The idea that colors have emotional values that an artist may manipulate is a very old one that extends at least to Goethe, the German Romantics, and the Theosophists. It is showy, arrogant, and vain. But by the start of the s the psychological claims for color had grown even more extravagant. Among psychologists themselves there was [and remains] common agreement that color has neither an absolute perceptual base nor an absolute emotional meaning. It can be argued, in fact, that the 50s became the last decade in which the public shared a widespread interest in color theory, color therapy and color ideology.
In the sciences, the medical profession acted directly on many such claims. For the first time, color was installed in hospital rooms to speed recovery: red chambers for depressives, yellow for hysterical paralytics, blue for the violent. Hospital clinics replaced white with bluish green surgical smocks and theatre walls on the grounds that it helped improve the concentration of doctors. In the medicine cabinet, pills and capsules were color coded to improve identification.
Working along similar lines, school boards experimented with yellow chalk on green blackboards, while in factories engineers were painting colors onto moving machine parts to diminish fatigue and improve industrial safety. And where science and psychology led, could business enterprise not follow, seeing in color a hidden persuader with mysterious psychic power?
A new profession emerged: the color engineer who could be hired to show department stores, magazine publishers, retail manufacturers, the appliance industry, and supermarkets how to increase sales. Detroit hired color designers too, on the same theory that color made cars more alluring and more sensuous. The country had entered the era of the two-tone, cherry red, and angel white. Perhaps inevitably, color entered the realm of clinical psychology where, it was claimed, personalities could be categorized according to color preferences. This notion had already penetrated the popular press by the end of the First World War, but by the s had been incorporated into various psychology tests.
It was in this atmosphere that film directors, assuming that color would soon be as pervasive as it was inevitable, cast about for new color applications in their films. When playboy Robert Stack tells Lauren Bacall about the psychic damage his sister has caused him in Written on the Wind ; the light on his face turns reddish. By the mids, Expressionist color effects were common enough that they became subject to parody. In Bell, Book, and Candle Columbia, we learn that Kim Novak is a witch when with the help of color filters her face turns frost blue. But it is John Huston who develops this line the furthest in Moulin Rouge Romulus, when Toulouse-Lautrec returns to his garret with the idea of killing himself.
The scene calls for the painter to climb out of his depression without uttering a word as he wanders around his room, turns on a gas lamp, and then sits in a chair waiting to die. He gazes up at an unfinished painting La Goulu and, distracted from his suicide attempt, reaches for his paints to color in the final details. Morning sunlight falls on his paints and his easel, finally flooding his garret with natural, refreshing light.
But this strain of expressive color was only one of several directions in which 50s color went. By the end of the decade, using colors to set the tone of a scene had become a commonplace. Huston and Oswald Morris famously muted the colors in Moby Dick by superimposing a black and white negative over a desaturated color master to create a somber scheme devoid of reds and yellows. But directors were also foregrounding colors that did not provide clues to, or mirror, the psychological states of the character, or even reinforce in any obvious way the tone of a scene.
Self-conscious and mannered, Track of the Cat is the closest Hollywood gets, as best I can determine, in opening the gap between color and object. For Kazan, the Oedipal director par excellence , green became the master color, an integral part of the psychological texture of the film. Green is sometimes considered the great neutral, the color of repose, of pacifism. But it is also connected with envy. It combines associations of growth, with immaturity — the refusal to grow up.
In our culture it is also the color of money and luck. And the final scene is keyed to absorb all those contradictions. Whereas the color plots of Technicolor musicals and swashbucklers tended to culminate in festive kaleidoscopic pageantry, East of Eden ends in monochrome — in a room, seen only at the end of the film, dominated by luminous green walls, unevenly lit and crossed with achromatic, graded shadows for an eerie, iridescent effect. With East of Eden we enter a phase of color development in Hollywood film where colors can be indexical, iconic, or simply tied to their symbolic function in a particular culture.
But I want to end on perhaps the most interesting colorist of all: Douglas Sirk who, along with his cinematographer, Russell Metty, created an utterly transgressive color system. The melodramatic style that has made him the favorite of directors ranging from Fassbinder and John Waters to Quentin Tarantino and Pedro Almodovar is grounded in his quirky relationship to his material.
In a famous sequence from All That Heaven Allows Universal, widow Jane Wyman is in her bedroom getting ready for a dinner date with a middle-age admirer when her two college age kids drop in to visit. The dialogue and blocking suggest a satiric scene saturated in irony.
Kay recovers, mindful that modern society no longer buries widows with their dead husbands as they did in ancient Egypt. The blue swatches feel entirely cut off from the referenced world, operating entirely within the framework of what Karla Oeler has called genre pastiche. But as Oeler has argued in a much different context, genre pastiche does not believe in direct mimesis, and here the mirror introduces a scene defined by layer upon layer of self-reflexivity.
It would be one thing if this were black and white film and the back lighting that casts the two women into shadows and silhouettes created simply a sinister, noirish atmosphere, appropriate to the talk about tombs and suffocating social pressure. But the color adds a perversely playful aspect to the display.
The unnatural blue, red, and gold filters turning this 50s home and garden suburban bedroom into something bizarre, vibrant, and strange. Stephen Watts London: Arthur Barker, Berkeley, Calif: University of California Press, He also described how color could be an effective marketing tool in self-service stores such as supermarkets, automobile dealerships, and liquor stores, where customers often made impulse decisions.
This was especially good news for teenagers, because police departments were the among the last holdouts against the color revolution, making their cars especially easy to identify in rear view mirrors. Teens in Greenwich Connecticut, where I spent my adolescence, were unusually blessed. There the cops used black and white Edsels for their unmarked cars. Tauris, , — Russell Merritt and J.
Sirk to Stern in Bright Lights, op. Often the window will be here and the light from there. With color, too, I did this, to attain a lighting that is almost Surrealistic. As Brecht has said, never forget that this is not reality… The distanciation must be there… You have to shoot it through a dialectic. Gallery Night and Day Gallery Grosse Freiheit Nr. In: American Cinematographer , 75,8, pp. AC : Translating that conviction into sheer mechanics in this case, what are you doing mechanically to follow it through?
But getting back to the point, I feel that this film should have a brown look to it, with occasionally a bit of that blue-black in it. I think it should look like a newspaper photograph in bad color — a black-and-white print out of the New York Times , with a little color introduced.
