and rapid the progress, during the two hundred years of the crusades; and some philosophers have applauded the propitious influence of these holy wars, which appear to me to have checked, rather than forwarded, the maturity of Europe.
In one respect I can indeed perceive the accidental operation of the crusades, not so much in producing a benefit, as in removing an evil. The larger portion of the inhabitants of Europe was chained to the soil, without freedom, or property, or knowledge; and the two orders of ecclesiastics and nobles, whose numbers were comparatively small, alone deserved the name of citizens and men. This oppressive system was supported by the arts of the clergy and the swords of the barons.
The authority of the priests operated in the darker ages as a salutary antidote: they prevented the total extinction of letters, mitigated the fierceness of the times, sheltered the poor and defenceless, and preserved or revived the peace and order of civil society. His view differs from that of Hoops. Much agrees with Schrader that the southern Russian steppes and the adjacent wooded heath was part of the settlement area of the original people, but he also agrees with Hoops that they were located on the North Sea and the Baltic.
Questions about the extent to which the Nordic countries might be included in the original Indo-European or Germanic areas caused Hoops and Much some difficulty. Regarding woodland trees and cultivated plants, Hoops expressly excluded Scandinavia from the original Indo-European homeland. In the foreword to the Reallexikon he formulated his views on the Germani along the following lines: according to the now generally prevailing view, only northern Germany or the Scandinavian countries, or both, might be considered to have been the home of the Germani in an11 cient times.
Since he held to his belief in the original homeland in northern Germany, Scandinavia had, for him, to be an early area of diffusion. His concept of the study of Germanic antiquity therefore covered the geographical area of central and northern Europe. On the question of how far north the Indo-Europeans and the Germani might have extended, Much had used racial features: complexion light skin, hair, and eye color and the elongated skull shape of the inhabitants. Both features belonged to the Indo-Europeans. Since dolichocephalism elongated skull shape has been observed in the Nordic countries from neolithic times, Much concludes that it is in the region of northern and central Europe, where elongated skulls dating from the Stone Age have been discovered, excluding the Alps at the time of the earliest period of pile dwellings, that 12 the Indo-Europeans as a homogeneous group are to be found.
He took the area of the western Baltic basin to be the earliest location for the Germani. In his estimation of the Nordic development, Much was influ13 enced by the eminent Swedish archeologist Oscar Montelius. The Study of Antiquity as a Concept The seventeenth century appears to have been of particular significance in establishing a specific terminology for the academic and scientific study of antiquity. Here, for the first time, one can observe in German scholarly language, the use of the word Altertum, applied to classical, GraecoRoman, ancient, and to domestic pre-history.
Linked with this is also an extension of its meaning from olden times antiquitas, vetustas to object from the olden times, mostly in the plural Altertmer objects from olden times , based on the Latin word antiquitates. The seventeenth century also established the juxtaposition of the three German terms: Kunde study , Kunst art , and Wissenschaft science. Whereas Kunst had al14 ready displaced the earlier word list in the sense of ars, scientia by , a new and subtle differentiation was possible with Kunde and Wissenschaft.
Kunde obviously arose in the sphere of the German Sprachgesellschaften language societies of the seventeenth century and had from the first a markedly pedagogical tone. Volkskunde study of folklore ,. Heimatkunde local history , Kulturkunde study of culture and so on were intended as programmatic efforts to place special emphasis on the educational idea and this initially with regard to the sciences, which in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were endeavoring to establish a systematic structure and coherence, but also in more recent times in striving to serve the national purpose.
In this context the distinction between Altertumskunde and Altertumswissenschaft also arose. Friedrich August Wolf spoke in of Alterthums-Wissenschaft as the basic and overarching term for the philosophical and historical investigation of classical antiquity. He terms Altertumskunde a sectional discipline which deals with antiquities and archeological sources, but also notes that this doctrine still has undetermined and, depending on the nature of the articles, indeter15 minable boundaries.
Alterthumskunde is, in the definition offered in Johann Christoph Adelungs dictionary of , the study and knowledge 16 of antiquities, and more precisely of Greek and Roman antiquities. The pedagogical intention that was inherent in the various -kunde subjects led in the nineteenth century to a split between -wissenschaft and -kunde subjects, which was powerfully supported by such influential works as Karl 17 Mllenhoffs Germanische Altertumskunde. Altertumswissenschaft became the preserve of classical philology, while Altertumskunde dealt with domestic history, its investigation and dissemination.
Although people were agreed in their aims, the realization of these ideas was controversial. Two distinct approaches can be identified as far as Altertumskunde is concerned: the one integrative, the other interdisciplinary. The debate about the concept of integrative Altertumskunde goes back to the beginnings of the nineteenth century. The statement attributed to Friedrich Hegel on philology, that he considered it not a science but just a collection of individual sciences, an aggregate of disciplines, was probably aimed at the work of Friedrich August Wolf cited already, namely his Darstellung der Altertumswissenschaft.
That people were endeavoring at this time to establish a concept of philology and Altertumskunde that would transcend the isolation of individual subject-areas is also documented in the lectures of the classical philologist August Boeckh, which were delivered at the University of Berlin from over a number of decades. They were published under the title Encyklopdie und 18 Methodologie der philologischen Wissenschaften. The task of philology or of Altertumslehre was, he said, to present a cultural history of antiquity.
In order to pursue this, one had to tear down the arbitrary boundaries that had been set around individual disciplines in a rough and incoherent process, and then reconstruct the disciplines based on a strict structure and dialectic and according to their principal elements. But a scientific basis will only be established when the individual details are brought together in some unity.
He felt that a common element must be found that. Elsewhere he maintained that the highest goal of Altertumswissenschaft that any philologist must pursue who wishes to elevate himself to the pinnacle of his science is to subsume all the individual facts into the unified characteristic quality of antiquity, to observe that characteristic 20 quality in the details, and to understand its spirit in all its contexts.
In this conception, an idea of Altertumskunde is urged that consistently integrates individual disciplines and directs them toward a common goal. In content, its aim is presented as the principle of ones own people and its cultural history. If one reviews the rest of the nineteenth century, one finds a great variation in approaches that contributed to this idea of such an integrative Altertumskunde. Above all other, Jacob Grimm is the representative of a form of Altertumskunde that is based on the notion of the Volksgeist, the spirit of a people.
