Bruce Langton's unmistakable style and unique ability to capture not only sporting and wildlife scenes, but also contemporary landscapes has won him numerous awards including the Featured Artist for the Northern Wildlife Art Expo. He lives with his family in Granger, Indiana. Add to Wish List. Author: Marcia Schonberg Ohio native and award-winning journalist Marcia Schonberg's written more than a dozen children's books and frequently contributes to national periodicals and daily newspapers, including the Columbus Dispatch and the Medina Gazette. Illustrator: Bruce Langton Bruce Langton's unmistakable style and unique ability to capture not only sporting and wildlife scenes, but also contemporary landscapes has won him numerous awards including the Featured Artist for the Northern Wildlife Art Expo.
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MARCIA SCHONBERG - B is for Buckeye: An Ohio Alphabet
Sherman , and Philip H. The state was spared many of the horrors of war as only two minor battles were fought within its borders. Morgan's Raid in the summer of spread fear but little damage. Nearly 7, Buckeye soldiers were killed in action.
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Barracks and outbuildings were constructed for a prisoner of war depot, intended chiefly for officers. Over three years more than 15, Confederate men were held there.
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The island includes a Confederate cemetery where about men were buried. Much of southern Ohio's economy depended upon trade with the South across the Ohio River , which had served for years as passage and a link with the slave states of Virginia and Kentucky. The culture of southern Ohio was closer to those states than it was to northern parts of the state, owing to many settlers coming from the South and being formerly territory of the state of Virginia as part of the Virginia Military District.
Most of the state's population was solidly against secession. Breckinridge 11,; 2. A number of men with Ohio ties would serve important roles in Lincoln's Cabinet and administration, including Steubenville's Edwin M.
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Senator and Governor Salmon P. Chase as Secretary of the Treasury. Without being asked by the War Department , Dennison sent Ohio troops into western Virginia , where they guarded the Wheeling Convention. The convention led to the admission of West Virginia as a free state. Tod became known as "the soldier's friend," for his determined efforts to help equip and sustain Ohio's troops. He was noted for his quick response in calling out the state militia to battle Confederate raiders.
Brough strongly supported the Lincoln Administration's war efforts and was key to persuading other Midwestern governors to raise day regiments , such as the st Ohio Infantry in early , to release more seasoned troops for duty in Gen. Ulysses S. Grant 's spring campaign. Through the middle of the war, the Copperhead movement had appeal in Ohio, driven in part by noted states rights advocate, Congressman Clement Vallandigham , a leading Peace Democrat. After General Ambrose E. Burnside issued General Order Number 38 in early , warning that the "habit of declaring sympathies for the enemy" would not be tolerated in the Military District of Ohio, Vallandigham gave a major speech charging the war was being fought not to save the Union, but to free blacks and enslave whites.
Burnside ordered his arrest and took Vallandigham to Cincinnati for trial. At the trial, Vallandigham was found guilty. The court sentenced him to prison for the duration of the war. President Lincoln attempted to quiet the situation by writing the Birchard Letter , which offered to release Vallandigham if several Ohio congressmen agreed to support certain policies of the Administration. To try to prevent political backlash and preserve authority of Gen. Burnside, Abraham Lincoln changed Vallandigham's sentence to banishment to the South.
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The threat was imprisonment if Vallandigham returned to northern soil. The South allowed Vallandigham to migrate to Canada, from where he ran an unsuccessful campaign for governor against Brough in Vallandigham's campaign bitterly divided much of Ohio, Vallandigham's votes were especially heavy in central and northwestern Ohio. He lost his home county of Montgomery Dayton but by a narrow margin. Public sentiment shifted more in favor of the Lincoln Administration, particularly as Ohio generals rose in prominence, with military successes in the Atlanta Campaign , the Siege of Petersburg , and Sheridan's Valley Campaigns.