Now, this is nothing new. I plan to emphasize the contrast between the two locales by giving the Hollywood sequences a cleaner, crisper, sort of West Coasty, California quality — which should be a bright, hard image. In juxtaposing the two — in cutting from New York to California — there should be a very definitive difference in relation to the atmosphere and the people. It will be brown, but smoother.
Sicily will be olive and nice and warm and sunny. It seems to me that the way to attack a thing like that is to over-state it. So, I plan to photograph Sicily through rather heavy chocolate brownish filters. Brown is a nebulous color, but there are times when it can be very beautiful on the screen because it tends to make everything very rich, in a monotone sort of way. It desaturates the primary colors.
I plan to photograph all of the Sicilian exteriors that way. This should give me a good relativity between the interiors and the exteriors in Sicily. AC : But what did you mean before when you said that you would be one-half stop underexposed, according to your method of rating the film? The truth of the matter is that I like the look of that result.
It appeals to me because the film becomes more translucent. You can see through the colors, rather than having them just sticking on the screen. Because the fog level is raised slightly in the pushing, the material tends to have a kind of foggy, not-quite-there look which, at times, is quite nice. Eastman Color. Higgins, Scott : Harnessing the Technicolor Rainbow. Color Design in the s. Austin: University of Texas Press, on pp. The title credit features text in Magenta, Lemon Drop yellow, and Baltic bluegreen near cyan , juxtaposing the fundamental three-color hues, colors that would have been compromised in the two-color process.
Moments later, the frame erupts with red, green, and blue, each modulated in value and saturation, showcasing a range within each family. These colors are of relatively low saturation and value, helping center attention on Martinez. His costume features a deep Moroccan Blue cape with a Bright Green satin lining turned outward on his shoulder.
The vivid green complements his Geranium Red tie, while a Blossom pink carnation provides softer contrast. The touch of gold adds a fourth color family. As in the shot described above, Jones often includes representatives of at least three families of hue in the color schemes. The basic color scheme is carried by her blue shawl, draped over her head, and the strong Flame Scarlet bow, with a bright Lemon Drop yellow accent, in her hair. Her dress reiterates the gold and red, but the wall behind her also joins in the pattern of color.
Nearly every region of the frame participates in this play of triadic hues, rendering a composition that resembles a color test pattern. The dances, of course, provide occasion for even more vigorous color foregrounding. The first number features women in Purple Orchid blouses, Banana yellow skirts with purple and metallic gold stripes near their hems, and Poppy Red shoes.
The chorus of male dancers wears deep Strong Blue capes over Tabasco brownish red jackets, and Stone Blue bluish gray sombreros. For example, one shot frames a solitary female dancer on the right while six male dancers form a diagonal along the left. Then the men swiftly turn, whisking their blue capes from sight and revealing a line of five women who step forward to join the soloist.
In an instant the colors have changed, the reds and yellows overtaking the blues. Jones mixes strong hues by juxtaposing them within the frame or by alternating colors across shots. This flamboyance makes color into something of an attraction, and the final shot acknowledges this directly. A single Orchid Purple sombrero, conspicuously perched on a table at the center of the frame, draws attention to itself as the strongest warm color in a generally cool composition.
After a moment, Esteban seizes the sombrero and tosses it toward the camera, where it blocks the lens, leaving the screen black for an instant before the end credits appear. The moment is exhibitionist in thernanner of early cinema; it self-consciously confronts the viewer with the primacy of color. La Cucaracha asserts color by laying stress on the contrast of hue. Yet as Jones was at pains to point out in his writing, he was vitally concerned with making color dramatically significant.
As in his test films, Jones relied on very broad cultural conventions to coordinate color with emotion. She steps forward, back into neutral light, and her expression brightens, indicating that she has settled on a plan for dealing with Martinez. The other cases of colored figure lighting involve red illumination to suggest anger, passion, and rage.
When Martinez boils with exasperation, the camera dollies into a close-up as a red light gradually illuminates his face. The effect when Chatita and Pancho argue in his dressing room is more symbolic. The couple is staged on either side of a table lamp with a red practical a light source hidden inside. As their argument intensifies, the camera cuts inward, and the couple is staged progressively closer to the lamp. The same is true for the final instance of the device, when Pancho pulls Chatita backstage and threatens to kill her for ruining his career. They also illustrate a problem with using color to signify exact meanings.
In the arguments between Chatita and Pancho, because the red illumination coincides with peaks of dramatic intensity, it is redundant given the tone of the scene as established by dialogue and performance. The blue light that bathes Chatita as she watches Martinez is less redundant; there are fewer cues to reinforce its meaning. La Cucaracha reveals the limits of constructing an independent signifying system from color. Either the color cues are redundant and become too obvious, or they are obscure and ill defined.
As we will see, when Technicolor was taken up for regular studio production, designers tended to avoid such emphatic coordination between color and dramatic tone. Extreme stylization of color, especially colored lighting, would generally be relegated to transitional sequences, bracketed off from the main line of narrative development.
John Belton makes similar observations about the film in relation to cinematic realism. Jones attempted to solve the basic problem of making color serve drama, but he did so too obtrusively, pushing style too much to the foreground and invoking conventions that seemed too far afield of accepted blackand-white norms. Indeed, throughout the s, efforts were focused on integrating color into conventional film style, on finding ways to let color cooperate with established and respected techniques, not dominate them. La Cucaracha systematically runs through a range of possibilities for bringing color to cinema.
It lays out a field of applications in an experimental fashion, testing whether colored illumination, for example, should be taken up as a standard option. The technique is varied: blue ligjit on a single figure, red light combined with a dolly to a close-up, red highlights on two figures against a neutrally lit background, and strong red light tinting the entire frame. The short subject allowed Pioneer and Technicolor to take risks with devices that might not work in a feature production, and the fact that these devices rendered color obvious should not necessarily be regarded as a weakness.
Though colored lighting did not survive as a regular formal option, La Cucaracha does demonstrate several devices that became part of the developing Technicolor style. For example, even within the busy palette, color contrast guides attention around the frame. In the opening compositions, Chatita creates an eye-catching blue and red accent in the far background, activating the depth of the shot beyond the plane of focus as a zone of important visual information.
Planting significant color in the background proved a lasting technique. Jones also places accents within the frame to reinforce the prominence of important characters. Still, the effect is to help highlight his area of the frame, a technique that will be refined in the assertively designed The Adventures of Robin Hood The task of beautifying women already received priority in costume design and lighting, so it co es as no surprise that color would follow suit.
