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In the meantime a bodhisattva will prepare everyone and everything for enlightenment. At the beginning of the night, Narrator stands guard on a clear night sky while Carla and Man sleeping. Halfway through the night, the sea fog is getting thicker, so that the sight at the start of the morning is less than 20 meters. Around 7 a. Narrator awakes Man and Carla as agreed. After a brief look outside Man says to Narrator that in the coming hours it will be impossible to sail with visibility less than meters; he proposes to take over the watch, but Narrator prefers to sleep during the day while sailing, because then the boat is rocking pleasantly.

Man asks to be awaken at 9 am at the latest or earlier in case the fog clears off. Carla and Man start sleeping again. At 9 am Narrator starts making breakfast with fried eggs and cheese. Carla and Man are still dozing, but the smell of fried eggs makes them awake. They get up, they wash themselves with cold water and put quickly warm clothes on. Visibility is still poor. It does not make sense to sail away this morning, because we do not have enough time to arrive at a next good landing place.

We may enjoy this view until the next high tide. When the sun will starts shining it may be quite comfortable. Suddenly I had a great respect for the inability of the wise woman to answer. Thank you. Very briefly this question is as follows:. Immediately this junior bodhisattva appeared and after a snap with his fingers the young woman came out of her meditation. The junior bodhisattva symbolises worldly distinction: in his world we can freely stand up and sit down, being absorbed in meditation and come out of meditation.

Based on the essential aspect all and everything is empty: it has no shape, no color, no size and no surface. Herewith all is the same. On the basis of the phenomenal aspect, everything has a shape, a color, a size and a surface. Herewith all is unique and completely different. We human beings have two aspects: an essential manifestation and a phenomenal manifestation.

Therefore we can say that everything has a form and at the same time has no form, and in the same way we take no step when we walk and in the middle of a hectic city we are in the core of a deep silence. Not being able to gallop of a snake is an elegant way to give substance to this freedom. This Buddhist question is about this integration that I am trying to achieve.

I smell the coffee. After my education as architect, I have always given a lot of attention to the experience of space and herewith emptiness and the limitation and boundary of space. Though I always sleep on my travels, each night in another place, the dream I always dream brings me to my own house. This short poem gave me comfort, acquiescence and connection with my nomadic life in Europe; and also it connected me again to the nomadic life in my childhood with my mother as Maasai nomad travelling around with her small herd in northern Kenya with my brothers and sisters whereby it was always a treat when we met my father on his trips as storyteller.

Though I always sleep on my travels, each night in another place, in the dream I always dream I am still at home. Sleep well. At lunch we will wake you. The hidden lamp — Stories from twenty-five Centuries of Awakened Women. Boston: Wisdom Publications, , p. In the meantime a bodhisattva will prepare everyone.

Tucson: The University of Arizona Press, , p. Those four letters are the source of the And what is the difference? Is this sutra the finger that points to the moon, or is it the moon itself? To the enlightened mind, the relation between the two is similar to the relation of an ocean to its waves. Amsterdam: Meulenhoff, , p. It is almost dark; the wind has dropped. Half an hour ago Man had lowered the sails and Carla, Man and narrator sailed on the outboard to their next stranding place near Terschelling in the direction of Vlieland.

With the onset of darkness, Man lets the boat strand and lowers the anchor so that they will not float away with the next high tide. Man lights the gaslights in the cabin and on the aft deck, and they make the boat and beds ready for the night. Then Narrator makes preparations for a simple supper. Carla gets a bottle of red wine from her luggage, uncorks it and pours three glasses. They smell the wine. After fifteen minutes Carla gets into warmer clothes, Narrator cleans the dishes and Man puts the kettle on for coffee and a few minutes later pours the boiling water through the coffee filter.

When the coffee is ready, Man gives each a mug of coffee. Shall I now give my summary — or rather my impressions — of these books by Martin Heidegger? Important works may well give rise to many impressions and based thereon a lot of different interpretations. During our stay at the first stage of our quest at All-encompassing One we have experienced that All-encompassing One cannot be captured in words, that are intended to distinguish.

He continues with subjects as temporality, worldliness and historicity. Maybe this is caused by the limitations of language or perhaps even by the limitations of human understanding. The Heart Sutra is slightly closer to the All-encompassing One without leaving daily world. I hope to be able showing this during our boat trip. Surpassing these distinctions and then going beyond any kind of surpassing, I regard as a major intellectual achievement by Martin Heidegger in his time.

My last sentence may not fully reflect the unspeakable wonder hereof. In my opinion Thich Nhat Hanh succeeds better in describing this miracle in the introduction to his commentary on the Heart Sutra [21]. Examining this light in the world — with all the abilities and wisdom of humanity — will miss the core that Martin Heidegger — I think — had tried to interpret in his work.

Without the sun there is no rain, without rain the trees cannot grow, and without trees there is no paper for writing the poem. The woodcutter of the tree, the papermaker, etc. And also their parents and ancestors watch from the sheet, because without them there would be no woodcutter, no papermaker, etc. If we look closer then we ourselves — the writer, the future reader with all their loved ones, with all of our culture and civilization — are within this sheet of paper; without them no future bundle of poetry and no future readers of the poem.

Carla — especially for you — Thich Nhat Hahn gives an interesting interpretation to the problem of the origin. Thich Nhat Hahn says that the paper of the poet will not be able to exist: even how thin the sheet of paper is, the entire universe is inside. The addition to the problem of the origin that you have mentioned is only part of the problems I have herewith: later during our quest maybe more.

It is already a little foggy: are we outside every sailing route at high tide tonight? Berkeley: Parallax Press, , p. Nijmegen: Uitgeverij Sun, , p. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, , p. Passengers are boarding the morning ferry to Schiermonnikoog; they wave to the small sailboat. Carla and Man wave back while they are busy getting the sails ready: Narrator has already entered the cabin to sleep. Upon leaving the harbour Man puts the outboard off and tilts it out of the water. Then Man hoist the sails with help of Carla; first the headsail and the mizzen and afterwards the mainsail of this yawl-rigged [1] sailboat.

