Manual The Early Films and Career of Steven Spielberg

Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online The Early Films and Career of Steven Spielberg file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with The Early Films and Career of Steven Spielberg book. Happy reading The Early Films and Career of Steven Spielberg Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF The Early Films and Career of Steven Spielberg at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF The Early Films and Career of Steven Spielberg Pocket Guide.

In he made his first television movie, Duel , a taut, almost claustrophobic exercise in psychosis that was more intense than typical TV fare it was released theatrically in Europe. Although Spielberg permitted star Dennis Weaver —who played a motorist chased by a homicidal truck driver—to register a one-note impression of sweaty terror throughout the movie, his handling of the action sequences was staged and executed with bravado. It featured Roy Scheider as the police chief of a resort town who battles a man-eating white shark.

Arts&Culture

Joining him are Richard Dreyfuss as a marine biologist and Robert Shaw as a shark hunter. The highly praised thriller received an Academy Award nomination for best picture, and its ominous soundtrack by John Williams won an Oscar. Spielberg then directed the mystical science-fiction tale Close Encounters of the Third Kind , which he also wrote. Dreyfuss was cast as the lead, and he submitted one of the best performances of his career, as a telephone lineman who encounters an unidentified flying object and subsequently becomes obsessed with UFOs.

For the film, Spielberg received his first Academy Award nomination for best director. After the disappointing —which was received as an unfunny comedy, despite the presence of John Belushi and Dan Aykroyd—Spielberg directed Raiders of the Lost Ark , a loving, expert if slightly redundant tribute to old adventure serials. The film and its sequels, which starred Harrison Ford as handsome archaeologist Indiana Jones , used rich colour cinematography, brisk editing, memorable musical soundtracks, and inventive special effects to create a cinematic experience that was typically light yet highly suspenseful.

Steven Spielberg and Duel: The Making of a Film Career

Spielberg received his second Academy Award nomination for best director; the film was also a best picture nominee. Henry Thomas gave a strong performance as the boy who discovers and befriends the stranded alien, and Dee Wallace portrayed his sympathetic mom. The film also featured Drew Barrymore in one of her first roles.

Nevertheless, it found an audience that appreciated the cast—which included Whoopi Goldberg , Margaret Avery, and Oprah Winfrey , all of whom were nominated for Academy Awards—as well as the script by Menno Meyjes and the score by coproducer Quincy Jones , both of which were also Academy Award-nominated. The film received a nomination for best picture, but Spielberg failed to earn an Oscar nod, a slight that created a small scandal at the time.

More important, however, Spielberg had made one of the few commercially successful films about the experience of African Americans, paving the way for similar projects to be green-lighted. Spielberg chose another critically acclaimed book as the basis of his next film. Crawford was initially skeptical about working with the then-inexperienced director, but her fears were soon allayed when she met with him and watched him at work.

He, meanwhile, was surprised to find that Crawford was not demanding and made none of the outlandish requests which stars of her caliber were usually known to make. On the contrary, she was happy to give him advice about various aspects of film making which she had learned throughout her years in motion pictures, and gave him a lot of much needed encouragement. They quickly developed a strong working relationship, and as a result of her kindness became close friends, remaining so until her death. He is best friends with George Lucas and Oprah Winfrey.

He was also best friends with Robin Williams until he passed away. He was a big fan of Twin Peaks and he was set to direct the first episode of the second season of the show before David Lynch decided to direct the episode himself. According to friend and veteran film editor Michael Kahn , Spielberg will not watch a cut of his film without temp music temporary score. After having a great working relationship with Spielberg on Gremlins , Spielberg produced the next two films Chris Columbus scripted, The Goonies , based on an idea Spielberg had, and Young Sherlock Holmes , which was Columbus's idea, which altogether was two years working on those three films.

Share your thoughts and debate the big issues

Spielberg then wanted Columbus to script Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade , a big step for Columbus as a writer. He accepted and went to meet Spielberg and George Lucas , two men he was very intimidated by, even though he had worked with Spielberg three times, and they were two of his cinematic heroes. Columbus acted as Spielberg and Lucas's secretary on The Last Crusade for five days taking down all their ideas.

Lucas dictated the screenplay to Columbus making him fearful of changing any of it, and that went against what Columbus had learned at film school. To him, the script seemed lifeless and without energy and there was nothing of Columbus in it. Columbus assumed Spielberg hired him for that last reason and when Columbus turned in the draft, he was fired from the picture for all the above flaws in the script.