Again, as Technicolor style developed, the degree of coordination and contrast would become less prominent, but the basic principle would remain. The same could be said for emotionally punctual color. Pancho whips his serape through the air to enwrap Chatita. The flourish signals a turning point in the dynamic of the dance. Pancho, filled with rage, gains control of Chatita and quickly ends the performance. Like the projected mood light, this is a stylized use of color that relies on broad associations of color and feeling.
Yet, because it involves the manipulation of a costume accent, a piece of the mise-en-scene firmly rooted within the diegesis and controlled by a character, the effect is not as obtrusive as colored lighting. Here, Jones hits on a way of exploiting color for dramatic effect that has greater potential for integration into the classical style. Indeed, it is on this level of design that most Technicolor productions worked to achieve color scoring. In the play of shadow and highlight, certain shots emulate the kind of modeling available to black-and-white.
Facial light would remain an area of concern for Technicolor cinematographers throughout the s, and not until Gone with the Wind , and a revised film stock, would three-color obtain something like the precise tonal control so prized in monochrome. La Cucaracha serves to demonstrate that even with arc lights and extremely slow stock, Technicolor could accommodate some of the expressive techniques made familiar by black-and-white. The film not only experiments with methods that foreground color, but also, perhaps to a lesser extent, seeks to demonstrate how three-color might serve monochrome conventions.
As Henri Coulon recommended, and subsequent productions would bear out, using less color could be dramatically more effective. Domestic melodrama — the quintessential black-and-white genre of the 40s — became the new cutting edge for color experimentation. Although the sudden surge in color westerns at the start of the decade meant that, numerically, Eastman Color westerns far outnumbered so-called women pictures in color, by the time the studios hit their stride in developing their own color aesthetic, the new lords of color were the melodramatists: Sirk, Minnelli, John Huston, Otto Preminger, George Cukor, and Fritz Lang — directors who quickly created signature styles, while dramatically broadening the range of color applications to narrative.
Minnelli is an especially interesting case because he had been the leading director of Technicolor musicals in the 40s, and then with Ansco and Eastman Color created a brand new color style for his 50s melodramas — notably Lust for Life , Tea and Sympathy , and above all in his masterpiece Some Came Running. The Technicolor codes did not suddenly evaporate. Particularly in the early transitional years, expensive CinemaScope and VistaVision spectacles faithfully followed the Technicolor formulas, making their color designs all but indistinguishable from the Kalmus model [the widescreen illustrations I have used from The Robe , Knights of the Round Table , and How To Marry a Millionaire , all shot on Eastman Color or Ansco, are classic examples of Technicolor practice being used verbatim during the new regime].
Color plots become noticeably more Expressionistic, while color associations are now built not just with the fantastical, but with the drab, the commonplace, or simply non-heroic. What are the most appropriate colors for ordinary, non-glamorous people? How do you represent colorless or harsh environments in color — oil fields, factories, brothels, steel mills — without making them pretty, picturesque, or contrived? The color palettes themselves become noticeably less saturated, dispensing with those vivid accents and the large blocks of solids.
In their place, contemporary films — even musicals — tended to be dominated by pale color schemes, either neutrals such as taupe, gray, or beige; pastels; or lightened primaries like peach, glacier blues, pinks, and chartreuse. As illustrated in this scene from East of Eden , when there were accents, the pinpricks were seldom bold or brilliant. At best they might be pastels; but more often they were diluted dirty colors — pale yellows, oranges, and browns, or mottled green.
The rise of the color western in the early s was particularly dramatic. At the end of the decade, the number shot up from three in to 11 in , then to 23 in , 21 in , 21 in , and 20 in In short, as many color westerns were shot each year in the early s as were shot in the entire preceding decade.
In: Everett, Wendy ed. From Paintbrush to Pixel. Oxford: Peter Lang, pp. Colour, pure black-and-white, and toned black-and-white are complemented by chemically desaturated colour, as well as production and costume design so chromatically muted that even when a shot is in full colour, it often appears monochrome. The result is an overall desaturation so extreme that the line between colour and monochrome effectively dissolves. The range of chromatic variations achievable through laboratory processing is relatively limited. On occasion, Tarkovsky attempted to achieve an effect that simply could not be achieved.
For example, in The Sacrifice , the level of saturation occasionally changes within shots rather than between shots. The idea that colour can be a dynamic presence from moment to moment is a startling one, but the actual effect in the film is slightly clumsy — it looks like a fumbled reel change. Nostalgia was made in Italy and The Sacrifice was made in Sweden. Both were high profile co-productions and had more than adequate budgets.
Yet both films again include sections filmed in black-and-white. Completed in , the book can be read as the culmination of twenty five years of reflection on the subject of cinema. Thus, it appears, praxis was transformed into theory. An inoffensive burgundy sofa is rejected, walls are painted grey, a tree is moved because its flowers are hot white. Once filming is complete, Tarkovsky sits in pyjamas in what may have been his deathbed and tells the Director of Photography, Sven Nykvyst, that he wants less colour. Is there a kernel of consistency among these contradictions?
I believe there is. The problem with the flowers in Stalker was not the colour itself — at other times in the film, there are vivid close-ups of yellow flames — but the fact that it had not been chosen by Tarkovsky himself. In addition, by establishing a chromatic norm in which colour as absent, Tarkovsky was able precisely to control the occasions and the manner in which colours were allowed into his films.
Tarkovsky, A. Something went badly wrong when the stock was processed. Accounts of what precisely happened at the Mosfilm laboratories and why, and of precisely how much footage was destroyed, differ. Regardless of the details, the problem was serious enough to halt production. Amazingly, Tarkovsky was able to resurrect the project and start filming the following year with a new script, a new cinematographer, and a new art director Johnson and Petrie One might imagine that at this point Tarkovsky would have reshot the film entirely in black-and-white, as Goskino wanted him to do, or entirely in Sovcolor.
In fact, even though he was no longer faced with the dilemma of how to make optimal use of a limited supply of Kodak, he again chose to mix colour and black-and-white. The Festival needs its stars, this Festival in a negative way and make sure, all the its great films, its myth. But America also needs Cannes Festival long, that the public wants to see movies.
Despite the promotion that Cannes offers to the American films. Those faces, names, titles, those anecdotes invite us to a retrospective journey and the memories flow with images and texts. The first Festival in , initiated by Phillippe Erlanger, seemed at first glance destined to a modest existence. A few short months before its inauguration, the French Government had only received 7 replies to its invitations. Then, suddenly, a few weeks before the opening, the replies came flooding in. This fact created a host of problems, aggravated by the food and gasoline shortages of that time.