There blows a gentle breeze from the southwest. Then the miracle happens: from nowhere the sails curve with the wind while slightly flapping and the boat is propelled by the wind. Man trims the sails tight and the boat is well on track. Half hour later the ferry catches up with them; again passengers and Carla and Man are waiving to each other. Narrator is still sleeping quietly in the cabin. In that case you may sail the boat on the outboard motor to a harbour. When it begins to storm is wise to hoist only the mizzen sail, whereby the boat remains with the head in the wind and usually also the waves.

When the engine fails, the boat will sail excellently with only the headsail and the mizzen. After three hours sailing Man raises the fin keel, lets the boat strand and lowers the sails; Carla helps Man. On the two-burner gas stove Man bakes eggs for lunch. Carla awakes Narrator and she takes the bread, plates and cutlery.

In the grand view of the tidal flats — exposed by low tide — they enjoy their lunch. With the changing of the tide, water and flat lands merge — constantly complementary —into each and other infinitely changing, like emptiness and form. Here on the mudflats on Het Wad during the tide changes, the boundaries between form and emptiness fade; still form and emptiness keep each other alive. Within a day of sailing on Het Wad, I become one with the rhythm of the tide and my hectic daily ego fades. Thereby it requires constant discipline and overview to take care for a safe boat journey.

I have never been in Africa and for you it may be an excellent opportunity to revisit that part of the world. I can easily cover travel and subsistence from my means. Maybe something to come back to at the end of this boat trip. Herewith my study of Sanskrit can be useful for everything and everyone. Most people live within this framework of wisdom.

This wisdom is attainable with meditation and philosophy. While our daily wisdom and metaphysical wisdom results in attachment to manifestations, illusions and characteristics, the third form of wisdom remains free hereof [11]. What kind of wisdom is meant here in Sanskrit? Here the first way and meaning of the word is used; my father added that using one way and meaning of the word para, the other ways and meanings are always gently resonating. It is time to end this extensive lunch and we have to wash the plates and cutlery. We must prepare ourselves for the next part of our boat trip during the following high tide.

Tonight we will have to eat in darkness after we have landed again. Now we must do the dishes, because that will not be easy during darkness before our evening meal. Besides my mother said that only Bohemians wash the dishes before the meal. After they washed the dishes, the high tide slowly arrives. Man and Carla prepare the boat for sailing. We do not need to push the boat against the tide to deeper water. There I see the tide already between Schiermonnikoog and Ameland.

Amsterdam: Omnia — Amsterdam Publisher , p. Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications, , p. Washington D. Port Townsend: Copper Canyon Press, , p. A clear sky at new moon. Narrator drives the borrowed Skoda Superb [1] Combi from Amsterdam via the Noordoostpolder [2] to the marina at Lauwersoog near the departure of the ferry to Schiermonnikoog. Both headlights shine on the empty highway through the dark void land that over 50 years ago still was bottom of the Zuiderzee Southernsea. Carla dozes in the back seat. Man sits as a passenger next Narrator; in the dim light of the dashboard they look to the exit at Emmeloord that in the far distance is lit by lantern light.

As boy in South Limburg I have loved the dark nights with the infinite universe wherein I — included — was one with all the stars and galaxies in the firmament. Now I feel myself floating within a faint white glow on an infinite journey through the universe and thereby perfectly at home in this vessel. She was unable to answer this question.

Do you know the meaning of this word in Sanskrit? The car is nearing the exit at Emmeloord.

Spring Retreat Dharma Talk on the Diamond Sutra – March 26, 2010

As the factors of cause and effect are changing constantly, there is no static — fixed — existence possible. All appearances are relative and interdependent according to this contemporary Japanese Zen master. Zero has no numerical value in itself, but it represents the absence of numerical values and thus symbolises at the same time the possibility of all numerical values. Here I am reminded of the French phenomenologist Maurice Merleau-Ponty who has argued that manifestations are caused by a creative process of giving meaning and taking meaning at once[13]. After this he concludes that everything — every manifestation and every being — only exists through the principle of interdependence bound by the law of impermanence.

The Zen master goes further in his statement on the importance of impermanence — emptiness or vanity — and interconnectedness than Maurice Merleau-Ponty in the arising or creation of all manifestations and of every being. In the stage of true vipasyana, there is neither exist- a ence nor emptiness because dharmas are neither discriminated nor conceptualized. To say that the truth can be realized through the contemplation of emptiness simply means that by contemplating self and dharmas grasped by mere imagination as empty, one gains insight into reality.

The essence of reality is not empty. This first vipasyana applies to various doctrines explained in the sutras, such as consciousness only, the two truths, the three natures, the three nonexistences, the three emancipations, the three kinds of unproduced forbearance, the four established doctrines siddhartha , the four solemn voluntary discourses udana , the four analytical contemplations, the four true wisdoms, the five meditations on patience, and so forth.

All these are included in this vipasyana. Rejecting the false and preserving the pure. Mind arises necessarily by apprehending the arising of a field of objects o f cognition visaya-gocara. They do not understand m ental contemplation, nor do they diligently seek liberation. This is not to imply that the object of cognition within [consciousness], like the [imagined entity existing] externally, is entirely nonexistent. Since the substance of the mind is pure, it is said to be consciousness only. Therefore, a sutra says, The object-supports suo-yuan; alambana of mind citta , thought manas , and [mental] consciousness mano-vijhana are not apart from their self-natures svabhdva.

Therefore, I say that everything is nothing but consciousness. One-pointed concentration falls under this category of vipasyana. Gathering the branches parts into the root foundation. Objects of cognition visaya appear clearly to the mind and so does the functioning o f the mind. Apart from consciousness, there is definitely neither the foundation [i.

They i. That which is capable of transformation neng-pien has only three [types]. It says that the substance of consciousness appears in two aspects, namely, the object perceived and the perceiving faculty. Contemplations on noumena and phenomena, the true and the conventional, etc. Concealing the inferior and revealing the superior. Both the mind citta and its caittas mental attributes can transform. The mental attributes are inferior in that they depend on the primary mind.

The inferior is covert, i. Therefore, Maitreya said: The mind seems to appear in two aspects: Defiled, such as covetousness, Or pure, such as faith, And there are no defiled or pure phenomena apart from the mind. The Vim alakirti[nirdesa]-sutra says that w hether things appear to be defiled or pure depends upon the mind.