With his works on law, mythology, language, and literature he sought to establish an overview of the German that is, the Germanic past. The integrative center of these phenomena he saw in a prevailing Volksgeist which suffused all these areas, and which had to be pinned down. Language, beliefs, and law were, to his mind, to be understood as emanations of this spirit language, for him, was the most im21 portant, and capable of revealing unexpected information.
Grimm embraced this integrative approach by consciously avoiding physical facts in other words: he put forward an expressly philological Altertumskunde. He states programmatically in the first chapter of his history of the German language that there is more vital evidence available about peoples than bones, weapons, and graves, and that this evidence is their lan22 guages. This view can be traced in research down to more recent times, and, as long as the integrative approach retains contents, then it cannot be refuted in principle. The next integrative concept in Altertumskunde might be termed comparative linguistics and pre-history taken from a title used by Schrader in The rise of comparative linguistics also promoted the interest in the culture and civilization of the Indo-European peoples.
It was thought that by means of etymology one could trace a path back to the neolithic age. After the philologist Adolphe Pictet , using only linguistic historical deductions, began to make discoveries about the natural environment and about the material, social, and intellectual culture of prehistory analyzing vocabulary and other linguistic data, and had adopted 23 the term linguistic paleontology palontologie linguestique , Schrader was able to declare that just as the archeologist turns up the earth with pick and shovel in order to reveal traces of the past in bones, fragments, and.
There is, in other words, a 24 linguistic paleontology. Schrader does, however, urge the proper application of this method if it is to perform the best service. By proper application, he meant not only the use of linguistic historical arguments on a contemporary level, but that the appropriate consideration of pre-historic research was also part of this. He refers to Victor Hehn as the founder of 25 Indo-European Altertumswissenschaft, whose study of domestic plants and animals, Kulturpflanzen und Haustiere in ihrem bergang aus Asien nach Griechenland und Italien sowie in das brige Europa first appeared in and was part of the standard home library of German scientific lit26 erature.
In contrast to the hitherto one-sided linguistic construction of comparative linguistics in the area of Indo-European pre-history, Hehn, according to Schrader, had primarily taken up historical combinations: the tradition of classical antiquity, of the Celts, of the Germani and so on. Although the linguistic equations are of great significance, the argument must take care not to ascribe new meaning to old words or to interpret 27 recent borrowings as ancient inheritance. But he accepts Hehns main thesis. The cultivation of plants together with the taming of domestic animals progressed from east to west and subsequently to the north, and in the process changed human beings and their activities.
In keeping with this antiquarian interpretation, the sixth and subsequent editions of Hehns work appeared with annotations by Schrader and botanical specialists. That this Altertumskunde was of an integrative nature is attributable to the quality of Hehns view. He overcomes the old romantic, popular natural perspective in favor of a concept of culture in which cul28 ture and nature are contrasting concepts. Although Schrader, under the influence of Hehns work, distances himself to some extent from linguistic paleontology in his other works, he does remain committed to the later 29 development of linguistic comparison.
This open attitude toward prehistoric research he recognizes as progress in keeping with Hehns view of Altertumskunde, which had already led the way in integrating the contribution of classical historians. Linguistic paleontology, however, continued in an historically significant way, one which held Hehns approach to be deficient and which was harshly critical of its methodology.
In this work he stressed that all three relevant sciences botany, archeology, and lin30 guistics were to be given equal weight. In practice, however, it soon becomes clear that he had a hierarchical view of these subjects, which assigned to linguistics an expanding and a corrective function.
This fusion of subjects became in practice a hierarchy of subjects. His significant con-. If a word is only attested in certain areas, then pre-historic archeological finds, literary evidence, or linguistic considerations of a 31 general nature must support the argument. A significant criterion in this thesis is the migration of the Angles and Saxons from the continent. If German and English, or German and Norse are in agreement on a name, he argues, we would have to conclude a priori that the plant in question was not yet or was no longer cultivated in the Nordic countries before the 32 migration of the Anglo-Saxons.
Here too, the further considerations of occurrences in only certain areas were applied. Not only Hoopss Waldbume und Kulturpflanzen appeared in 33 but also, with the same publisher, Herman Hirts Indogermanen. Hirts work was of significance for the study of Germanic antiquity. Hirt agreed 34 with Hoopss investigations and was close to his view in the question of the Indo-European and Germanic homeland in other words: they were also in agreement in their rejection of the Hehn-Schrader version of Altertumskunde.
Schrader was criticized as having been under the influence of certain preconceived ideas about the culture of the Indo-Euro35 peans. Although Hirt concedes that properly employed linguistic science has some justification in the investigation of Indo-European culture and constructs a cultural history on this , he qualifies this approach by arguing that priority must be given to what we know of the oldest living conditions of the individual peoples, then archeological evidence can be added, and only then, when we have considered these things, can language teach us anything, primarily whether the objective correspondences are coinci36 dental or go back to some collectively experienced ancient past.
This procedure sounds at first quite reasonable, but when we take into account some of the Germanic aspects of particular interest here, it takes a new turn. The home of the Indo-Europeans and the Germani is assumed to be one and the same and that is of decisive importance for the whole development of historical linguistics. He maintains that for centuries the Germani have dwelt on their ancient native soil, just as Tacitus presumed, and that this fact should also be evident in the language, which Hirt re37 gards, in fact, as an Ursprache, that is, as a language that goes back to pre-historic times.
If we take an overview of the comparative-linguistic variant of integrative Altertumskunde, we may distinguish two schools of thought: one linked with the names Hehn and Schrader Hehn is recognized as the. There are objective, factual differences in their views for example on the question of the original homeland of the Indo-Europeans Europe or Asia or the level of civilization of the Indo-Europeans knowledge of agriculture and fixed dwelling-places, for example.
There are also methodological differences. Hoops has the closest affinities with linguistic paleontology. From the integrative perspective, Hehn and Schrader agree in the assumption of a Germanic peripheral culture that is part of the flow of civilization spreading from the east in a westerly and northerly direction. Hoops and Hirt agree on the thesis of origins: a direct line in a geographical and ethnic sense leads from Indo-European to Germanic and finally to German.