Cannes was promptly transformed into a capital city of cinema. A jovial atmosphere reigned throughout the Festival, since after having been separated for many years, film makers rediscovered old friends, while attending one dazzling party after another. Yet, despite this irrefutable success, we had to struggle to obtain the necessary financial assistance from the Government to renew it. It was finally finished in ! The Festival represented one of the first tangible symbols of new-found peace. From that time, most of 6. Gilles Jacob, Mr. Pierre Viot and Mr. The stars were dressed in their most beautiful finery, facing the Homeric rush to cross the fence opposing them to the hundreds of photographers and cameramen.
Most famous directors and the less famous ones for whom the Festival was a springboard, waited nervously the reaction from a very demanding public. Youth has always been a part of the competition. In for example, two thirds of the 27 officially selected films were made by under 35 years directors. Receptions pass and the organizers tried to put some fantasy in it. The Festival has always enjoyed large The Festival has always had its share of beauty.
How audiences, but curiously enough , starting in , could one forget the flower parade sponsored by the the crowd of visitors intensified and in was such that City of Cannes. The Festival has become an Croisette, who applauded this vision of radiant splendor. Une histoire du lieu, de Cannes. The history has a primordial place. It evokes the first arrivals at the Festival whose date had been fixed for… September 12, History was such that it provoked many demonstrations within many Cannes festivals. Later, demonstrators would march in front of the new Palais. Robert Favre Le Bret et la Callas.
In memories of Robert Favre Le Bret Posters, photographs of stars, chronicles of the Festival years, encyclopedia of films, of the jurys and awards… These faces, names, titles, anecdotes invite us on a retrospective journey where the memories flood around these images and texts. I like that this album presents us with some special moments which help us to compose our own narrative of the Festival.
Jean Cocteau, And especially a half-century of history of cinema with its President of the Jury three times, whose invitation still revelations, passions and controversies. The commotion have become cinematic treasures. The photograph A long and cherished memory. A history, a magic which of Robert Mitchum and the starlet with bare breasts, and continues…. Et les anecdotes. We can better Piccoli sporting a finely trimmed white beard. Alain Sarde, understand the cinema of tomorrow by stopping for a the producer was fatter than he is now. Godard wears moment and examining the cinema of yesterday — the smoky sunglasses and a white tuxedo.
Sophie Desmarets cinema and the people who have worked on bringing it chats with Ingrid Bergman and Diana Dors makes no effort to life — those whose auras emanate brightly from the to cover up her big bust.
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Moreover, Orson Welles seems posters, those who work behind the scenes, in the film to be yelling at Martine Carol. Claude Chabrol looks like labs and in the theatres. It all up. The faces are there. A list of awards as well as the films shown are included. Anecdotes and posters punctuate each year. In scanning this work, it is easy to see just how important this Cannes event has remained, year after year. It not only reflects the growth and evolution of the cinema, but of society, fashion and customs as well. They are tenderly entwined and little by little come to life taking on the true color of cinema.
With their last waltz step, they leave the frame right before our very eyes — entering the real world — the supreme elegance of the Cannes Film Festival. A recipe of the most delicate, a subtle mix of ingredients whose fine dosage produces an inimitable charm! You have to know how to taste the scarcity. Et maintenant Tchin-Tchin! It is you to extract the nuances, flavours and perfumes… How? First of all, just add a dash of laughter, smiles, anger, tears and pure emotion for the rare pleasure of the ever changing taste.
For the warmth, gaiety and vivacity of this potion, pour in a splash of funny and unusual anecdotes, with a shower of fine star dust and wild parties, without forgetting the twinkling of a few provocative or scandalous starlets lensed by the paparazzi. The only finishing touches left to complete your mixture are a few sips of sparkling champagne and a sublime flower to decorate your glass as a souvenir of the big flower parades and their wonderful floral floats so memorable of the Festival. And now Tchin-Tchin! The Publisher - Entertainment Media.
We think that it is appropriate to publish here the text that Mr Favre Le Bret wrote in for the 40th Anniversary of the Festival.
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Of course, bearing in mind that thirty years separate this text from its reprinting, what he has written nonetheless remains relevant today:. Some people who are somewhat curious or endowed with a logical mind might be surprised at the celebration in of the 40th Anniversary of the Festival, which had its beginnings in Indeed, if the Festival had taken place continuously year after year starting in , this commemoration would be a little late! However no Festival could be held in , due to lack of funds or in , due to the fact that the Palais, presently known as the Palais Croisette, was not entirely completed.
However, it was only an enjoyable link between the Festival of and Taking into consideration these two missing years, it is thus in that we can count the 40th Festival. This anniversary celebrates and underscores the perennial nature and fame the Festival has acquired throughout the years of the springtime rendez-vous in Cannes. Claudia is dancing, Claudia is. An independent woman, an adventurous actress, what a beautiful symbol for the Festival. Pedro Almodovar is extremely popular. His work already belongs to the cinema history.
Over an extraordinary and iconoclastic filmography, this talented storyteller created a real complicity with the spectators all around the world for 35 years. She has been a member of the Jury in under the presidency of Wong Kar-wai. At ease with all genres, her cinematic experience reflects her artistic choices: electric and daring. Currently the shooting of films comes one after another. In a career spanning 25 years and boasting around 40 films, the actress has made a simple and subtle but undeniable impression on the French filmmaking scene.
Jane Campion. With their producers, they could meet potential partners, necessary to finalize their projects and focus on the film production. For this 13th edition, 15 projects from 14 countries are selected, beginner directors but also experienced ones. Those films are a part of the 19 selected ones. It all began on September 3, at the Venice Mostra where I was representing the French government.
The decision provoked indignation among the democratic countries; the Americans and the English declared that they would not return to Venice. The next day I took the train to Paris, expecting to be inducted upon my arrival since the war seemed imminent. Reflecting on these things, I had a difficult time sleeping, and although no dreams came to me, an idea did… Since circumstances had discredited the Mostra, why not create a model Festival in France, a Festival for the free world, if somehow, miraculously, peace could be saved. Right away, I prepared a report for Jean Zay, the Minister of National Education at that time, who was responsible for cinema.