It was a defining moment in Columbus's career, to never again ignore his base instincts on a movie, or to be intimidated by the people he worked with. Gremlins , the Back to the Future trilogy and Young Sherlock Holmes were all produced by Spielberg and all have eccentric inventors who create madcap inventions with pet dogs, Barney, Einstein and Uncas.

Also, in the novelization for Holmes, it uses the words "a view to kill", and the Bond film A View to a Kill was made the same year. In Young Sherlock Holmes , that film mentions bats, snakes, spiders and rats; these would appear in all the Indiana Jones films, Arachnophobia and The Goonies , films either produced or directed by Spielberg.

He also produced the last nine of these, as well as Letters from Iwo Jima , and was nominated for Best Picture each time. These 10 nominations for Best Picture is the record. Of these, Schindler's List is the only one to have won the award. Spielberg had directed Columbo: Murder by the Book , the very first episode of that famous series not counting two pilot films.

That episode was in production airing in February while Spielberg's breakthrough theatrical film The Sugarland Express was generating industry buzz prior to its April release. Chris Columbus sold scripts to Spielberg that became Gremlins and The Goonies but his career didn't fully take off until he directed Home Alone and Mrs. Doubtfire which then led to the even greater success of the first two Harry Potter films. He founded the Shoah foundation with the profits from Schindler's List George Lucas and Steven Spielberg are responsible for six of the ten highest-grossing films of the s.

He became good friends with Robin Williams while making Hook After seeing their music video for "Alright", he proposed to the band Supergrass that they work together on a television show in the style of The Monkees The group turned him down, preferring to work on their second album "In It for the Money". In , he donated half a million dollars to and attended the March For Our Lives protest in favor of gun control in the United States. Both of his wives were born in the same year His first now ex wife, Amy Irving, was born in September , and his second wife, Kate Capshaw, was born in November He has directed seven films that have been selected for the National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically or aesthetically" significant: Jaws , Close Encounters of the Third Kind , Raiders of the Lost Ark , E.

His favorite movies are Lawrence of arabia , the bridge on the river kwai , fantasia , a space odyssey , citizen kane , a guy named joe , the godfather , the french connection , Dr strangelove or how i learned to stop worrying and love the bomb , day for night , pinocchio , the best years of our lives , the searchers , how green was my valley , it's a wonderful life , the day the earth stood still , the war of the worlds , playtime , psycho , the birds , tootsie , and captains courageous Some films that have influenced him are captain courageous , pinocchio , how green was my valley , the day the earth stood still , secret of the incas , Lawrence of arabia , the birds , play time , a space odyssey , and the french connection I think that the Internet is going to effect the most profound change on the entertainment industries combined.

And we're all gonna be tuning into the most popular Internet show in the world, which will be coming from some place in Des Moines. We're all gonna lose our jobs. We're all gonna be on the Internet trying to find an audience. Once a month the sky falls on my head, I come to and I see another movie I want to make.

Before I go off and direct a movie I always look at 4 films. In a two-shot with anyone, even Gable, Clark Gable , your eyes fix on her. She is imperious, yet with a childlike sparkle. She is haughty, yet tender. She has no great range as an actress, yet within the range she can perform better than any of her contemporaries. I have made almost as many films in England as I have in America. I will come back to England again and again. I would love to see the British film industry get back on its feet again. I don't drink coffee. I've never had a cup of coffee in my entire life. That's something you probably don't know about me.

I've hated the taste since I was a kid. I'd rather direct than produce. Any day. And twice on Sunday. Poltergeist is the darker side of my nature, it's me when I was scaring my younger sisters half to death. In Poltergeist, I wanted to terrify and I also wanted to amuse - I tried to mix the laughs and screams together. I always like to think of the audience when I am directing.

Because I am the audience. The older I get, the more I look at movies as a moving miracle. Audiences are harder to please if you're just giving them special effects, but they're easy to please if it's a good story. The audience is also the toughest critic - a good story that exists in your world may not be the first choice for an audience. So I just do the best I can. You have to take the other elements of the film and make them as good as possible, and doing that will uplift the film. Godzilla Godzilla, King of the Monsters!

I don't work weekends. Weekends are for my kids.


  1. Die Tränen des Schattens (German Edition).
  2. The Biography of Judge Winston Brooks.
  3. The Mapmaker and the Ghost.
  4. The Distance between Hopes and Dreams: Poems.