In other words: an integrative Germanic Altertumskunde is of itself a science that is oriented to contents and to the state of research at any one time. The Germanist Friedrich Kauffmann attempted an integrative approach that would avoid the dangers of a non-empirically based approach, and his Deutsche Altertumskunde appeared in two volumes in and Beginning with the precept that spirit Geist is form, he concludes that the German spirit, like everything human, was subject to change over the course of time, and could be most readily recognized from the 39 changing styles of the German way of life.
The stylistic laws of popular creativity are, he maintains, no less characteristic in language and poetry than in social, economic and commercial products, though in the latter they are clearer, and their essential features are therefore much easier to comprehend. Archeology must become the prime mediator if we link language and literature with all other, nave or artistic, forms of German life through the concept of style, and wish to describe the changing styles according to the only possible procedure of scientific discovery, namely by means of comparison.
If one reduces this argument to the concept of style, then Kauffmann can rely on an established tradition. When Friedrich Schiller writes of style that it is nothing more than the highest form of representation, free from all subjective and also contingent objective determinants, then style is obviously an individual and ethno-specific formal quality of a characteristic kind. Kauffmann was not one of the collaborators on the Reallexikon in which there is no article on style in general only artistic styles were briefly dealt with, as in A.
Haupts article on Stilarten. The criticism that was leveled at Kauffmann was directed, among other things, at the authors often unconventional views. It is obviously a general phenomenon that the integrative approaches in Altertumskunde appear to be realizable only in individual undertakings but also that its demands can too easily exceed the individuals ability. Germanische Altertumskunde has not been made into a university discipline. On the other hand, however, new subject areas have developed in recent times: paleo-botany, paleo-zoology, soil science, metallurgy and others, which all contribute to academic and scientific research into the Germani.
A single-discipline approach brought about notable academic and scientific results, but the inherent need for specialization also had its shortcomings. The call for an interdisciplinary approach is an expression of this. If one takes an overview of Germanic Altertumskunde, one can observe the increasing participation of diverse disciplines. Initially, Altertumskunde was led by the philologists. As the next step, the study of specimens and objects found by antiquarians was added.
At the end of the nineteenth century, pre-historic archeology entered in the guise of a new academic subject. The twentieth century was marked by the additional contribution of the natural sciences. While, on the one hand, the academic and scientific basis of Germanic Altertumskunde expanded, there arose, on the other, the problem of how to combine these disciplines into a unified concept. The question arises whether, with the structuring of academic science by disciplines, as has happened over the past century of university history, an era of cultural history could be described in a comprehensive manner.
As early as the first edition of the Reallexikon, Hoops referred to the establishing of closer contact between the different branches of Germanic cultural history that have in recent decades become more and more estranged as a consequence of the increasing specialization of research as a main objective of his undertaking. In particular, the establishing of links between pre-history and history and between archeology and linguistics was one of his goals. In the second edition begun in 40 Hoopss concerns were taken fully into consideration.
Beyond the Reallexikon too, voices were heard calling for close contact between disciplines. In the highly respected study-group in Constance, the Arbeitskreis fr mittelalterliche Geschichte, published an article by Ernst Schwarz with the significant title Germanische Stammeskunde zwischen den Wissenschaften Studies of Germanic Antiquity Between the Disciplines.
The author urged a closer link as necessary between academic 41 disciplines. The goal of closer contact is a relative notion, as a cursory glance at the present eighteen volumes of the Reallexikon demonstrates. If there are archeological, historical, and philological contributions to an article, contact will lead to mutual stimulation, to possible changes, and to the raising of new questions.
But mutually conflicting views may also remain, in which case the editors see their role not as trying to harmonize the state of research, but to document it. What did not appear to be a problem in the s, when the new edition of the Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde was being discussed, has turned out in recent decades to be a burdensome handicap:. Germanic is, to many scholars today, just as problematic as Altertumskunde. We may ask, then, what concept might serve in todays view to cover the representation of central and northern European history in the period of the last millennium B.
The historical conditionality of the terms Germanic and Altertumskunde has become a burden in recent decades, and scholars are well aware of this. Those now undertaking projects like the revision of the Reallexikon are inclined to understand Altertumskunde in the sense of cultural studies Kulturwissenschaft , and to replace the idea of Germanic by a broad geographical concept that could be described as pertaining to central and northern Europe. Translated by Malcolm Read. A politicized nationalistic approach could, of course, become dangerously distorted, and did so between the First and Second World Wars in the lead-up to and during National Socialism, also in some major scholarly undertakings, although individual contributors to such projects did not always share the political direction of their editors.
Jacob Grimm, Deutsche Mythologie, 4th ed. Schrader Berlin: Borntraeger, , repr. Schrader, Sprachvergleichung und Urgeschichte Jena: Costenoble, 3rd ed. Kossinna was appointed in to the first chair of archeology. He is considered to be the founder of the settlement archeological method, the main principle of which is that sharply delineated cultural provinces coincide in all periods with quite distinct peoples or tribes. Jahrtausend n. Much, Germanen in Johannes Hoops, ed.
The second edition of Beck and others Berlin and New York: de Gruyter, Unless otherwise stated, reference here is to the original edition. This thesis was advanced by Carl Penka in several works, including O. Schraders Hypothese von der sdrussischen Urheimat der Indogermanen n. Oscar Montelius, Sveriges historia frn ldsta tid till vra dagar I: Sveriges hednatid, samt medeltid, frra skedet, frn r till r Stockholm: Linnstrm, , Berlin: Akademie, , Johann Christoph Adelung, Grammatisch-kritisches Wrterbuch der hochdeutschen Mundart, mit bestndiger Vergleichung der brigen Mundarten, besonders aber der Oberdeutschen 2nd ed.
August Boeckh, Encyklopdie und Methodologie der philologischen Wissenschaften, ed. Bratuscheck, 2nd ed. Klussmann Leipzig: Teubner, Adolphe Pictet, Les origines Indo-europennes ou les Aryas primitifs, essai de palontologie linguistique ; 2nd ed. Cherbuliez, Schrader, Sprachvergleichung, III.
Hehn, Kulturpflanzen, XX. Hehn, Kulturpflanzen, XXI. Hirt, Indogermanen, Hirt, Indogermanica, Reallexikon 2nd ed. I, VVII. Origo Gentis: The Literature of Germanic Origins Herwig Wolfram the literary examination of the origins of a given people, which in the Germanic context is the theme of this 1 chapter does not constitute a literary genre in its own right, but is found in connection with various different genres to produce what is in fact a genus mixtum, which conveys details of the origins of a particular people by using various narrative patterns.