He approved it, but the other ministers. The government was divided over the question throughout the winter. A location had to be chosen for the execution of this perilous adventure. Biarritz and Cannes were primary contenders. I inspected each one and decided in favor of Cannes, which gave rise to another long governmental debate.
Once again, I won my case. In August, not withstanding threats of war, Cannes inaugurated the great parade. Stars flocked in from everywhere, especially from Hollywood. We were ready on time. Who chairmanship, Georges Huisman, director of the Beaux-Arts, could have believe that the lights relighted 7 years later?
From , I came back at fixed for September 1st, It was a challenge to destiny. Et, bien entendu, de critiques sournoises, de sourdes calomnies. This brought about an extraordinary influx of participants, more than It was the penultimate party of images, languages, races, 30 professionnals from every country. Robert Favre Le Bret, from the Paris film selection committee members, who in sixteen weeks Opera, led the dance; he enthusiastically recounted sto- accumulated fifty thousand kilometers in the clouds. Three hundred films, you heard correctly, three hundred I was fascinated.
Wanting to be sure of attending the next films of which only a dozen were selected. One imagines event, i envisaged a press service for the Festival — a the number of offended people or broken friendships this daily bulletin — a way to get to know the protagonists, implies, the mass of diplomatic — or other — pressures expand upon the information on films shown and create exerted. And of course, sly snipes and insidious slander. Ever Since, i stopped keeping track of my age by years, but by Festivals. Demanding that the decision be made time to pay it back and place the honour to serve above by us was a hard battle.
It was evident that such freedom the wish to please. In , the first International Film Festival in Cannes was immediately considered to be the Festival of newfound Peace. The attendance of professionnals during the first few years was only around to , then quickly increased to 1,, and to 5, in Events in might have led one to believe that Festival attendance would never exceed this figure. Yet, the very next year, thanks to the French authorities endeavors aimed at foreign professionals, there were more and more participants in Cannes : attendance increased from 6, to 10,, then quickly to 20,,, before reaching 30, in Within the framework of such an International Event, there was a need for great diplomacy, a rapid adaptation of the welcoming and lodging facilities, an enlargement of the information services for the press and media, flexibility with regard to the administrative organization and a system to ensure that changes in screening times are publicized.
This was the role of the General Secretary. To faciliate the allotment and distribution of seats, i used accounting methods with perforated cards, adapting such methods to the needs of a screening room. Thirty years ago, this was a first step before the computerization of the system, which afterwards became indispensable, and has been in operation since many years.
With political issues set aside, this allows all coun- innovative. Cannes had become an authentic laboratory tries to be equally represented. There aspect as well. I was immediately in favor of such a film market, but faced with the objections of a large number of cinema professionals, it took some hard work to convince them. We finally received the support of Cannes cinema operators, which allowed us to launch the project.
These two cultural and commercial events, following parallel yet mutually supportive paths, have ensured the success of this great cinema rendez vous in Cannes, with increased audience attendance year after year. First simple clapperboy on the set of a Fernandel movie in , Georges Cravenne began a career in journalism in , as a critic in the magazine. They he participated, in , in creation of the Louis-Delluc prize. He participated in the reopening of the Lido in and wrote for the Intransigent in He celebrates the release of the movies by big parties which brought together the All-Paris,.
Through these memories you will, I hope, understand how much the sea, sun, fine food and love played an important role both on the Croisette and on the big screen. It was in an era before they started officially calling my job public relations. I was present in at the first film projection which took place… in the ballroom of the Municipal Casino, converted into an auditorium for the occasion. I him opted for the tuxedo. In , I was a reporter with France-Soir. Under the fantastic leadership of Pierre That said, I think I am justified in considering Lasaroff, my assignment the coverage of cinemyself somewhat of an historical figure at this ma.
It was at this point that Philippe Erlanger momentous event which had its debut during had the idea of creating a Film Festival at one of the darkest periods in French history. Cannes to counter the Venice Festival. He But fortunately, there have been many fairy called on me as a technical advisor, and so I godmothers present, both French and foreign began to prepare for the event which, of.
Kim was at the height of her celebrity. Naturally, the photographers and their cameras only had eyes for her. The only snapshot of the The meal, of course, consisted of a nicoise starlets was taken, in fact, when they gathsalad and bouillabaisse, all washed down with ered around Kim Novak for a souvenir photo. The ambiance was so warm and inviting known to anyone at the time. This all took place in the most festive atmosphere May the Best Man Win which, in fact, helped to contribute to the In , the producer, Alexandre Korda, growing media success of the event.
The film was an were rare; now there are more than 3,! I bought. Four Marriages In , Ginger Rogers was the celebrity guest at the Festival and three incorrigible gentlemen were there to welcome her with some typical sweet-talk - the journalist Pierre Galante, who was covering the Festival for Paris-Match, the actor Jacques Bergerac and myself.
There was no contest. She fell head over heels in love with the most handsome us, Bergerac… and the couple was soon married. Favre Le Bret asked me to greet her at the Cannes train station. It was the period before plane travel was common and movie stars would arrive at the Festival on the famous blue train. Pierre Galante accompanied me. The star and the journalist were immediately attracted to each other. A few months later, Olivia de Havilland became Mrs. Pierre Galante. During the Festival in , Pierre Galante yes, him again , in search of a big story, came up with the idea of bringing Grace Kelly, then at the height of her success, to meet the young.
Nous sommes en It was , a year before his death in a plane accident. Those od in chips with which they could go to the were happy years when the Festival became casino. As you can imagine, it was a big sucsomewhat of a matrimonial agency! Since the film Elizabeth Taylor and her husband at the time, was an unofficial selection, no one dared cry the celebrated producer Mike Todd, agreed corruption… wink, wink! Festival in The triumphant screening of the film was naturally followed by a banquet, Paris-Match as usual at the Ambassadeurs.
The man in charge was Walter excitement of the moment, leaped onto the Carone, the most famous photographer of that table, knocked back his drink and shattered era. He asked me to help him organize the his glass on the ground, reminiscent of a movie stars staying at the hotel. None of them famous scene from the movie.
When he took turned us down.
What can could put up ladders that they would climb in we do to keep it going? And so one their glass on the ground. Quoi faire pour la prolonger? Il y a aujourd hui 50 ans. Bon anniversaire, Pierre Viot. Bon anniversaire, Gilles Jacob. Et longue vie. Now when the competition is at its fiercest, they can still make the same claim.