And I have dinner at home every night when I'm not physically directing a movie - I get home by six. I put the kids to bed and tell them stories and take them to school the next morning. I work basically from 9. I think every film I make that puts characters in jeopardy is me purging my own fears, sadly only to re-engage with them shortly after the release of the picture. I'll never make enough films to purge them all. I'm as guilty as anyone, because I helped to herald the digital era with Jurassic Park But the danger is that it can be abused to the point where nothing is eye-popping any more.

The difference between making Jaws 31 years ago and War of the Worlds is that today, anything I can imagine, I can realize on film. Then, when my mechanical shark was being repaired and I had to shoot something, I had to make the water scary. I relied on the audience's imagination, aided by where I put the camera.

Today, it would be a digital shark. It would cost a hell of a lot more, but never break down. As a result, I probably would have used it four times as much, which would have made the film four times less scary. Jaws is scary because of what you don't see, not because of what you do. We need to bring the audience back into partnership with storytelling.

Being a movie-maker means you get to live many, many lifetimes. It's the same reason audiences go to movies, I think. When my daughter Sasha Sasha Spielberg was 5 years old, we would be watching something on TV and she'd point to a character on screen and say, "Daddy, that's me. That's me. I think that's what we all do. We just don't say it as sweetly. After a scary movie about the world almost ending, we can walk into the sunlight and say, "Wow, everything's still here.

I'm OK! Human beings have a need to get close to the edge and, when filmmakers or writers can take them to the edge, it feels like a dream where you're falling, but you wake up just before you hit the ground. Times have changed. It's like when the first landed at Los Angeles international airport: everybody thought flying through the sky was the most greatest marvel they had ever seen - floating through the air, seemingly in slow motion.

Today we never even look at s. They're a dime a dozen and it's that way with the blockbuster. If there was one blockbuster every three years, it meant a lot more than when you have a blockbuster every three weeks. It's the job of each of these studios to market these movies as the must-see movie of the year, so they go after blockbuster status by creating a grand illusion. Sometimes they've got a real engine behind that grand illusion, meaning the movie is damned good and the audience will say they got their money's worth.

Other times, the audience comes on the promise of seeing something they've never ever seen before and it becomes just another sci-fi action yarn and they feel disappointed. I've learned that we can do just about anything under the sun with computers. So the question becomes, should we? Or, should we remind ourselves, as filmmakers, to be careful and remember that there is nothing more important than how a story is told? If storytelling becomes a byproduct of the digital revolution, then the medium itself is corrupted. On the other hand, if digital tools are simply a way to enhance a conventional story, then in that case, they can make telling that story easier.

It's easier and more practical to show 20, soldiers in the Crimean War using computers, obviously. So, that's fine. But now, we have technology that can replace actors, or an entire performance in an already existing movie. We could cut out Humphrey Bogart and replace him with Vin Diesel , if somebody wanted. Who would want to? Well, there might be people who would. That's why we have to be careful. Movies reflect our cultural heritage from the period in time in which they were made. Therefore, altering them can destroy that historical perspective. That's disrespectful of history, which is a big issue for me.

The situation is like walking a tightrope - we have to move forward, but we have to be careful. I had dinner with the founder of Yahoo! I had my son, who is now sixteen, he was much younger then. I took him to a tea house. We had Geishas, they were serving us tea and I had a little soki and we were talking.

And he kept sitting across from me and he kept saying "Yahoo!

Biography | Steven Spielberg | Great Movie Directors

You have to know what Yahoo! And I thought he was actually out of his brain. You know, because he kept talking about Yahoo! And he was so thrilled with what was happening in his world. And this was way beyond my world at that time. And how I look back. I thought: God if I could have been a little bit nicer to that guy, he might have called me up and offered me a chance to invest early. The people who attack the movie based on 'moral equivalence' are some of the same people who say diplomacy itself is an exercise in 'moral equivalence' and that war is the only answer.

That the only way to fight terrorism is to dehumanize the terrorists by asking no questions about who they are and where they come from. What I believe is, every act of terrorism requires a strong response, but we must also pay attention to the causes. That's why we have brains and the power to think passionately. Understanding does not require approval. Understanding is not the same as inaction. Understanding is a very muscular act. If I'm endorsing understanding and being attacked for that, then I am almost flattered. I feel like I've been engaged to the British Empire since and tonight you have given me the ring knighthood.