Record of Traces and Dreams: The Heart Sutra

All such contem plations fall into this category o f vipasyand. Eradicating forms and realizing its self-nature. Phenomena are the functional aspect o f noumena and should not be grasped at. Noumena is the ultimate nature and should be realized. A verse says: A rope is mistakenly perceived to be a snake.

Seeing the rope, one realizes it is not [a snake]. Other sutras assert that the self-nature of the mind is pure. All these belong to this category of vipasyana. The five categories mentioned above—emptiness and existence, the phenomenal and the mind, function and substance, mind and its attributes, noumena and phenomena—proceed from the gross to the subtle and expound progressively the profound principle of consciousness only.

They include all types of vipasyana and take wonderful wisdom derived from hearing, reflecting, and practicing as the essence of vipasyana.


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To be able to understand clearly and discern properly is not innate or inborn. Contemplations in the desire realm kamadhatu include only the wisdom derived from hearing and reflection. The practice of uncontaminated vipasyana encompasses the former two contemplations. In the stage of cultivation one still cannot get insight into the emptiness o f the two attachments.

By developing true knowledge in this way, one thoroughly realizes that the apprehending consciousness does not really exist. The esteemed Compassionate One i. Having eradicated discursive thoughts, He realizes that there is merely his own projection. Abiding within the mind this way, One knows that what is grasped does not exist, Nor does that which grasps i.

Subsequently, nothing is sensed sparsa. A bodhisattva in this stage is able to practice vipasyana but still clings to appearance and therefore cannot realize truth. In the stage of penetrating understanding, nothing whatsoever is attained amid alambanas and visayas by nondiscriminating wisdom. When principle and cognition chih; jn an a are conjoined, mind and objects o f cognition visayas profoundly encounter [each other]. They are like magical occurrences, Although existent, they are unreal i.

In this stage, a bodhisattva comprehends the dharmadhatu, abides in the [first] bhumi of utmost joy, is born into the family of the Tathagata, and is aware that supreme enlightenment is soon to be attained. In the stage of practice, there are different degrees of practice. Beyond the eighth bhumi, one practices effortlessly, spontaneously, and naturally in the domain of emptiness, giving rise to superior practices.

Category: Sutra

Two things are to be worked on during practice. They are 1 what is presented to cognition, and 2 hidden latencies, or seeds bijas. As to presentation and seeds, in [this stage of] practice, only the seeds are understood to be contaminated. In the stage of cultivation, prior to the seventh bhumi, the three wisdoms are both contaminated sasrava and uncontaminated anasrava.

As to presentation and seeds in the final stage, they are all understood to be contaminated, and [thus] are all eliminated. Practice here means to contemplate the fact that manifest activities and potentialities mutually intensify and develop until perfected. Those who have gained mastery, even in the lower stages, are capable of higher practices, while those who have not gained mastery are not. The practice o f consciousness only encompasses all other practices, because all [other practices] depend upon the practice of consciousness only.

In short, what results are to be obtained by practice? This is to explain them separately, but when the two practices are conjoined, they are all-encompassing. The above explanation is a brief presentation of practice. What is the expanded exposition of practice? It consists of three aspects: 1 what is taught; 2 the [dharma] of cultivating the teachings; and 3 the one able to cultivate the teachings. First of all, one should know what is taught, one should rely on that teaching, and, finally, one methodically accomplishes what he is able to cultivate from the teachings.

Thus, all three aspects are included in the bodhisattva practice. Regarding those to be trained. One should clearly recognize that people differ by gotra i. Regarding beneficial deeds. If one wishes to engage in deeds purely benefiting others, deeds such as practicing generosity with deviant views, teaching the Dharma without the view of causality, or teaching without practicing oneself should all be totally abandoned.

And the two faultless benefits should be diligently practiced. Regarding true meaning. Regarding power. He manifests the four kinds of birth as well as the eight aspects of a Buddha s life, and even unfortunate births or blindness, in order to benefit beings. From these practices the Buddha creates his power, through which he knows the circumstances, the timing, and the suitability of all beings within the dharmadhatu. When one knows there are such powers, one should practice diligently so as to realize Buddhahood.

Regarding bodhi.


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The wisdoms, abandonments, and so on, all the Buddha qualities, should be understood and engaged in extensively so as to realize the fruition of [Buddhahood], Regarding these five aspects, one should first understand the capabilities of the beings to be taught and then begin practices to benefit them. Next, one should know what is to be practiced and what is to be eliminated, and then one benefits oneself through attaining great powers. After understanding the object o f practice, one should engage in practice. The practice of the Dharma starts from attaining the benefits from the virtues of the Three Jewels, the powers of the Buddhas and bodhisattvas, and the true meaning of the infallible [law of] cause and effect.

After attaining skillful means, one purely believes, comprehends, and surely delights in the excellent words of the sutras. A ll these should be diligently pursued. How does one pursue them? As for inner thought, one should vigorously and enthusiastically seek to hear [the Buddha-Dharma], Just to hear a single phrase of the excellent Dharma, one would happily walk on a road as crude as iron, let alone do so to hear many good teachings.

Unsatiated, tireless, with deep faith and a pure heart, and possessing right views, one cherishes virtues and the Dharma. One should always respectfully listen to the teachings without belittling or finding fault [in them] nor underestimating or belittling oneself. Logic is studied in order to refute heretical systems of thought and to uphold the proper path. Medicine is studied in order to cure illnesses so that sentient beings may live healthy, happy lives.

The arts are studied so that with little effort a great accumulation of precious riches may greatly benefit countless beings. Next, one should propagate the true Dharma and teach the five fields of knowledge in a way that is beneficial and pleasing. How should one teach? One should teach calmly in accordance with the Dharma and with dignified deportment. One should not expound the true Dharma to those who are not sick yet sit upon a high seat, because the teachings of the Buddhas and bodhi- sattvas are worthy of respect, and people should be taught to respect the precious treasure of the Dharma.

One should teach [the Dharma] ceaselessly, withholding nothing. According to the disposition of [those one is teaching], one should explain things in sequence without thought o f miserliness. N either should one teach the Dharma for the sake o f obtaining fame, gain, respect, or praise. Next, one should engage in practice, avoiding the three types o f negative actions, that is, o f body, speech, and mind, as proscribed by the Buddha. Having heard teachings on positive actions, one contemplates and practices them properly.