After reserving a wing at the Carlton, I dashed off a list of guests to be invited. Gabin, Fernandel and Salvador Dali were the most exciting on the list. Everyone accepted my invitation, except Gabin, Fernandel and Dali. No doubt they were afraid of flying. That was thirty-six years ago.
The Leopard In , one film dominated the world of cinema - and for good reason. It was based on a. The film was directed by a seasoned director at the peak of his career, Luchino Visconti. He arrived at the Hotel du Cap a few hours before opening night.
But And so, one month later, his film was awarded Darryl Zanuck, the super producer, was more the supreme honor by a unanimous jury. Memories… Memories… I have recounted an than reticent. Happy Birthday Pierre Viot. It took place at Ingmar Bergman cancelled at the last minute. Happy Birthday Gilles Jacob. And FLB carried on a disto the Festival. And Le Bret. But friends with Kirk Douglas, could you ask him to. The steps, the sea, the horizon, ascent of a man to his dream, in the Mediterranean warmth light turns to gold.
The festival renewed its intention to honor the creators, celebrate the cinema history and welcome new ways of looking at the world. To the image of a rise of steps in the form of rise. Cannes 21 movies from 14 different countries, are competing with, dozens of stars, a bevy of actresses , Julia Roberts or Sean Penn, Pedro Almodovar or Xavier Dolan… much of the world cinema Cream represented on the famous red carpet. The traditional opening ceremony is led by Lambert Wilson, master of ceremonies of the Cannes Festival. Abderrahmane Sissako is president of the jury of the Cinefondation and short movies.
It imposes its unforgettable beautiful face. The film was presented in official selection at Cannes in The 67th edition was a festival of great authors, evidenced by the Golden Palm. Cocteau, Ozu, Resnais…. Cocteau, Ozu, Resnais… in the Cannes Classics program. The year witnessed a return to strength of American cinema, in the broadest sense, with its Australian and New Zealand ramifications. A palm of Honor is awarded to Bernardo Bertolucci. A 64th edition, dark but exciting and bitter, as the reflection of a world without landmarks. Lionel Jospin sur la Croisette?
He comes to be convicted to six years in jail and twenty-year ban to achieve. Opening of the festival led by Kristin Scott Thomas, master of ceremony, members of the jury take place… the Iranian Director Jafar Panahi, jailed near Tehran, remains empty. Lionel Jospin on the Croisette? Firmly rooted in its history, the s Festival is also very attentive to welcome the newness and the originality, it has evolved in seeking to preserve its essential values: cinephilia, discovery of new talents, hospitality of professionals and journalists from around the world to contribute to movies birth and distribution in an effervescence that makes the Festival a reflection of its time.
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A big surprise awaits the Festival in when we see off the coast of Croisette a gigantic statue of Arnold Schwarzenegger. The end of the decade see the Festival pushing and shoving by Pascal Duquenne receiving the Best Actor. Jubilee Festival, 50 years are celebrated with the award at the fiftieth anniversary to the humanist filmmaker Youssef Chahine. Charles Vanel et Charlotte Gainsbourg ouvre le 39e Festival. To mark the 35th anniversary, the Festival moved and installed in the Palais de la Croisette.
In the Festival decided to make a final goodbye to Francois Truffaut. A very emotional moment around a stage of Jeanne Moreau. True to its tradition, the Cannes Film Festival did not escape the scandals during these ten years. Doillon where Jane Birkin and Maruschka Detmers live torrid love does not unanimous. And finally in when La Cicciolina entered on the steps of the Festival few dressed, she creates a scandal. But Cannes, this year there is also some interesting discoveries.
A decade mostly feminine, with the head of the jury, Michele Morgan, Ingrid Bergman, Jeanne Moreau in during the year of the woman, and Francoise Sagan who is awarded the prize of the inconsistency! The Festival continues to write history. From , the selection of films is no longer made by each countries but by a committee attached to the Direction General of the Festival, at the request of the association of French Critics. The year knows many changes: Maurice Bessy is replaced by Gilles Jacob, also the creation of two new. But we also see Prince Rainier and Grace Kelly to take part in the festivities.
However and because of war the Festival was canceled in September The International Film Festival does not really begin until And now the movies will be rewarded by genre rather than by country. Krotki film o zabijaniu de Krzysztof Kieslowski. Edward G. Gorokhov, Y. Dodge, M. Matzner Dr. Dadachev, F. Guidine, V. Leclerc, M. On soupe au Paradise Club. Et, pourtant, des films. The curtain rises. Fireworks, candlelight processions, festive Moroccan infantrymen, flower parades with special floats decorated specifically for the Festival. From grand galas to receptions, to the Opera ballets in the Grand Hotel garden, to cocktail parties, to fashion shows… The giant seaplane is enthusiastically applauded, and the British aircraft carrier, the Colossus, is admired.
Eric von Stroheim attends all the parties and. People ignored the assigned seating printed on the invitations. Everyone pushed their way in and grabbed the first available seat. The ushers blindly groped around in the dark, and an unusual half-open curtain cast a glare onto the screen. This outraged the jury, set apart in their viewing chamber. The Post-War Festival provides a preview of things to come. Two new changes: for the last year, only foreign delegates were on the jury, this year, the jury was made up of 7 film magazine prize the winners film representatives.
Also, awards were no longer given by country, but by category. One of the most run down buildings in Cannes, an old The demolition work begins on May The Palais is ready on September Windsor, Jean-Paul Sartre wearing a bathing suit and Martine Carol, despite a recent suicide attempt.
Some of the most important events of the Festival now nationally sponsored : fireworks, candlelight processions, a garden party and three pageants: Miss Cannes, Miss Festival and Miss Palm Beach! The film won the Festival Grand Prix. His name — Orson Welles. At the inauguration of the new Palais, there was a record-breaking number of gatecrashers. Elle gagne son pari. Still under construction, the Palais was an easy entry target for film-lovers, who heard the news through word-of-mouth.
The Festival changes seasons. Springtime is chosen, the Festival is held in April. She wins the bet. Extras, models or those simply looking for fame, including young girls awestruck by the promise of stardom, are. Mack Sennett, the great Mack Sennet, arrives. Septuagenarian, meritorious, jovial, and completely forgotten by an Hollywood that he contributed to found, Mack Sennett is celebrated by everyone. Grace Kelly has an appointment in Vallauris for a report with Picasso. He lets her down, and Grace ends up at the chapel in Vence decorated by Matisse instead.