What kept us going was the thought that David Lean , at 54, had done this every day for a year. As long as there's been Transformers, I've been one of the biggest fans. And I always thought that somewhere in this genius concept, there was a movie. I'll probably never win an Oscar, but I'll sure have a lot of fun! I really believe that movies are the great escape! Duel was almost a once-in-a-lifetime story. You don't get stories like that all the time.

All those horrible, traumatic years I spent as a kid became what I draw from creatively today. The person I enjoy working for more than anyone else is George Lucas. He's the best boss I ever had because he's the most talented boss I ever had. If I weren't a director, I would want to be a film composer.

I interpret my dreams one way and make a movie out of them and people see my movies and make them part of their dreams. At E3 games convention about partnership with EA: I am a gamer myself, and I really wanted to create a video game that I could play with my kids. No radio, no television, no internet, no newspapers.

I just want to hear one number, which is the Monday-morning number. The most expensive habit in the world is celluloid, not heroin, and I need a fix every two years. Disney is the birthplace of imagination and has always been as close to the worldwide audience as any company ever has. DeMille award at the 66th Annual Golden Globe Awards] Whenever I try to tell a risky story, whether it's about sharks or dinosaurs, or about aliens or about history, I'll always be thinking, "Am I going to get away with this?

He came on set, he donned the hat and everything came with it; his laconic sense of humour, his willingness to take a punch He brought all this back to life as if no time had elapsed since the third movie. My favourite memories from the shoot are my deepening respect for Harrison, not only as an actor but as a dear friend. We've gone off and made other movies which mean our paths have not crossed all that often. I'm not the most social guy in the world and neither is Harrison, so we didn't spend much time together, but we actually became great buddies on this movie, more even than on the first three.

It's the best thing that came out of this experience for me. I think most of my movies are personal movies. I think the most personal movie I've made is Schindler's List I think the second-most personal movie I have ever made is E. I also find The Color Purple to be a personal film for me.

Steven Spielberg Reveals The Movies That've Meant The Most To Him

So I've made a number of personal films. But I haven't made a movie yet that is actually a mirror neuron of my factual life and I don't think I ever will. My sister wrote a script about our lives and that might come around again some day, but I've always stayed away from anything that is too biographical. The one ingredient I bring to all of my films is the ability to listen to anybody who has a good idea on the production.

I'm very collaborative with actors, with my writers, with my editor, my cinematographer, with Johnny Williams who does all of my scores. And I just think from a very young age my parents taught me probably the most valuable lesson of my life - sometimes it's better not to talk, but to listen. I never know what I'm in for. Most of my presumptions about a production are usually wrong.

For instance, with Schindler's List I was pretty certain that whatever came my way in Poland I could tolerate, and just put my camera between myself and the subject, and protect myself by creating my own aesthetic distance. And immediately, on the first day of shooting, that broke down. I didn't have that as a safety net and immediately I realized that that this was about to become the most personal professional experience of my life. It was a devastatingly insightful experience, but it's something I still haven't gotten over.

I think back on the production of Schindler's List with very sad memories, because of the subject matter, not because of the working experience. The working experience was nearly perfect because everybody held on to each other in that production. We formed a circle. It was very therapeutic, and for a lot of people, it changed their lives. A lot of the actors, a lot of the crew, it changed their lives.

It changed my life, for sure. But other productions I've gone into with a blythe spirit, thinking, This film's a pushover.

It's often when I take that attitude, the movie turns around and runs over me as if it were a tank. So I've tried my best to stop second-guessing what the working experience is going to be like. Because I'm usually wrong. My movies are all different. I've tried to make every movie as if it was made by a different director, because I'm very conscious of not wanting to impose a consistent style on subject matter that is not necessarily suited to that style.

So I try to re-invent my own eye every time I tackle a new subject. But it's hard, because everybody has style. You can't help it. It just comes off you like pollen. I mean, if you're a bee, you're a bee, but at the same time I try very hard to work a little out of the box every time I make a choice. And I had to go back to a box that I had helped invent in the s to accomplish the task of bringing Indiana Jones back to life in the 21st century. We went right back to the blazing Technicolor style of the first three installments. But I didn't want to update Indiana Jones to the s beyond hair, makeup, costumes and cars.

I wanted it to look very similar to the first three pictures. I've never used John Williams to tell people how to feel. I use John Williams to enhance my vision and my thoughts emotionally from scene to scene. He'll signal when the shark is coming, which are the most famous single notes next to Beethoven's Fifth. In telling a story, I will use every tool in my arsenal. I will do anything in my power to communicate the best story as I know how. The director agreed to use Janusz and he was great. I think Janusz has brought a lighting style to my movies that I'd never had before.