THE WORKS OF EDWARD GIBBON
Examples of the origo gentis may be found in heroic epics, may introduce or form part of ethnographic works, chronicles, biographies and legends, or may even be used in official 2 writings either as justificatory support or as a learned excursus or digres3 sion. An origo gentis will often introduce the historia, a genre developed in particular by the Christian historian Paulus Orosius in the early fifth century, and characterized as an exemplary Christian history of kings and 4 institutions.
The models are the Old Testament and classical ethno5 graphical writings. The story of Noah and his three sons, who represent 6 the three continents, and their seventy-two descendants is particularly popular, as are Caesars ethnographical discussions, the Germania and the Agricola of Tacitus, and indeed also Virgils Aeneid, whose hero is the son-in-law of Priam, who had fifty sons and fifty daughters. The few members of the family who survived the capture of Troy were forced to travel the world and found new cities and peoples everywhere.
Why should there not be a Franco, the father of the Franks, among them, if there was certainly an Aeneas, the founder of Rome. The origo gentis is concerned with [gentis] nobilitas et virorum for7 tium facta, the nobility of the people and the deeds of mighty men, and accordingly all Roman historians, most notably Sallust in the first century B.
Between A. Gregory of Tours who died in or wrote ten books of Frankish history. Isidore of Seville wrote in his history of the Goths, Vandals and Suevi, or more specifically of their kings, based on classical sources, with 9 an introductory origo of the Goths which is exclusively etymological. In the seventh century there followed the so-called Fredegar chronicles, and the first written version of the Lombardic Langobardic tradition with which Paul the Deacon introduced his history of the Lombards just before Bede used myths of origin to preface his history of the AngloSaxon Church in , and Celtic material appeared in Britain, too, with Gildas in the sixth, and with the Historia Brittonum British History as10 cribed to Nennius in the ninth century.
In the tenth century Widukind of Corvey dealt with Old Saxon origins, again using earlier material such as the Translatio sancti Alexandri and Cosmas of Prague and the Gallus Anonymus began their respective histories of the Czechs and the Poles at the start of the twelfth century with an origo gentis. Elements are found preserved in vernacular works, too, such as the Anglo-Saxon poems of Widsith, Deor and indeed of Beowulf, and also in the Old Russian chronicle of Nestor of Kiev.
This sequence of origo gentis writings, which rework pre-ethnographic, orally transmitted data into ethnographic facts, con11 cludes with the Danish history by Saxo Grammaticus around Of primary importance was the presentation of as continuous as possible a royal line: a gens achieved the status of a civilized people, according to Hippocrates, only under the rule of kings, who in their turn guaranteed 12 the continued existence of the people.
Only a royal succession can give structure to human time tempus est actus humani, time is human deeds and make it into history actus humani memoria digni, human acts worthy of memory, or virorum fortium 13 facta, deeds of great men. The parameters of the Getica are ab olim usque nunc per generationes regesque Getica 1 , from former times to the present through the generations and the kings, although it is admitted that there are gaps in the succession. Gregory of Tours knows of times without a king, too, as do Isidore and Paul the Deacon in their histories.
The Germania of Tacitus follows a tripartite pattern that became a 14 model for other writings. It contains first the origin of a people, an origo as a pars prototo in the Getica 9 and In contrast with the notion of a beginning sprung from the word, the logos of Johns Gospel, the mythical beginning of an origo gentis is subordinated to the concept of eternal return, and always takes as read any earlier beginnings. Thus the.
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Second, attention is paid to customs and deeds: mores, actus, facta. Here the language is naturally of interest, but even more so the capacity for civilization and how a people can be integrated into the Roman 15 army. Furthermore, is a particular people, depending upon their customs and on fortune mores and fortuna capable of some day assuming world rule imperium? Seneca and Tacitus felt that Sallusts speculations on this score were an unlikely possibility as far as their realization was con16 cerned, but the idea did seem to become more concrete when in we hear that Romania, that is the Western Roman Empire, might conceivably be replaced by a Gothia, when the Visigothic king Athaulf wanted to be 17 to a forthcoming Gothic empire what Augustus had been to Rome.
A thousand years after Sallust, Widukind I, 25 cited that classical historian in support of the transfer of imperial power from the Frankish to the Saxon line. The classical and biblical notions of translatio, of transference of power, are combined when a given people is presented as the chosen one. Like the Jews in the desert, the migrating Goths were tested by God 18 for forty years. Third, attention is paid to writers geographical position loca, situs, status , in which status also means the political order and standing of a given people.
This comprises both the people and the royal or ruling families nobilitas , and an equation is also made between the people and 19 the army.
Early Germanic Literature
Status as a geographical determinative locates a people within the classical world. Both the Sclavinia of Adam of Bremen and the Bohemia of Cosmas of Prague are located within Germania, in one of the four basic lands of ancient Europe. The last characters distinguish them from the Al- pine race, but are sometimes to be found in such members of that race as have a Mongoloid admix- ture. These Mongolian characters occur often in Bohe- mia, in Moravia, and especially in Galicia, in which last province they probably date from the Mongol invasions of the thirteenth century.
Such traits, however, are not found among the Alpines of south- ern Germany or France. In the American Indians, Mongoloid blood un- doubtedly predominates but the high-bridged nose of some of the tribes and their high stature undoubt- edly point to admixture with other races. The Mongol is not inferior to the Nordic in intel- ligence, as is the Negro, but represents such a di- vergent type that the mixture between Nordics and Chinese or Japanese is not a good one.
With the foregoing as a simple and generalized description of the primitive races of mankind as we know them today, and with special emphasis on the three principal European variants of the "white" race, we shall proceed to consider the distribution and racial influence of the Nordics in western Eu- rope. Whence these blonds came or how they got into Libya is not known, but it is interesting to note that blond Ber- bers are to be found today in the Atlas Mountains of North Africa. These, however, are probably more recent arrivals from the north.
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About B. These Nordic conquerors later entered Mesopotamia as the Mitanni and the Kassites, although it may be that they were only the ruling classes of these peoples. In recorded history the Nordics first appear in the West as Achaeans. About or B. They were kindred to the Achseans and were the ancestors of the Latin tribes, includ- ing the early Romans. The aboriginal Mediter- raneans were driven into southern Italy, where, in Calabria and Apulia, they persist to this day.