Living alone in guarded tranquility, one ponders the teachings of the Dharma one has heard. One seeks to understand what is not yet understood and never forgets what is already understood. Knowing the profound meaning [o f the Dharma] well, one is unmoved by different teachings. One practices calm abiding samatha and special insight vipasyana. Next, one should teach.

Spring Retreat Dharma Talk on the Diamond Sutra – March 26, 2010

One should take into consideration the mental capacities and inclination of others. Accordingly, one should determine the practices appropriate for each, so as to cause them to forsake their arrogance and pride. Those who are able to practice properly are praised kindly, with parables humbly explained to enhance their joyful practice.

Next, one establishes the three actions of body, speech, and mind. First, one benefits others through gifts o f material wealth that induce them to listen to the teachings and, therefore, to practice. One should work together with them in proper practice, so that they will not be inclined to say [that the teacher does not practice].

Next, one should practice the [six] perfections param itas. The Perfection of Giving The perfection of giving dana is to give up position and greed with regard to the three actions. When practicing giving, one should not give things that lead only to sensual pleasure but not to virtuous benefit, or give things that lead neither to pleasure nor virtuous benefit; in other words, one should give things that lead to virtuous benefit and not pleasure, or give things that result in both virtuous benefit and pleasure. If people request material goods, one should seek to satisfy [their requests].

If they request more than [what is] necessary, then, depending on the situation, one should exhort them to eliminate their afflictions and generate contentment. One should not give to those who frequently seek [to satisfy] their gluttonous appetites, nor help those in distress with plans to harm themselves. One should not seize things from inferiors, nor should one take delight in doing evil or seek for position.

One should not give while harboring malice or enmity. Having practiced generosity, one should not publicize or boast, expecting favor in return. One should not throw or give gifts in a rude manner. If people come [to make requests] with negative minds and bad manners and one gives indiscriminately to them, one should not regard this giving as purely virtuous. One should not practice giving simply because one is coerced by others, or out of fear of poverty [in future lives].

One should not give in order to stir up ill will between two parties in order to gain their submission. One should not be lax in the practice of giving while encouraging others to give. Once should not give unequally, out o f sequence, unwillingly, unhappily, or regretfully. One should not give fake things when asked for real ones. One should not ridicule those who seek help at an improper time, without forethought, or in an improper manner, causing them to feel ashamed. One should not remain silent nor refuse to give when entreated repeatedly.

The above-mentioned are faults and should all be avoided. One should do whatever is the reverse. If one does not possess sufficient wealth, one should consider if those who come for help are content and not poor, or miserable and helpless. Then, according to one s wealth, one satisfies their needs. Those with little should delight in giving whatever they can to create contentment and happiness for whoever comes asking.

I have valuables and wealth that I will allow you to give away as you choose. Be careful not to let those who come for help return empty-handed. When I benefit them, you should accord with that virtue to cause delight in others. The seeds thus sown will gradually grow. If they are deceitful and cunning and take advantage, or cheat when begging, [one should] conceal their mistakes without hurting them and fulfill their wishes. One should not disgrace or shame them, so that they can leave happily.

At first they may take advantage and cheat, but sooner or later they will come to understand. Neither commend nor reproach, but rather develop pity and sympathy for them. I will maintain a cheerful attitude and keep them a from negativity. One should very skillfully propagate the proper Buddha-Dharma and cause beings to learn the practice of giving.

One should not cause others to give too little, or to give improperly, or to give partially to friends, or to make offerings thoughtlessly. One should practice giving [copies of scriptures] without miserliness even if one should become ignorant, let alone merely become short of provisions for acquiring wisdom. In such cases, not giving [scriptures] does not violate pure precepts. One then skillfully explains [why one cannot give], and dismisses the person. Thus, even if one accumulates wealth, one still abides in the sacred lineage.

If one encounters the four types of obstacles so that one is unable to give graciously, one should apply the four types of wisdom to counteract them: 1. If one has wealth but does not enjoy giving, one should consider that this [stinginess] results from the habits accumulated in successive past [lifetimes], and that unless one forces oneself to give, the problem will further intensify in the future. Thus, one earnestly encourages oneself in the practice and develops the wisdom of awareness.

If one has an attitude of not giving joyfully due to a lack of possessions, one should reflect on the causes of this lack of wealth that prevents one from giving, and summon forth an attitude of benevolence to endure the suffering of poverty. Perceiving the benefits of giving, one develops the wisdom of forbearing suffering. Thus, one earnestly encourages oneself to give and develops the wisdom of eradicating errors viparyasa. Even if one does practice giving but does so only for worldly rewards, one should quickly and thoroughly understand that this is an erroneous view.

One should contemplate that all things are impermanent, are bound to disintegrate, and will soon come to an end. Thus, one will not take delight in worldly pleasures but will certainly seek enlightenment and gain insight into impermanence. One should abide in tranquil seclusion, summoning deep faith and continually concentrating on the thought of giving many and excellent things.

Because of this intention, one can give wealth to all sentient beings. Therefore, with little effort, one can create immeasurable blessings and give away things that one treasures and loves. One should not be miserly with what has been gained b through hardship and difficulty. With faith and respect, one should graciously give in person, at the right time, and without harming oneself or others.

To give pure and excellent possessions extensively is the giving of wealth. And to exhort others to practice good deeds is the giving of the Dharma. One gives readily and does not create delays or withhold anything, though it is not because people demand things quickly that one does so. One promptly gives whatever one has, not waiting [to give] until one accumulates a lot of wealth. One should be humble with supplicants and without competitiveness or arrogance. The Perfection of Morality Morality sila means receiving and studying pure actions with regard to the three actions [of body, speech, and mind].

If one violates the precepts that one has properly received, one should see this as a source of shame. Therefore, one is able to safeguard the precepts and restore them purely with respect and mindfulness. Due to the first two [of the four qualities] one can consequently avoid all negative actions. Due to the first two and the last [of these four qualities], one is able to avoid violating the precepts.