Even Allen Daviau who had done three pictures with me, who I think is the greatest lighting cameraman in town. But Janusz brought more daring, dangerous light into my films. I set the camera. I do all the blocking. I choose the lenses. I compose everything.

But Janusz, basically, is my lighting guy. And he's a master painter with light; he's made tremendous contributions to my work through his art. The minute anybody presumes that they are heroes, they get their boots taken away from them and buried in the sand. That's not going to happen. In the re-creation of combat situations, and this is coming from a director who's never been in one, being mindful of what these veterans have actually gone through, you find that the biggest concern is that you don't look at war as a geopolitical endeavor.

You look at war as something that is putting your best friend in jeopardy. You are responsible for the person in front of you and the person behind you, and the person to the left of you and the person to the right of you. Those are the small pods that will inadvertently create a hero, but that is someone else's observation, not the observation of those kids in the foxholes. There's no other way to learn about it, except through documentaries. I encourage documentarians to continue telling stories about World War II. I think documentaries are the greatest way to educate an entire generation that doesn't often look back to learn anything about the history that provided a safe haven for so many of us today.

Documentaries are the first line of education, and the second line of education is dramatization, such as "The Pacific. These islands were stepping stones to the mainland of Japan. We weren't trained by the drill instructors stateside. We were trained by the enemy, in how to fight the enemy. They trained us how to fight like them. I don't want to compare one war to the other, in terms of savagery, but there's a level when nature and humanity conspire against the individual. To see what happens to those individuals, throughout the entire course of events, leading up to the dropping of the two atomic bombs, is something that was very, very hard for the actors, the writers and all of us to put on the screen, but we felt we had to try.

In Saving Private Ryan I had a sense that I was establishing a template, based on the experiences communicated to me by the veterans who fought that morning on Dog Green, Omaha Beach, and their experiences, and the very few surviving photographs of the great war correspondent, Robert Capa. I combined those photographs to try to find a frame-per-second equivalent for how I can show that kind of terror and chaos without making a movie that looked elegant and beautiful and in full living color, very much like war movies had been made in the past.

It wasn't that I was trying to break the mold of the old war movie approach, visually, but I was simply trying to validate all of this testimony that had been communicated to us, based on the young men that lived and survived that battle. I didn't know it was going to establish a look for war movies, but it was certainly what I thought was right for that particular story.

And I'm a big fan of scams. I loved The Flim-Flam Man I loved Scarecrow with Gene Hackman. I loved Elmer Gantry - which I think is a bit of a scam movie. You know, some of those villains, you have to sympathize with them. I've had darkness in all the films, in E. There are moments in Raiders of the Lost Ark that are brutally dark. I just don't think people have stopped to study. They may not have stopped to think when they assume that I suddenly developed a dark side because of Schindler's List When critics carp about my dark side, I always wonder, "Well, did they really look in the shadows?

I'm very relaxed about Oscars. I'll admit to you that I wasn't relaxed before I won for Schindler's List I was pretty much worried about it and almost wanted to get one behind me to get the anxiety out of my gut every time December reared its ugly head. Whatever happens, happens. I had a lot to prove when I made Raiders of the Lost Ark because I had done three movies in a row that had gone wildly over budget and schedule, , Close Encounters of the Third Kind and Jaws I was ready to turn over a new leaf and Raiders was my chance to make a movie responsibly - under schedule and under budget.

Fortunately George Lucas gave me a lot of support and help with preparation. I wasn't dreaming of big box office or making a classic; all I was focused on was making a film the audience would like and doing it in a way that was fiscally responsible. I think we were all surprised by the worldwide success of Raiders. I remember hearing people quote lines from the film or seeing kids pretend to be the characters, and realizing that the film had gone beyond box office success and had entered popular culture. That was one of the happy aftershocks of making that movie. More than anything, we want our films to be watchable and Raiders is a movie I can watch with my kids and completely detach myself from the fact that I directed it.

I sit back and enjoy it. For a kid who grew up dreaming of making memorable images, it's a thrill to know Raiders is one of those films where people just have to see the silhouette of the main character, and they immediately think, "Indiana Jones! My first assignment was to show Michael Crichton around the Universal lot. Michael was a gentle soul who reserved his flamboyant side for his novels. There is no one in the wings that will ever take his place.