From the evidence of place names, they passed through South Germany. All Gaul except Aquitania, in the southwest, was overwhelmed. Spain was conquered by Celtic Nordics about B. The mixed in- habitants of the peninsula were called Celtiberians by the Romans. During this same period the British Isles were overrun and thoroughly occupied by Celtic Nordics named Goidels and the Celtic tongue was imposed upon the Mediterranean population, although the latter survived as a race in large numbers, especially in the western parts of England and Ireland.
These Celtic-speaking Mediterraneans were, until recently, called "Iberians"; but fifteen hundred years ago the 1 In Geographical Lore of the Time of the Crusades, by J. Wright of the American Geographic Society, p. These people have never been willing to submit to kings. But what a contrast the people of Apulia in the south pre- sent to the Lombards. Dirty, lazy, weak, good-for-nothing idlers that they are.
This time they came from the German plains, speaking a somewhat different form of Celtic. They gave their name to the British Islands. By Caesar's time they had conquered the northern third of Gaul and all of England; but the Roman armies put an end to their farther advance. They did not reach Ireland. Roman writers describe the Celts in Gaul as pure Nordics and speak of them as forming the ruling classes and military aristocracy until their virtual destruction by Julius Caesar in his ten years of con- quest.
His campaigns in Gaul are said to have de- stroyed a million men, chiefly of the warrior caste. At the time of their greatest expansion the Gauls sacked Rome B. They pressed no farther south and soon retreated to and remained in Cisal- pine Gaul, that is, the valley of the Po and the coun- try north of the Apennines. There they settled in what was long known as Galatia, now An- gora, the present seat of the Turkish Government.
Some French anthropologists find that the present-day population of France is nearly four- fifths Alpine and they have decided to call the Al- pines "Celts," to avoid admitting that the Celts were physically the same as the hated Germans. This er- ror is not shared by the leading French anthropolo- gists, such as deLapouge, but it has been accepted by some anthropologists. Careful study of the references to the Celts by classic writers leaves no doubt that the Gauls, Gala- tians, Belgae, and Brythons were Nordics as were their successors the Visigoths, Suevi, Alemanni, Burgundians, and, above all, the Franks.
In fact, France down to the time of the Reformation was a Nordic land. Soon after the time when the Belgae first appear in Europe, Nordic tribes speaking a Germanic dia- lect are mentioned in history. The first of these tribes to come in conflict with the Romans were the Teutones and Cimbri, who after defeating several Roman armies, were utterly destroyed in B.
These people were the forerunners of many tribes and nations which emerged, one after another, from the swamps and forests of the north. The original home of most of them seems to have been in Scan- dinavia, where they had been developing for several thousand years. These newcomers were the latest and final linguistic group to appear in the history of Europe. The use of the word Teutonic is here purely linguistic in order to distinguish these late comers from the earlier, Celtic-speaking Nordic tribes.
The Teutonic Nordics formed a substantial ele- ment among the Belgse and Brythons and their ex- pansion may well have been the cause of the west- ward thrust of the latter. The Teutons began to press southward on the Roman Empire early in the Christian era and this pressure continued for some three centuries until the Empire collapsed under their successive invasions. As said above, the Celts and the Teutons were identical physically and the use of the word "Celtic" cannot be justified as a racial term at the present day. Among living Nordics, those of Celtic origin cannot be distinguished physically from those of German or Scandinavian extraction.
Possibly red hair and the psychical peculiarities associated with it may be rather more Celtic than Scandinavian. We find in classical writers the names and description of the barbarians beyond the borders of the Empire. They were all described as blue-eyed, fair or red- haired giants. Height, however, must be considered as relative to that of the Romans, whose legions in the later years of the empire were apparently com- posed of small men. With each generation the names applied to the barbarian tribes change, but the de- scription of physical characters remains the same.
In fact, a remnant of their language Krim G6- tisch was spoken in the Crimea until the seventeenth century. The Gepidae were a branch of the Goths who lay to the west of the main body, and the Alans, a closely related tribe, were located well to the east. It is interesting to note that some of the Alans, flee- ing from the Huns, took refuge in the Caucasus where the Ossetes to this day show occasional Nor- dic physical characters. The main body of the Gothic nation was split in two in a. Those who took refuge in the west, in South Germany and Gaul, were called Visigoths.
A part of the Visigoths, however, fled across the Danube, devastated the provinces of the Byzantine Empire and slew the reigning emperor, Valens, in a. The eastern branch, or Ostrogoths, were con- quered by the Huns and remained in Dacia. Later, after Attila's death and the disruption of his empire, the Ostrogoths, under the great Theodoric, invaded Italy and came near to building a unified Italian na- tion nearly fourteen hundred years ago. The Visigoths, who had been long in contact with Roman civilization, occupied Gaul.
When Attila crossed the Rhine in a. The Ostrogoths, on the other hand, were the best troops of the Hunnish host. The Visigoths entered Spain in a. Their al- lies, the Suevi, conquered and ruled Galicia and the provinces on the Atlantic which now constitute Por- tugal. The invasion of Spain by the Visigoths re- sulted in the expulsion of a closely related Teutonic people, the Vandals, who, with their allies, a remnant of the Alans, crossed over into Africa in a.
On the site of Carthage the Vandals erected a king- dom which lasted a hundred years. They ruled the African coast westward to the Atlantic, conquered and settled in Corsica and under their king, Genseric, sacked Rome in a. These Vandals, originally from Sweden, first ap- pear in history on the Baltic coast, thence they passed down through Central Europe and westward into France and thence into Spain, where they settled and remained until they were driven into Africa. They may have left behind some of their blood to mingle with the later-coming Germanic tribes in Spain.
It is possible also, though not probable, that to them are due some of the blond characters still found in the Atlas Mountains. As a race, however, their dis- appearance is complete. The Visigoths maintained their control in Spain until a. At this time, it is true, the blood of the Visigoths had been greatly mixed with that of the subject races, resulting perhaps in a weakening of their fighting power.
One of the reasons for the easy conquest of the Visigoths by the Moors lay in the hatred for them as Arians by the old Orthodox Catholic population who regarded their conquerors as heretics, and the assistance rendered by the Jews whom the Visigoths had treated harshly and who are reputed to have in- duced the Moors to make their invasion. A remnant of the Visigoths fled northerly into southern Gaul, which was called Gothia Septimania. There the name Visigoths was corrupted into Vigot or Bigot, which was a term of reproach used by the orthodox natives. It is important to note that the relations between the populations of the Roman Empire and the in- vading Teutonic Nordics were greatly affected by the fact that the latter were the followers of the schismatic monk Arius who, about a.