If one can regain purity [through repentance] after violation, one can quickly restore [the precepts], leaving transgressions behind. Both ordained [people] and laypeople should practice the three types o f morality. First is the morality o f discipline. This refers to the precepts followed by the seven groups o f Buddhists i. They have no desire for divine pleasures, much less worldly wealth and position. They vigorously engage in other practices, not being satisfied only with the practice of morality. They abandon negative speech and thought. If these arise, they quickly repent and purify them, so as to restrain their speech and collect their thoughts properly.

Hearing about difficult practices, they are neither alarmed nor intimidated but apply themselves and persevere in the practice. Seeing wicked and violent beings, they compassionately accept them. When harmed or offended [by someone], they neither get angry nor reject them. If they commit a violation, they repent and pledge not to transgress again. They eschew deceit and all such negative behavior. Second is the morality that consists of positive actions. This refers to all positive actions that are causes [for the attainment] of great enlightenment accumulated after receiving precepts.

One vows to make offerings [to the Three Jewels] and to keep the precepts scrupulously. One is self- restrained in taking food and strictly guards the senses. During the first and last parts of the night, one continually maintains mindful alertness. One has no tolerance for negative actions, understands well the law of cause and effect, and also eradicates obstacles.

Third is the morality of wishing to greatly benefit sentient beings. One works to help those o f various inclinations in all unmistaken actions. One consoles those who are despised, urging them to eliminate miserliness and negativity. One c remembers favors received, repays kindnesses, and praises and welcomes people one meets. One reciprocates w ith som ething o f equal or greater value, not o f less value. One protects beings from fear and consoles those in sorrow. One always has wealth on hand to give away when requested.

If one lacks possessions, one goes searching for things to give away. One shares whatever one has and does not hoard things for oneself. One practices sincerely in accordance with what one teaches. Except for censuring reprehensible transgressions, one does not annoy others nor denigrate, embarrass, or humiliate them. One stays neither too close to nor too distant from people, nor does one stay near them at improper times. One does not destroy what others are fond of nor praise what they detest. One does not give out valuable information [about a matter] to those who are not closely involved [in it].

One does not make frequent or unusual requests nor revoke previous promises. All of these are part of the treasure of immeasurably great virtues. Then this [qualified] bodhisattva will cause those who take the precepts to generate great sincerity and deep concentration so that the precepts may be properly conferred. If there is no one to give the precepts, one can take them properly oneself before an image of the Buddha.

After doing this, one should constantly be mindful of the bodhisattva precepts. One should not take precepts from those who extensively slander the bodhisattva texts, even though [such people] may be clever, wise, and eloquent. One should not bestow precepts on those without faith in them, or on those who slander or denigrate them. If one maintains pure morality and is replete with great virtue, such condemnation and slander merely become great offenses for that person. If one hears [any slander from others], one should not forsake them.

One receives [precepts] not because one is urged to nor in order to outdo others, but because one chooses to do so through one s own wise judgment and firm resolve. There are four methods of trying to outdo others: 1 praising oneself and slandering others for fame, gain, and respect; 2 being miserly and not giving to those who seek wealth or the Dharma; 3 retaliating with anger, [causing] injury, and not relinquishing grudges; and 4 slandering the bodhisattva texts and happily proclaiming teachings resembling [the real teachings] that oneself believes in or that are followed by others.

Committing such offenses, one is unable to increase one s pure motivation or accumulate great rewards. There are two causes or conditions by which a bodhisattva loses the pure [bodhisattva] precepts: 1 forsaking the great vow to attain unsurpassed enlightenment and 2 committing the most serious offense of the four parajikas i. Only those who frequently, shamelessly, and happily commit the fourparajikas are designated the most serious offenders.

Committing only one passing offense is not considered forsaking [the precepts]. In future lifetimes, although he may forget [the precepts taken in previous lives] and receive the precepts again, it is not a new ordination but an awakening o f awareness, a remembrance o f them. One who maintains the [bodhisattva] precepts should make offerings daily to the Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha i.

One should not waste any opportunity for reverence, offerings, and diligence. One should not give rise to great desire a but should abandon fame and gain. One respects and serves virtuous elders, obeying them with proper manners and gratitude. One accepts proper invitations and uncontaminated offerings and gives the undefiled Dharma.

One equally guards against the major and minor transgressions, and is ready to do whatever is necessary to benefit others. Having revulsion for samsara, one longs for nirvana. One should defend oneself against malicious gossip or praise. One takes the proper amount of rest at the proper time and avoids joking and chatting. One humbly seeks teachings to break through the five obstructions panca-nivarana i. After thoroughly studying the bodhisattva texts, one then studies the sravaka texts.

Having mastered the Buddha-Dharma, one then learns the non-Buddhist systems. Only with strong faith and love for the Dharma can one use it to bring benefit and happiness to others. When the true Dharma is being expounded, one enthusiastically goes to listen. Otherwise, one should be aware that disregarding any of the above- mentioned [practices] constitutes a transgression.

If one commits a very serious transgression, one should confess before three or more masters who know the precepts well, and after confessing [one should] take the precepts again. One who commits a lesser or middling transgression may disclose it to one master. Thus one can leave transgressions behind and restore [the precepts] to purity. Is this not joy and peace? Unless one learns these three, one will encounter only decline, harm, danger, and suffering. The Perfection of Patience Patience ksanti means to avoid anger under any circumstances, through vigorously exercising discerning wisdom.

There are three kinds of patience. The patience o f enduring enmity and harm. If I am not patient now, I will again create the causes o f suffering. Instead o f benefiting myself, I will only achieve fetters and harm for myself. Moreover, both my body and mind and those o f others are o f the nature o f suffering. Out of ignorance, others harm me physically. But as I am aware [of the consequences], how could I then increase their suffering? Sravakas, who work for their own benefit, still do not harm others [in retaliation]. Even more so should I, working to benefit others, endure their harm [without retaliation].

Hence, I should not take [enmity] personally but should maintain thoughts of the Dharma. I should not even allow defiled thoughts to arise, much less cause harm. I should abandon thoughts of permanence and maintain mindfulness of impermanence. I should employ skillful means to lead them out of suffering forever. How could I cause them more suffering? I should abandon thoughts of pleasure and maintain mindfulness of suffering. I should benefit them and look after them. How could I retaliate and harm them?