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It was a preview since the Chapel had not. The painters are honored:. Olivia de Havilland visits Chagall. Grace, au pied de Saint Dominique, prie avec ferveur. Grace kneels at the feet of Saint Dominique and prays fervently. Picasso arrives at the Palais wearing a bowler hat. She came back several years later, convinced by. The Soviet delegation suitcases contain kilos of caviar, and are earmarked for their reception. Photographers and the crowds outside the entrance and exit of the. Palais, rush towards the Madonna of Saint-Tropez, as if on an attack, with a devastating fury.
Only the English separate us! The Italian actress Daniella Rocca stunned a. Many festivalgoers feel ill. Everyone is. He kisses his father, who looks very much like him, on the cheek. And a copy of the New Testament is on his night table. The following year, his very young wife will come and go in a whirlwind:. This is the already legendary Robert Hossein. The court in Grasse. The film was supposed to include a fourth sketch by Monicelli. The attorneys do their best. Animals are good companions.
Fitzgerald; it has changed quite a bit. She sang and made a lot of noise. Louis-Gabriel Robinet, the publisher of Le Figaro, his first time at the Festival, shares a secret… about his burial plans. He has bought. A general strike, electrical. First meeting of the Jury: Shirley MacLaine is dressed in pink with white fishnet stockings, Vincente Minnelli is in a canaryyellow jacket, Georges Louran wears casual attire, Gian Luigi Rondi is dressed as a reverend, and JeanLouis Bory wears a leather jacket and no tie.
Strides made for freedom now enjoyed by film can be. It is an issue of extreme national seriousness, and its. Jack Valenti grand patron de. Indeed, it involves the most vital issues of freedom of speech, of thought and of artistic creation. One must address it as if it were sacred. Criticized, challenged, smashed to pieces occasionally by those who owe it the most - the Festival rises from its ashes.
Twelve months have gone by. Everyone is there, smiles on their faces and joy in their hearts. Every day will Il ne retrouve rien dans ses dossiers! A researcher for the O. It is the major turning point. From the first day the Hotels display full. The festival Is boiling. We walked on The feet. We sleeps with two or Three in the hotel rooms. The quickest manage to cross the renowned thirtymeter long Carlton lobby in. Kirk Douglas - born Anne Buydens - visits her old office. On stage, Chaplin spots the Minister,. Jacques Duhamel, leaning on a cane.
Already stricken by the disease which will take his life, Duhamel is reluctant to yield his cane. But Chaplin snatches it,. This is a great moment of the Festival. Erskine Caldwell is a member of the Jury. He speaks English with a southern accent, and his voice is so throaty and harsh that his colleagues have trouble understanding him. According to him, Donskoi speaks an entirely different language.
He is replaced by a student, then by an amenable lady who summarizes a five-minute discourse in three short sentences. General Secretary of the Cannes Film Festival until During the first thirty years of his life, Jean Touzet explores various artistic areas by being in turn actor at Jean Villard theatre du Vieux-Colombier, pianist, conductor. This is probably thanks to that he managed to make the Festival an event out of the ordinary.
Maurice Bessy,. Occasionally, especially during the first few days of the Festival, some stars tend to arrive late. Since there are no stars, go down to the beach, and bring back one. Le destin fait bien les choses…. Destiny has a way of working things out…. The heirs forbid the screening of this film in. France, and therefore it cannot be shown at the Cannes Films Festival.
However, we manage to get around this problem. In agreement with the Americans, the film will be projected for the inauguration, on an. The Palais Croisette always displays the flags of the participating countries. The opening day of the Festival, a Chinese delegate came to my office. The delegate then. American aircraft carrier docked at the port of Cannes. Je me dis, je vais le faire parler et je saurais bien lequel est en face de moi. I was certainly making headway! But I did assure him that we would take the necessary steps to hang the flag outside the Palais.
After a long absence, Martine Carol comes back to Cannes. She was radiant and. Thank you, Martine, to be back in Cannes, because this was one of her last appearances. At one point during the year, a. Columbia music executive in France suggested a new and remarkable singer to me. She was still unknown in Europe. He gave me one of her recordings. That year, the President of the Jury is Mr. Roberto Rosselini. In the day, a rumor that during the closing Gala at the reading of the awards, the officials present on set: President of the jury, President of the Festival, General delegate, will be.
It was Barbra Streisand. Madam Monica Vitti who had been invited to present the awards to the winners, not daring to enter on stage, stays in backstage all night. So I decided to face the storm and I proceed to the discount prices alone. Having always. Robert Chazal honour President of the Union of movie criticism, he was member of the jury of the Cannes Film Festival. On ne peut pas savoir que la veille. The most unusual opening night gala took place this year.
The mayor of Cannes welcomed all the technicians and workmen on stage, those who had toiled, working hours and hours of overtime to have the new Palais ready in time the old Palais Croisette, was then demolished in. The room was completely flooded so the closing night ceremony took place at the old casino.
Martine Carol was the most photographed personality,. Not astonishing: Jean Cocteau is the President of the Jury. On lui donne un pourboire. La confusion est au menu. Offered a tip, he has a hard time refusing. That evening at the gala. Embarrassment is the order of the day. Une fois de plus Robert Favre Le Bret se fait le roi des diplomates. America, shocked from a distance, thinks about boycotting Cannes. Robert Favre Le Bret proves to be the king of diplomats. But the two most important events go unnoticed. But very few people can foresee the birth of a new director, Louis Malle, who assisted Cousteau.
In Saint-Tropez, Brigitte Bardot starts filming. Gene Kelly had danced in the rain on screen and on the Croisette in Grace Kelly, gallantly escorted by Jean-Pierre Aumont, is received by. Prince Rainier of Monaco, her future husband, for a news story. A very beautiful Maria. For the second. Antonioni, extremely upset, leaves the screening room arm-in-arm with Monica Vitti who has tears streaming down her face.
They turn to tears of joy, however, when the film receives an award from the forward-thinking Jury presided by Georges Simenon. It is a tumultuous year. Tina Louise, feeling alone and forgotten, rides a horse into the lobby of the Carlton, which wont be the first or last time the Carlton has seen such crazy stunts. Et Gina Lollobrigida survient pour faire oublier sa concurrente Sophia Loren. Du jamais vu. Three no-shows: Gabin, Fernandel and Dali, who all missed the plane.