The denial of the Trinity by the Barbarians roused a fierce hatred among their subject peoples. The Franks alone among the Barbarians were converted directly to Orthodox Christianity. This greatly facilitated their conquest of Gaul. Down to our time, the aristocracy of Spain, and more especially that of Portugal, shows a marked in- heritance of blondness coming down largely from Visigothic and Suevic ancestry.
The province of Galicia still retains very appreciable marks of Gothic blood, especially in a high percentage of light-col- ored eyes. The Visigoths left behind them in Spain a legacy of names which now are regarded as most typically Spanish, as for instance Rodrigo, Alfonso, Alvarez, Guzman, and Velasquez. In the same manner we find a Nordic legacy of names reaching from Italy into France even where little Nordic blood is left. In other words, while blood dies out, names persist.
At the time of Spanish greatness the predominant blood in the peninsula was still Gothic, 2 and the ad- venturers who went overseas and were lost to the 2 The Spanish popular heroes, Don Rodrigo and the Cid Campeador, were Gothic, to judge by their names, as was the brave crusader, Count Raymund of Toulouse.
See p. In Portugal, the one great poet, Camoens, 3 and in Spain Cervantes, who was his contemporary, were descendants of the old Gothic nobility and had marked Nordic characteristics, as had the Cid Campeador. The case was the same in Italy 4 at this period. The great men were from the northern part of the peninsula. Dante, Michaelan- gelo, Leonardo Da Vinci, and virtually all of the leading men of the Renaissance were blond Nordics. Columbus himself, supposed to have come from Genoa, is described as having blue eyes and fair hair. In southern France, in the so-called Gothic Septi- mania and in the country around Toulouse, the home of the Troubadours, Gothic names abound.
He was blond, and bright-haired, with blue eyes, large and lively, the face oval and ruddy — and in manhood the beard short and rounded, with long untrimmed mustachios — the forehead high, the nose aquiline ; in figure agile and robust ; in action 'quick to draw and slow to sheathe,' and when he was young, he writes that he had seen the heels of many, but none had seen his heels. Born about the year , of a noble and well-connected family, educated at Coimbra, a university famous for the classics, and launched in life about the court at Lisbon, he was no sooner his own master than he fell into troubles.
French names are Gothic, Frankish, or Burgundian today, though disguised by their spelling, as, for example, Joffre from Gotfrid. In the opinion of Count deLa- pouge, France as late as the settlement of America was more Nordic than is the Germany of today. The main body of the Visigoths who survived the conquest by the Arabs took refuge in the northwest- ern part of Spain where they maintained some small kingdoms which ultimately coalesced and became the nucleus of a Christian Spain, which in the course of a seven-hundred-year crusade gradually recon- quered the peninsula and finally expelled the Moors in The Arabs who conquered Spain, and the Islam- ized Persians and Moors, had a wonderful period of intellectual expansion during the seventh and fol- lowing centuries.
This amazing outburst of genius, which preserved for us much of the science and learning of the Greeks, came to an end when the Mediterranean Mohammedans began mixing their blood with that of their Negro slaves. Moham- medanism has always appealed to the lower races, especially the Negro, because when they became fol- lowers of the Prophet they were admitted to social and racial equality with the superior race. This and the lure of the Negro women ruined the Arab race. Today, all through Africa and Egypt and in parts of Arabia, the so-called Arabs are often Negroid in appearance.
The exact reverse happened in the case of the Turks, who were originally Alpines from Central Asia strongly mixed with Mongol. Everywhere they seized the most beautiful women and, being polygamists, the ablest Turks had the most children by the finest women of the subject countries. Thus the Turks bred up as the Arabs bred down. To this day the Turks are the superior race in Asia Minor and have eliminated, at least from the ruling classes, practically all the physical traces of their Asiatic origin. The women of the Caucasus, especially the Cir- cassians and Georgians, who retain some remnants of the Nordic Alans, have always been noted for their physical beauty.
They were in great demand in Turkish Harems. Incidentally the Kurds are, or rather were, Nor- dic and it is interesting to note that Saladin, of Cru- sading fame, was a Kurd. Concerning other Teutonic Nordics, we need men- tion only those whose blood enters largely into mod- ern nations. Of these, one of the most interesting peoples were the Burgundians, who settled on the western bank of the upper Rhine in what is now Alsace, and in Burgundian France and French- speaking Switzerland. Appollonius Sidonius refers to the Burgundians as being seven feet high ; while this is an obvious exaggeration, it is interesting to note that in the old Burgundian provinces we find the tallest stature in France today.
When the Lombards first appear in history about a. They en- tered Italy in a. They not only occupied Italy north of the Apennines for three hundred years, but also established several large duchies in the south. The valley of the Po, where they settled, had been for centuries Cisalpine Gaul, and this Lombard terri- tory is today the backbone of modern Italy.
The percentage of light-colored eyes around Milan is high, and blondness through this district is as com- mon a characteristic of the peasantry as it is of the aristocracy throughout the rest of Italy. The Lombards were Arians and were in constant conflict with the Popes and their Orthodox followers and were consequently generally maligned.
Just as a similar situation facilitated the conquest of Spain by the Moors, so the destruction of the Lombard Kingdom by the Franks was made the easier by this antagonism. These small bands differed in few respects from the larger Nordic peo- ples and were quickly absorbed in them. All these barbarian tribes were closely related racially. Before we leave the Alemanni who occupied southwest Germany with Alsace and German-speak- ing Switzerland, we may note that their name, Ale- manni, did not mean 'All Men 5 in the sense of a mixed company, but rather The Men "par excel- lence," — the German "All" being the analogous of the Greek "Pan.
The conquests by the Franks were the most important and enduring of those of the Teutonic Nordics in Continental Europe. We know very little about the Franks from the Romans, although they may have been the Varini, who were located in northwestern Germany in classic times.