I should abandon thoughts of harming them and maintain thoughts of looking after them. Even if I have to go through great suffering for hundreds of thousands of kalpas, I should accept it patiently, let alone [accept] a small amount of suffering. One should endure the suffering incurred in the mundane processes of decay, destruction, sickness, and death, as well as the suffering encountered in maintaining the four types of dignified deportment, in assimilating the Dharma, in changing one s appearance i.

One should be able to endure all of these patiently. One should skillfully improve and not be negligent in the pursuit of great enlightenment but eradicate the defilements of the mind without retrogressing. The patience o f true insight into the Dharma. This mea familiarize oneself with all aspects of the Three Jewels and to gain pure understanding and benevolence through analysis. One should be sympathetic with negative and lowly beings, with subordinates and enemies as well as close ones, when training oneself in the three actions both when in public and in private, day and night, and also when ill.

Due to having patience toward harm and offenses, one is freed from them; and, due to patience, one can practice giving when help is sought. One readily apologizes for offending [others] and accepts apologies for offenses, so that people will not dislike one. One becomes mortified upon losing patience and realizes that patience is the cause of peace and happiness in life. One also sees c the suffering that results from impatience. Therefore, one practices patience oneself, and through praise and encouragement teaches others to do the same.

In brief, these are of three types. Increasing effort. This means that before the practice of virtue, one generates a courageous attitude and dons the armor of this pledge. Effort in accumulating merits. One should rem ain unm oved when facing all kinds o f problems, different viewpoints, suffering, and annoyances. The World-honored One always acclaimed the practice o f effort, for it enables one to perfect goodness and to actualize enlightenment quickly. Effort benefiting sentient beings.

This refers to the various efforts to benefit sentient beings as previously mentioned. Accomplishing all practices equally without interruption or laxity, one can achieve equality and understanding and accord with virtue. Practicing properly without sloth and haste, one can eliminate defilements and produce many new good deeds.

One should have strength, diligence, and courage to boldly and steadily create virtue without violating good norms. One should practice vigorously, happily, and tirelessly. One should destroy afflictions as quickly as if one were extinguishing a fire on one s own head. Following the Dharma and applying it, one can protect oneself and benefit others. The Perfection of Concentration Concentration dhyana means first hearing and reflecting on [the Dharma] and then stabilizing the mind one-pointedly. There are three types o f concentration.

First is tranquil concentration, which delightedly fixes on actual phenomena. This means that by eliminating discrimination, distractions, and attachment, one is able to develop quietude, equanimity, and samadhi. Second is tranquil concentration manifesting supernatural abilities. This refers to the stabilization that brings forth supernormal powers. Third is tranquil concentration that benefits beings.

This is so called because it achieves their benefit, happiness, and samadhi. One can admonish others to abandon idleness and practice as they should. One has supernatural powers o f prophecy, instruction, transformation, illumination, and the elimination o f suffering. Thus one is able to eradicate all serious obstructions forever. There are three types o f wisdom. First is the wisdom that realizes the truth of things as they are.

Second is profound wisdom pertaining to the five fields of knowledge and the three kinds of concentration. By acquiring this knowledge, one is able to quickly attain perfections through a wealth of awareness and realizations. They study Buddhist doctrines and depend on pure wisdom. Next is the practice of the four all-embracing virtues: 1. This has been explained previously. Kind speech. One avoids frowning and maintains a smile. One greets and relates to others graciously, sympathetically instructing them in proper behavior and recognizing qualities of which they are unaware, so that they will realize their own merits.

One teaches the Buddha-Dharma in order to benefit them. One generates a pure attitude toward adversaries and vows to dispel the delusions of those who are highly ignorant. One does not reject nor resent those who deceive and wrong the true merit field i. One admonishes those who indulge greatly in idleness to abandon their sloth.

To those who are skeptical, one explains how to make correct decisions by relying on the four kinds of pure speech and by applying the eight kinds of sacred speech. Beneficial conduct. One teaches the peace and pliancy derived from abandoning desire. Even when experiencing great hardship, one ignores weariness and generates even greater joy. Even if one has enormous wealth and a high position, one should be as humble as a servant, a slave, an outcaste candala , or a devoted child.

Working with others. Due to the advantages o f working with others, if one urges others to study, one must also study oneself. After teaching them the ways o f practice, one should practice [these ways] also. You still need to receive teachings from others on these things. One arranges for offerings to be made to the Buddhas of the present, as well as personally making offerings to relics ,sariras and caityas shrines. One makes offerings to the caityas of the other Buddhas of the three periods of time i.

One makes offerings like this in person i. One makes offerings to all [of the above]. One makes undefiled offerings of wealth accumulated by oneself or requested from others. With just a little effort, one can make immeasurably great and extensive offerings. When engaged in the practice of making offerings, one should reflect that the Tathagatas are a great field of merit, have great virtues, and are honored most highly among all sentient beings.

They are very rarely encountered, are outstanding in the world, and are the source o f reliance. One should regard the Dharma and the Sangha i. Thus one can obtain great results which are beyond expression. Next, one should stay near beneficial friends. A beneficial friend is one who transgresses no precepts; has great learning, practice, and realization; and is compassionate, fearless, patient, tireless, and eloquent. Such are their characteristics. They give benefit and happiness to others, understanding what help is appropriate.

They are powerful, employ skillful means, and never tire o f benefiting others with impartial selfless compassion. These [actions] are what beneficial friends do. Such people are beneficial friends and worthy of trust. One inquires about their health, greets them respectfully, and lives harmoniously with regard for their activities.

Next, one should practice the [four] immeasurables. There are three kinds of sentient beings in the Dharma realm. First are those who neither suffer nor are happy. Second are those who suffer, and 53ic third are those who are happy. Equally one removes all delusions of those [in all three states]. Among the three immeasurables, the first kindness dependent on sentient beings is common in the practice of non-Buddhists; the second kindness dependent on the Dharma is practiced by [those of] the two vehicles; and the last one unconditioned kindness is only practiced by bodhisattvas.