Jean Giono, President of the Jury, remarks that he loathes parties and the cinema. At the Soviet party, she wears a stunning red dress specially flown in for the occasion. Alain Delon is present as usual, but without Romy, who stars. And Gina Lollobrigida arrives, to grab the spotlight from her rival Sophia Loren.
Perhaps because of these three women, Italy receives the best selection award. Cannes needs advice on how to deal with a stormy Preminger. A member of the censorship board of the Health Ministry threatens to ban the latter film because the characters drink too much. And a sixteen year old actress Stefania Sandrelli, still. Jayne Mansfield, who arrives later without an invitation, in one day, manages to liven up an otherwise lethargic Festival through a series of whimsical acts. Belmondo is cheered by thousands of fans, one of. French producers are against it because it was not shot in compliance with professional regulations.
The film is defended, however, by Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir,. Another incident: Jean-Paul Belmondo, injured by a policeman in Paris, has to stop the film he is shooting with Melville, who then has to give up his seat on the Jury. Not a memorable Festival. Gina Lollobrigida is present as usual, but a young Sheila is becoming a rival. Sophia Loren was a unique President. Two films are problematic. Match nul. Anyway, I thought the film was rather mediocre. Twenty minutes late, Princess Margaret attends.
Two Golden Palms this year. A lively roundtable discussion with directors from a number of countries attempts to understand the direction cinema has taken since la Nouvelle Vague. Marguerite Duras fait en termes virulents des critiques sur RTL. It is often said that during the Festival, Cannes is a zone isolated from the entire world - except for matters involving the cinema. Michel Simon, who receives a gold medal, is seen.
To be continued… I rush off to buy a transistor radio which I bring back with me to the Palais. I am quickly surrounded, or rather engulfed, by colleagues and other passers-by. Robert Favre Le Bret calls me and a few other. Jean-Louis Bory delivers an ardent and somewhat demagogic lecture to students sitting on the ground in front of the steps of the Palais. Jean-Louis Bertucelli. On le regrette. Et puis M. Its aim is to show films which are not officially selected. Nothing else changes, and the fact that Luchino Visconti presides over the Jury shows that everything is back to normal.
His wife Nadine hears on television that he won for the film claimed by the country which co-produced it Algeria. Snoopy is the star of the Croisette - that about says it all. The standout is Yves Montand. Impossible de partager la Palme. An exceptional year. At first, it is impossible to choose between the two. Then, eureka - a special 25th Anniversary. Decidedly, a great Festival. The best actor award will go to Jean Yanne, whose public wranglings with Pialat make the headlines. Maurice Bessy, the new General Delegate, says that his foremost remember is having convinced Mack Sennett to came to Cannes.
This year Sennett welcomes Groucho Marx who has a zany one-track mind. Alfred Hitchcock arrives. Elle sera entendue. Its voice will not go unheard. Cannes discovers the new American cinema. He has quite an appetite. Ferreri and his actors, however, lost their appetites waiting for and. His advice was almost heeded. Elle a vingt ans ans, le festival en a trente. Meanwhile, the Jury President, Tennessee Williams, makes a profusion of declarations against violence in film.
She declares that she wants to reward sincerity. Like the title of his film, he came to Cannes on foot, and took up residence up on the hills overlooking the city, surrounded by animals. Dustin Hoffman strolls along the Croisette, and nobody recognizes him. Some political parties organize press conferences. What a show! The future would prove me correct. She is twenty years old; the Festival is thirty. Vive le cirque! Indeed, there is an onslaught of remakes. A small bomb is discovered in the halls of the administration and is exploded on the beach.
You have to take whatever fireworks you can get! Before the winners are announced, he declares that the Jury should be replaced by a wheel of fortune. France-Soir launches the Advertising Film Festival, which later will have a succession of organizers. Ce sera pour une autre fois. Cette fois, les femmes sont reines. The Festivals continue through the years, yet at times begin to blur at least with problems involving the Presidents of the Jury. As an anecdote, both Woody Allen and Ingmar Bergman refuse to. What a great list of winners there would have been if the films that were not part of the official selection had been included!
The vengeful announcements exchanged with Robert. Favre Le Bret concerning alleged pressure on the Jury will come later, along with another dispute involving a telephone bill. This year the spotlight is on the women. At the Festival opening, a very emotional Jeanne Moreau receives the Legion of Honor and declares that she owes everything to the writers and film-makers with whom she worked.
It was a difficult year for me. I was a member of the Jury, and as such, condemned to silence. In fact, it was a difficult year for the entire Jury which had some trouble deciding on a winner from a less than remarkable selection of films. There was discrepancy based on dubious critiques from a Hungarian journalist with. The critics were the first to rejoice. This is the last time the Festival is held at the Palais Croisette and as such is graced with a poster by Fellini and a special postal stamp issued in eight million copies.
It is shown at midnight, and upon leaving the Palais everyone meets on the beach where a But the beach restaurant, reserved for this reception, is closed. We have to break down the doors to get access to the dining hall and the croissants. His visit held fond memories for me and. Some fine awards… but no great discoveries. The Festival has certainly become a national event, even international.
The Brazilians officially. The film deserves a better welcome than it receives. Furious with all the critics, Beineix suddenly attacks me. Blier, avec Alain Delon et Nathalie Baye. Jane Birkin defends the film with brio, not only with her convincing. La France a le sens des contrastes. On respire.
Luxurious galas abound, and there are even fireworks. Clint Eastwood is present, which is worth numerous handfuls of dollars. In Cannes, viewers are just as unhappy after seeing the film. France is a country of contrasts. We learn that in , the Croisette will witness the union of cinema. Pierre Viot, who runs the Festival and is director of the Bastille Opera, mixes business with pleasure. Maruschka is at the heart of a scandal, but she brazenly responds to the guardians of decency.
An unforgettable moment Charles Vanel and Charlotte Gainsbourg, arm-in-arm, declare the Festival open. Everyone breaths a sigh of relief! France Roche, journalist and movie critic, particularly on television in Antenne 2 news. On Antenne 2, France Roche was the cinema specialist, shows and fashion on the news. She turned in a fornight of movies in the s.
In her long career, she has currently, in addition to books and theatre adaptations, documentaries where she converses with Le Corbusier or even Woody Allen Que pouvait-il bien lui dire? What could he have. Zsa-Zsa Gabor, still very young, shielded her rosy complexion under a widebrimmed apple-green hat. The heirs forbid public screenings. A cute. Not as much as a. On alerte en catastrophe un tailleur de Nice. On alerte en catastrophe un menuisier.