The Flemings of Belgium are remnants of the original Franks who retained their own language. Except in eastern England and northern France the numbers of the conquering Nordics were not sufficient entirely to evict and replace the conquered populations, but they everywhere formed the upper classes and land-owning aristocracy and to this day these same classes in all European nations continue to show, in more or less purity, the physical charac- ters of the Nordic race. During the Middle Ages, the dominating and war- like Nordics paused long enough from fighting each other to carry on the Crusades and to beat back the onrush of the Saracens at Tours in a.
They saved Europe from the Mongols in a. This race supplied the navigators of the expan- sion period, when the world was for the first time opened up in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, and since then they have formed the fighting men, soldiers, sailors, explorers, hunters, adventurers, and frontiersmen of Europe and her colonies. After mastering the north of France, the Franks subjugated the remnants of the Burgundians and destroyed the Visigothic kingdom which still flour- ished in the south of Gaul.
In a. Charlemagne revived the West- ern Roman Empire, which under various guises last- ed down to Charlemagne's greatest and most difficult con- quest, however, was that of the Saxons, who were pure Nordics. They occupied the districts of north- west Germany, centering in Hanover, and even to- day this part of Germany is still the most Nordic portion of that country.
When Charlemagne reached the Elbe in his con- quests he found beyond it the heathen Alpine Wends and from his day down to the World War, the his- tory of Central Europe has been the pushing back of the frontier of Alpine Asia from the Elbe east- ward toward the Urals. These eastern lands were conquered and little by little Christianized and civilized from the west.
This process went on as far as the Vistula, where it met the culture, and Greek Orthodox religion, of the Byzantine Empire, which had followed up the rivers of Russia from the Black Sea and had given to Mos- covia and to the Ukraine their religion, alphabet, and art. The Northmen were the last of the Nordic bar- barians to appear on the scene. In the ninth and tenth centuries they raided the coasts of Europe from England to Greece.
They established them- selves as permanent settlers on all the Scottish isl- ands and on many parts of the Scottish coast. They formed settlements and left place names all around the coasts of Wales and England. In the tenth century as Danes they subjugated northeast- ern England and imposed their rule east of the line of Watling Street, which runs from London to Chester. These Danes had barely been overcome by the Saxons when a new group of Nordics arrived as Normans from France and conquered England in Ireland was attacked by the Norse who came in from the north and by the Danes who entered from the south.
The island was overrun by these two peo- ples who have left many traces in the place names and in the blood of Ireland. On the Continent the coasts of France and Ger- many were harried by the Northmen and the coun- try since called Normandy was conquered by them in a. The Danish conquest of England, re- ferred to above, must have been largely Norse while, in France, Rollo's followers were probably to an overwhelming extent Danes.
The Norman element in England and to some ex- tent in America down to this very day has supplied a very large proportion of the conquerors, seamen, explorers, and frontiersmen. This same ruling and restless strain showed itself in the individual adven- turers who went to South Italy and Sicily, which they thoroughly conquered in the twelfth century. They even attacked the Byzantine Empire.
It was in this period that the Norse rovers under Leif Ericson discovered the northeast mainland of America about iooo a. At the time of this Norwegian and Danish ex- pansion, there was a similar outpouring of Swedes who, as Varangians, crossed the Baltic into Russia, which they conquered and ruled for many centuries. The name Varangian is strongly suggestive of Va- rini or Franks and the name "Russian" means "row- ers.
After the expansion of this so-called Viking period, Scandinavian activities came to an end. Man undoubtedly crossed back and forth on dry land from Europe to England in Neolithic and ear- lier times. In fact, some of the earliest records of man have been found in England and the recent dis- coveries in Norfolk of chipped implements and hearths show that man made tools and used fire in England before the appearance of the first glaciers — something over a million years ago. About the beginning of the Bronze Age, some B.
They resembled somewhat the present Dinaric race, a tall, round-skulled branch of the Alpines now found from the Tyrol southward to Albania on the east side of the Adriatic. It is clear that the Beaker Makers entered from the east across the narrow seas and their remains indicate a tall, masterful type which seems to have disappeared to a large extent, although some of the round-skulled, heavily built Englishmen, found numerously among the commercial classes, may be their representatives today.
The racial composition of the British Isles when the Nordic first appeared on the scene may be safely said to have been composed of small, brunet Mediter- raneans interspersed with a small number of round- skulled types and including, very probably, remnants of still earlier races. The Celtic-speaking Nordics appear to have crossed the Rhine into France and the countries to the southwest about B. At about the same time they forced their way into the British Isles which they thoroughly conquered. These "Q" Celts, as contrasted with the later coming "P" Celts, are now represented by the Macs meaning son just as the later Cymric or Brythonic Celts are called "P" Celts because in their language Ap means son.
The aborigines were called Picts in Scotland. These Mediterranean Picts spoke a language related to Hamitic or Egyptian, and many place names of this origin are still to be found. It is not definitely known whether the Gaelic speech of Scotland is a remnant of early Goidel in- vasion or whether it was reintroduced from Ireland in the early centuries of our era. The latter appears probable, because the second conquest by the Celts was nearly complete throughout Britain, although it did not reach Ireland.
It occurred in the fourth century B. These Brythons were represented on the continent by the Belgse, who, in Caesar's time, occupied Gaul between the Rhine and the Seine. A remnant of their speech survives in Brittany as Armorican. The "P" Celts gave their speech to all England and remnants of it are found in the recently extinct Cornish in Cornwall and in the Cymric of Wales. They were everywhere the ruling military class, in Britain as well as in Gaul. Having imposed their language on the conquered people, they died out almost completely, leaving, as in Wales, their speech on the lips of the little Med- iterranean native.
Whatever truth there is in the legends of King Arthur and his resistance to the Saxons they clearly indicate a blond, Celtic aristoc- racy ruling over an underclass of small Mediter- raneans. The same condition is indicated in Irish legends where the Celts appear as a distinct, fair- haired military class. The next Nordic invasion of Britain was by the Saxons from the country around the present duchy of Holstein and by the Angles and Jutes from far- ther north on the mainland of Denmark or Jutland.
These tribes which entered England in the fifth cen- tury were probably more purely Nordic than the continental Teutons and this also was true of the Norse and Varangians of a later date. Their con- quest was almost completed during the century after their arrival but there was sufficient resistance in the western part of England to postpone its final subju- gation for several centuries. However, gradually the population of practically all England and the lowlands of Scotland became purely Nordic.