Next, one cultivates a sense of shame and embarrassment. This is developing a sense of shame. Next, one develops perseverance. One brings defiled thoughts under control and is not influenced by delusions. Consequently, although one may undergo great suffering, one practices without a sense of hardship and is undaunted by fears, courageous in the thought of righteousness, and can consistently accord with the true nature of things. Next, one contemplates the tribulations of the environment, of sentient beings, of afflictions, of views, and of the kalpa. Realizing that the body is nothing but a combination of the six elements which exists falsely in name, one becomes detached from it.

One treats others equally as friends whether they are acquaintances or not, healthy or ill, noble or lowly, rich or poor. One holds no grudges against others but treats them equally as friends. Appraising the worth of valuables, one does business honestly. Even if others do not realize the value [of an object], one does not even slightly deceive them. Next, one practices the four reliances. One relies on the Dharma rather than relying on the person who expounds it; thus the mind abides in its principles.

One relies on wisdom rather than relying on knowledge; thus one can verify things conclusively. In short, all the practices, from the four kinds of unhindered understanding all the way to the four profound dharanis, the practices [leading to the accomplishment of the] thirty-two major characteristics, and all the classifications of profound wisdom, are appropriate topics to be studied by a bodhisattva.

Through all [three] actions of body, speech, and mind, at all times, one benefits joyfully and unchangingly, without harming or offending. One abides tranquilly in the realization of truth and virtue. With a stable, benevolent mind, one is determined to get free of karmic retribution. One actualizes all the various practices, such as the contem plation on im purity and the thirty-seven practices of enlightenment. Although the bodhisattva practices both vehicles, he does not stop with [the lesser vehicle] i.

Buddhist Heart Sutra in Sanskrit

Next, one should generate the aspiration [for enlightenment for all beings] bodhicitta. Hoping to actualize the great and extensive results which derive from practice, one should generate these aspirations in each and every action. The practices and aspirations mentioned above, taken together, constitute the practices of the forty stages. Similarly, there are twenty specific practices to be found in each stage; they are expounded in the sutras, but in those stages they mostly involve [continuing to] cultivate previous practices.

A few also involve the definitive suppression of afflictions not yet subdued. There are two types of dharmas, existent and nonexistent. Both b conditioned and unconditioned dharmas are existent, while self and its possessions are termed nonexistent. Having revulsion for the illusory nature of cyclic existence, conditioned phenomena, and dependent arising, one practices the meditation on desirelessness. Aspiring after the unconditioned, true nirvana, one practices the meditation on non-form. To transcend obsession with attachment to self and the possession of a self and all nonexistent phenomena, one practices the meditation on emptiness.

In this stage, these are to be practiced and noted as explained previously. This is the practice of emptiness, which is the practice of benefiting self, leading to the practice of the five immeasurables, which are skillful means benefiting others. Next, one contemplates that there are distinctions of greater and lesser propensities and that some sentient beings possess the ability to be liberated from suffering. Next, one contemplates the fifty-five distinct types o f sentient beings to be subdued, and through skillful means one helps them attain liberation.

Next, one contemplates appropriate skillful means. From this stage onward in the ten bhiimis, one engages in the ten supreme practices, eradicates the ten grave obscurations, and realizes the ten aspects of suchness. All excellent practices are subsumed within these ten. There are twelve types of skillful means, of which the first six are internal: 1 caring with compassion, 2 understanding all practices; 3 rejoicing in the Buddha s excellent wisdom; 4 delighting in abiding within cyclic existence; 5 remaining undefiled while transmigrating; and 6 persevering diligently.

These twelve skillful means can be summarized into two: 1 transferring [merit], and 2 liberating [beings]. The five vows can be subsumed under two types: 1 seeking c enlightenment, and 2 benefiting others. The ten powers can be classified into two: 1 discerning and selecting, and 2 training in wisdom. There are two types of pure knowledge which realize all dharmas and establish pure wisdom: 1 enjoying the bliss of the Dharma, and 2 maturing sentient beings.

The practices pursued in the ten bhunzis are increasingly superior to those mentioned above. If asked to give up one s body and limbs totally, [a bodhisattva in these bhumis] submits to these wishes with an unstained mind. When feeling pity for beings who live on discarded food i. One should not give loved ones i. In situations other than the above, one should practice giving. One casts out tyrannical rulers with skillful means.

One prevents theft and returns to their proper owner stolen goods that have been seized by robbers. If [a lay bodhisattva is] not attached or possessive, even impure i. Nevertheless, an ordained bodhisattva should not engage in such things. In order to relieve others of difficulties, one may tell lies or sow discord to keep them away from bad company.

One may use abusive language to extricate them from wrong paths or employ vulgar language at an opportune mom ent to attract them. Through such means, one creates countless merits. One may manifest supernatural powers to frighten those in unfortunate destinies, causing them to abandon transgressions forever. One does not respond to questioning by those with no faith but rather manifests supernatural powers in order to induce faith in them.

One intensively benefits them for their complete welfare. When encountering suffering and oppression, one has no other thought than the realization o f patience. At the end o f life, one does not reject birth but returns to take birth in the desire realm in order to develop a supreme, impartial, all-pervasive realization o f enlightenment. Once one understands the selflessness of all dharmas, one can subdue [sentient beings] expediently and does it in any circumstances without obstruction.

In order to help frightening beings, [a bodhisattva] may even take the transformation body of a dog, even though one is not [a dog]. To those whose roots o f virtue are not strong, one actually works together with them in order to strengthen them. If capable of supernatural powers, one manifests immeasurable treasures to others. One gives praise and respect to the Three Jewels in the ten directions in a genuine a way. In practicing the immeasurables, one treats sentient beings equally. One ascertains conventional and ultimate truth, and teaches others to attain this realization.

Because a compassionate mind is blissful and pure, one with such a mind is very kind to sentient beings, is benevolent toward them, tirelessly endures suffering for them, and is very patient with them. Furthermore, there are the various practices [of the ten perfections] which are related to each of the ten bhumis, such as the practice of giving in the first bhumi up to the supernatural accomplishments of the tenth bhumi, and so forth. Thus, the ten practices are subsumed under the various stages.

That is why ten perfections are enumerated no more and no less. A verse says: Despite hindrances to wealth, nobility, and fortunate migrations, and Without forsaking sentient beings, Increase virtues and diminish faults, and Cause others to enter the path of liberation. Thus, all beings are ripened and good results enjoyed. The ten hindrances refer to the inherent ignorance which is eliminated successively in the stages of the ten bhumis up through the practice of the ten perfections.