In the Presidential Election , Ohio strongly supported Lincoln's reelection. The state gave the president , votes En route to Washington, D. His first formal speech given after his election was in Hudson, Ohio , a stop he made en route to Cleveland. Although Lincoln had visited the state several times before the war, he would not return during the Civil War. In his funeral train carried his body through the state, bound for Springfield, Illinois. Newspapers engaged in very lively discussion of war issues, from the Republican, War Democrat and Copperhead perspectives.
At the outbreak of the Civil War in , in response to a call to arms by President Lincoln, Ohio raised 23 volunteer infantry regiments for three months' service, 10 more regiments than the state's quota. When it became evident that the war would not end quickly, Ohio began raising regiments for three-year terms of enlistment. At first the majority were stocked with eager volunteers and recruits. Before the war's end, they would be joined by 8, draftees. Nearly , Ohioans served in the Union army, more than any other northern state except New York and Pennsylvania. Ohio had the highest percentage of population enlisted in the military of any state.
Sixty percent of all the men between the ages of 18 and 45 were in the service. Ohio mustered regiments of infantry and cavalry , as well as 26 light artillery batteries and 5 independent companies of sharpshooters. There were 6, men killed in action, including officers. Dozens of small camps were established across the state to train and drill the new regiments. The 1st Regiment, Ohio Volunteer Infantry OVI would eventually be joined on the muster rolls by more than additional infantry regiments. Ohioans first had military action at the Battle of Philippi Races in June , where the 14th and 16th Ohio Infantry participated in the Union victory.
The State of Ohio
Ohioans comprised one-fifth of the Union army at the April Battle of Shiloh , where 1, Buckeyes suffered casualties. Ohio would suffer its highest casualty count at the Battle of Chickamauga in September , with 3, killed or wounded. Another 1, men were taken prisoner of war by the Confederates. Among these prisoners, 36 men from the 2nd Ohio Infantry would perish in the infamous Andersonville prison , as did hundreds more Buckeye soldiers there.
Several Buckeye regiments played critical roles in other important battles. More than soldiers from Ohio units earned the Medal of Honor during the conflict. Several were awarded it for the ill-fated Great Locomotive Chase. President Lincoln had a habit on the eve of a battle of asking how many Ohio men would participate. When someone inquired why, Lincoln remarked, "Because I know that if there are many Ohio soldiers to be engaged, it is probable we will win the battle, for they can be relied upon in such an emergency.
Small-scale riots broke out in ethnic German and Irish districts, and in areas along the Ohio River with many Copperheads. Holmes County, Ohio was an isolated localistic areas dominated by Pennsylvania Dutch and some recent German immigrants. It was a Democratic stronghold and few men dared speak out in favor of conscription.
Local politicians denounced Lincoln and Congress as despotic, seeing the draft law as a violation of their local autonomy. In June , small scale disturbance broke out; they ended when the Army send in armed units. John A. Gillis, a corporal from the 64th Ohio Infantry , gave his reasons for fighting for the Union in the war, stating in his diary that "We are now fighting to destroy the cause of these dangerous diseases, which is slavery and the slave power. Unlike its neighbors West Virginia , Kentucky , and Pennsylvania , Ohio was spared from serious military encounters.
In September , Confederate forces under Brig. They turned away after encountering strong Union fortifications south of the Ohio River. Not long afterwards, Brig. Albert G. Jenkins briefly passed through the extreme southern tip of Ohio during a raid.
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It was not until the summer of that Confederates arrived in force, when John Hunt Morgan 's cavalry division traversed southern and eastern Ohio during Morgan's Raid. His activities culminated in Morgan's capture in Columbiana County. Numerous leading generals and army commanders hailed from Ohio.
Grant , was born in Clermont County in Among the 19 major generals from Ohio were William T. Sherman , Philip H. McPherson , William S. Rosecrans , and Alexander M. McCook of the " Fighting McCook " family, which sent a number of generals into the service. The state would contribute 53 brigadier generals. Hatton of Steubenville.
Noted Confederate guerrilla Capt.