This racial stock was reinforced by the invasion of Danes, who occupied most of northeast England. The next and last invasion of Britain by the Nor- dics was the Norman conquest in The Nor- man leaders and soldiers were pure Nordics from the most Nordic part of France. In fact, the Nor- mans were heathen Danes speaking a Teutonic tongue when they arrived in Normandy in a. In those years they had accepted Christianity, had learned French, and had become the exponents of the highest culture in Europe.
Into England they brought with them many followers of Alpine origin, and the clergy whom they imported was also com- posed very largely of Latinized Alpines. At this point we may remark that Wales, especial- ly along the coasts, has a very large Nordic popula- tion. We might just as well distinguish between North England and South Eng- land on the ground that the first is Anglian and Danish and the other Saxon and Jutish.
The low- lands of Scotland are pure English territory and have been such for a thousand years. The Ulster Scots who came to America were only two or three generations removed from the Scottish and English borderers and had not mixed with the native Irish.
At the time of the discovery of America, all Eu- rope was far more Nordic than it is today. Ger- many at that time had not witnessed the expansion of the Alpines of the south and east which is charac- teristic of the present era. In England, before the industrial revolution created a demand for little brunet Mediterraneans to drive spindles, the Nordic had the field to himself. As farmer, soldier, sailor, explorer, and pioneer he was pre-eminent.
The bru- net Mediterranean element, formerly called Iberians, had been forced back into the extreme west of Eng- land and into Wales, and was not an important eco- nomic or political factor.
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Nor was there any consid- erable immigration of that racial stock into the American colonies. These were settled primarily by the descendants of the Normans, Saxons, Anglians, and Danes coming from the distinctly Nordic dis- tricts of the mother land. Norfolk and Suffolk were settled by the Angles and afterwards formed a part of the Danish king- dom. As said above the lowlands of Scotland and the English borders were Anglian and Dane, while the coasts and islands of Scotland were everywhere Norse.
There were also remnants of the old Mediterranean populations, probably Picts. The population of West Scotland has the greatest height of all the peoples of Europe. Ireland, like England, was settled as we have seen originally by the Neolithic Mediterraneans. They in turn were conquered by the Goidelic or "Q" Celts, blond Nordics who imposed their language on the aborigines. In the ninth century, Ireland was over- run by the Norse and Danes, whose descendants to- day constitute a very considerable portion of the population.
The very name Ireland is Danish. Most of the big blond Irish of today, although they like to claim "Celtic" descent, are, in fact, of Norse, Dan- ish, Saxon, Norman, or Scotch derivation. The Nordic elements in Ireland were reinforced again and again by the English and Normans, who, from the days of their original entry into the island down to our day have formed the great majority of the nobility and upper classes of the country. The Celtic Goidel in Ireland today is a negligible quantity which cannot be racially identified.
The brunet ele- ments in western Ireland, though to some extent Celtic in speech, are descended from the old Neo- lithic or Mediterranean population of the British Isles, mixed with a primitive, aboriginal race of great antiquity, the Firbolgs. Ireland has shown a singular power of absorbing its conquerors. As to language, by the time of Eliza- beth the English Pale constituted a part of eastern Leinster, and there English was uniformly spoken.
The English language ultimately spread over the whole of Ireland, leaving only a few remnants of Celtic speech in the extreme west. From the times of James I to those of William III, large numbers of English and Scotch borderers passed over to the northeast corner of the island into the province of Ulster. They were fervent Presby- terians and hated the native Catholic Irish.
It was the sons and grandsons of these immigrants who came to America in the eighteenth century and are sometimes miscalled the "Scotch Irish. Before this time a large number of Cromwellian soldiers had settled in Leinster, but not having their own women with them they intermarried with the Catholic Irish and their descendants today are most intensely Irish in national feeling. The Reforma- tion never had much hold on Ireland, so that the Catholic Irish today represent the mixed population of Ireland before the sixteenth century, together with numerous converts from the Scotch and Eng- lish immigrants.
From West Central Asia where it was in contact with the Mongoloids on the east, the Nordic race pushed across Europe to the extreme western coasts. We shall show how it traversed the Atlantic Ocean and then in three centuries subdued a continent. Generation after generation it fought its way west- ward, until it reached the Pacific Ocean, where to- day it stands confronting Asia and its immemorial rivals, the Mongols, this time on the west. The impelling motive of the settlers who crossed the ocean to America from the earliest Colonial times down to was land hunger, and just as we specu- late in stocks today, so down to one hundred years ago our ancestors speculated in lands on the frontier.
It is difficult to realize the extent to which the ownership of the land in Europe was monopolized, largely through the exercise of Royal favor, by the upper classes in the seventeenth and eighteenth cen- turies. This established English tradition and prac- tice, brought to America by the early settlers, cou- pled with the favoritism of the royal governors in land grants, was one of the causes which led to the Revolution.
After the American victory much land was confiscated on the plea that the owners were Loyalists. The distribution of free land in the United States came substantially to an end about , when the public domain became exhausted. Certain exceptions will be dealt with later. Practically all of it was from northwestern Eu- rope, and the immigrants came mostly of their own volition. It took some degree of enterprise to leave home, cross the Atlantic, and establish oneself in a new country amid strange surroundings.
Set- tling new land meant clearing the forests and de- stroying the game, as well as buying off or fighting the Indians, whose ideas about land ownership were vague. To the frontiersman in early days, the term "a clearing" was synonymous with "a settlement. The New England Puritans represented only a part and relatively a small part of the exodus from England.
They were pure English from the most Anglo-Saxon part of England and consisted largely of yeomen and the lesser gentry, who found the re- ligious and political conditions in England under the Stuarts intolerable for freemen. They were essen- tially dissenters, who refused to bend the knee to prelate or to king. In , under the Commonwealth the Puritans seized the reins of government in England and only permitted the return of royalty in under condi- tions which established for all time the supremacy of Parliament.
The settlers of New England may be regarded as essentially rebels against established religion and es- tablished authority when the religion and authority were not of their own choosing. This non-conform- ist spirit persisted in the successive new frontiers as they were settled by New Englanders. The early New England settlers of western New York and the old Northwest Territory gave birth to an astonish- ing number of new sects, religions, "isms," and com- munities, ranging all the way from Mormonism to Shakers and the Oneida Community.
They were, however, law-abiding in their own way and mur- ders and crimes of violence were relatively infre- quent.