Another enumeration of the ten hindrances begins with the hindrance of ordinary appearances o f the unenlightened mind and goes up to the lack of complete mastery of all dharmas. All of these are referred to as training in the Dharma. Those who have left the household life and their relatives behind and have rejected worldly activities should practice pure conduct, achieve perfect renunciation, and abide by pure morality. Thus, people trust what they say. Laypeople do not have these virtues, so [ordained people] are truly exceptional and deserving of great respect.

What are the characteristics of those who can learn these dharmas? A verse [enumerating the thirteen abodes] gives them as: Inherent nature, the practice of supreme understanding, Extreme joy, advanced precepts, Advanced mind, three kinds of advanced knowledge, formless effort, Formless effortlessness, unobstructed understanding, The most perfect bodhisattva abode, And the ultimate abode of the Tathagata. Abiding in inherent nature. This refers to the foundation stage before the aspiration for unsurpassed enlightenm ent bodhicitta has been aroused. It is only a cause for the other abodes.

Its characteristics have been discussed previously. Abiding in the practice o f supreme understanding. This includes the stages from the initial aspiration up to the first bhumi. From the cultivation carried out in the previous stage, although a bodhisattva has attained purification, he continues to practice for the purpose o f further purification. Through differentiating knowledge, he exhorts himself to practice, but he is slow to engage in all practice.

Still he encourages himself to preach the Dharma. Although within his own capacities he is able to manifest some degree of correct understanding and to benefit others and make them happy, he has not yet completely learned all practices nor accomplished all fine characteristics, nor purified all thoughts. Abiding in extreme joy. This refers to the first bhumi. Hence, he is overjoyed and practices the ten dharmas so as to abide in purity. The ten dharmas are: faith; kindness; compassion; charity; non-indolence; comprehension of all treatises; understanding of the world; cultivation of remorse; perseverance; and making offerings to all Buddhas.

His supernatural power can move hundreds of Buddha lands and his body can emit great light to be universally seen by others. He is able to manifest in hundreds of transformations to benefit hundreds of sentient beings. If he wishes to stay in the world, he can live hundreds ofkalpas. He can see things of a hundred kalpas into the past and future, can realize hundreds of Buddhist doctrines, and can transform into hundreds of bodies, each of which manifests hundreds of bodhisattva retinues.

Abiding in advanced precepts. This is the second bhumi. He is replete with the natural precepts [such as abstaining from killing]. He has little evil karma and does not violate the precepts, let alone commit more or the most serious transgressions. He knows well the causes and effects of actions, and thus exhorts himself and others to practice pure deeds.

He has great compassion for suffering sentient beings and comprehends them as they really are. He perceives the Buddha s vast, pure roots of virtue. His power is ten times greater than in the previous stage. Abiding in advanced mind. This is the third bhumi. After penetrating the dharmas practiced in the previous abodes, the bodhisattva enters this abode through ten purifications of the mind through which he penetrates all practices for great enlightenment.

He understands that unobstructed wisdom is the only skillful means to eradicate the suffering and afflictions of sentient beings, that there is only nondiscriminating wisdom in the pure Dharma realm ,dharmadhatu , and that superior samadhi is the only way to accomplish this wisdom. He disregards his life and gives up whatever he loves.

There are no masters whom he does not vow to serve. He vows to practice all teachings and to endure all suffering. For the sake of hearing the Dharma, I will jump into it even from the Brahma Heaven, let alone into a small firepit. He will then give these up and return [to the world] in order to take rebirth [to help beings] as he wishes. His power is hundreds of thousands of times greater than before.

Abiding in advanced knowledge corresponding to the modes o f enlightenment. This is the fourth bhumi. After accomplishing the ten dharmas through much hearing, the bodhisattva enters this abode and attains ten advanced wisdoms. He cultivates the dharmas leading to enlightenment that can sever attachment to the view of the self as real and so forth. He abandons slandering and practices praising others. His mind is well regulated and his merits and virtues flourish.

The teachings of sages and enemies cannot upset him. He often becomes a king of the Yama Heaven who helps beings eradicate their erroneous views of the self. His power is millions of times greater than in the previous stage. Abiding in advanced knowledge corresponding to truths. This is the fifth bhumi. After having achieved the ten joyful and pure thoughts of equanimity, the bodhisattva enters this stage and contemplates all truths with ten skillful means. He correctly refutes all erroneous practices and has compassion for sentient beings. He employs all kinds o f skillful means to bring sentient beings to maturity, such as the arts which can inspire [them to virtue].

He often becomes a divine king in the Tusita Heaven who teaches beings to forsake all internal and external deviant dharmas. Abiding in advanced knowledge corresponding to dependent arising.

Record of Traces and Dreams: The Heart Sutra

This refers to the sixth bhumi. After having realized the nature of equanimity of the ten dharmas in the previous stage, the bodhisattva enters this abode in which he awakens to the teaching of dependent arising which brings about ways to liberation. He realizes immeasurable superior samadhis.

His joyful thought cannot be destroyed and nothing can mislead him. Abiding in formless effort. This refers to the seventh bhumi. In each single moment, he realizes the ten perfections and other dharmas leading to enlightenment. The bodhisattva at this stage perfects the skills of the arts and surpasses the meditative states of those of the two vehicles.

In each and every thought, he can enter the samadhi devoid of the sensation of thoughts and can manifest the most marvelous acts of a bodhisattva. He often becomes a divine king of the Paranirmita Heaven who teaches those of the b two vehicles the skillful means of contemplation. Abiding in formless effortlessness. This is the eighth bhumi. He cuts off the four disasters due to his deep commitment [to eradicate them].

He often becomes a king in the first dhyana heaven. The power increases from moment to moment until he reaches the stage of the tenth bhumi. It is difficult to describe [this power] exhaustively. Abiding in unobstructed understanding. This refers to the ninth bhumi. He arouses wisdom, accelerates his practice, and discourses upon the Dharma. He thus becomes a great Dharma master with unobstructed understanding. He often becomes a king in the second dhyana heaven.

Abiding in the foremost perfection o f the bodhisattva. This refers to the tenth bhumi.