In no way, shape or form am I doing that. I'm simply asking why the world feels that the only acceptable response to violence is counter-violence. I'm not answering that question. Just asking it. Daniel Day-Lewis would have always been counted as one of the greatest of actors, were he from the silent era, the golden age of film or even some time in cinema's distant future.

When you listen, you learn, You absorb like a sponge - and your life becomes so much better than when you are just trying to be listened to all the time. When I did War Horse , I was struck by the reality of being out in the fresh air, seeing the sky changing and light moving, and seeing the performances in real time. But being corralled in a digital world with no way out on Tintin became so thrilling to me, I was completely enveloped and enraptured. I tried twice to get Cubby Broccoli to hire me to direct a Bond film.

The first time I met him in person was after I'd done Duel I told him I wanted to do a Bond picture more than anything else in the world and he said, "We only hire British, experienced directors. And I'd tell him what scenes we'd shot. Carlo Rambaldi was E. John has given movies a musical language that can be spoken and understood in every country on this planet. John Williams is the most common language through which people of all ages communicate and remember to each other why they love movies. I am the only person who can say that I've collaborated with John for exactly half of his life.

Without question, he has been the single most significant contributor to my success as a filmmaker. This nation's greatest composer and our national treasure is also one of the greatest friends I have ever had in my entire life. There are parts of Hook I love. I'm really proud of my work right up through Peter being hauled off in the parachute out the window, heading for Neverland. I'm a little less proud of the Neverland sequences, because I'm uncomfortable with that highly stylized world that today, of course, I would probably have done with live-action character work inside a completely digital set.

But we didn't have the technology to do it then, and my imagination only went as far as building physical sets and trying to paint trees blue and red. That was the main criticism. The other criticism was that I had softened the book. I have always copped to that. I made the movie I wanted to make from Alice Walker's book. Alice was on the set a lot of the time and could have always stepped forward to say, "You know, this is too Disney. This is not the way I envisioned the scene going down. There were certain things in the [lesbian] relationship between Shug Avery and Celie that were finely detailed in Alice's book, that I didn't feel could get a [PG] rating.

And I was shy about it. In that sense, perhaps I was the wrong director to acquit some of the more sexually honest encounters between Shug and Celie, because I did soften those. I basically took something that was extremely erotic and very intentional, and I reduced it to a simple kiss.

I got a lot of criticism for that. It has a scent and it is imperfect. If you get too close to the moving image, it's like impressionist art. And if you stand back, it can be utterly photo-realistic. You can watch the grain, which I like to think of as the visible, erratic molecules of a new creative language.

After all, this "stuff" of dreams is mankind's most original medium, and dates back to Today, its years are numbered, but I will remain loyal to this analogue art-form until the last lab closes. He wanted to wait a year. And it was a masterstroke because he had a year to do research. He had a year to find the character in his own private process. He had a year to discover how Lincoln sounded, and he found the voice. He had Lincoln so embedded in his psyche, in his soul, in his mind, that I would come to work in the morning and Lincoln would sit behind his desk, and we could begin.

President, but that was my idea. I also wore a suit every day which I don't usually do when I'm directing. Everybody was dressed up in their period wardrobe. I did not wear 19th century wardrobe. I wore pretty good clothes from this era. I just wanted to blend in. We knew we were in the 21st century at all times. But once you stepped onto the stages of the White House, everybody really felt that they were making a contribution to remembering this critical moment in our shared history.

I don't plan my career. I don't think I'll go dark, dark, dark, then light, then dark. I react spontaneously to what falls into my arms, to what is right at the time. They're the only times I've said, "Okay, I need to make these pictures for the public because they're craving it. I didn't want to make a serious picture like Schindler's List It boggles my mind how much I feel is left on my plate.

There are things on the other side of the supper table stewing in pots that I'm not really even aware of. I would retire if I didn't feel that way. Artificial Intelligence ] A. That's kind of the way Hollywood works today. Small margins. Close Encounters of the Third Kind made so much money and rescued Columbia from bankruptcy. It was the most money I ever made, but it was a meagre success story.

The world would be a poorer place without Doctor Who I think that science fiction is the child of every soul with an imagination. There's no predicting what the next generation of imaginative writers and directors be giving all of us. Sci-fi, in a way, is the greatest exercise. It's like turning your brain into a muscle. It just exercises every single aspect of your brain. It sometimes forces filmmakers to think, on the one hand, as a quantum physicist and, on the other hand, as a capricious idealist.

It's fun. It's like when actors say they would rather play the villain than the hero because the villain has more character.