What matters is that the policy of reducing emissions should be delivered at the lowest possible net cost. Electricity provides around 40 per cent of final energy supplies across the EU and that number should grow as more activity, starting with transportation, is electrified.
But the remaining 60 per cent contains many activities, including industry and agriculture, where decarbonisation gains are possible and probably cheaper than relying on super-expensive electricity generation projects such as Hinkley Point. Third, keep ministers and inexperienced officials out of the process that allocates contracts. Ministers should set the policy objectives but delivery should be managed by people who know what they are doing.
This seems obvious when considering the provision of healthcare but tends to be ignored when it comes to energy. Needless to say the companies won. The consumer lost and will be paying the bill for decades to come. Prof Helm proposes a single authority, a National System Operator, to manage the acquisition of supplies through a simplified system of auctions.
I would go further and encourage countries to ban ministers and officials from going through the revolving door to work for any company involved in a public policy decision with which they have been involved. Removing the tax deductibility of lobbying activity would also help. Fourth , remember that climate change policy needs public support. Among those who understand what is at stake, support for action is substantial but across the wider population interest is limited.
If policies to deliver emissions reduction are associated with high costs — which amount to corporate welfare payments — enthusiasm for action will fall. Consumers rightly expect new technologies and productivity increases to mean lower not higher costs. When world prices for both renewables and conventional supplies such as natural gas are falling they are understandably disillusioned to find bills still rising.
The costs of decarbonisation are coming down. Well-designed policies can help reduce them further. The process of getting to a lower carbon economy does not have to involve an intolerable economic cost. Presidential Elections — Caucasian Affairs. The Manafort Indictment —. Special Counsel Robert Mueller indicted former Trump campaign chairman Paul Manafort for tax fraud on Monday, and the main charge against Donald Trump is poor judgment for hiring the notorious Beltway operator.
The indictment accuses Mr. Manafort and business partner Richard Gates of funneling money from a pro-Russia party in Ukraine into offshore shell companies and bank accounts. They then allegedly used these accounts to fund their spending habits, neglecting to declare the money to the IRS. The indictment also accuses Mr. The Russia probe has exposed the degree to which lobbyists ignore this statute that the Justice Department has failed to enforce.
Democrat Anthony Podesta announced Monday that he is leaving his lobbying firm amid the Mueller probe. The most striking news is that none of this involves the election campaign. The indictment makes clear that Mr. The charges are related to false statements Mr. Manafort made to the Justice Department. In other words, Mr. Manafort stands accused of a financial and lobbying scam, which is exactly what Mr.
Trump risked in hiring a swamp denizen. Manafort has lobbied for a rogues gallery of dictators, with the occasional domestic scandal HUD contracts. Mueller provides no evidence this happened. One popular theory is that Mr.
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Mueller is throwing the book at Mr. Manafort so he will cop a plea and tell what he knows about Russian-Trump campaign chicanery. But that assumes he knows something that to date no Congressional investigation has found.
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Prosecutors typically try to turn witnesses before they indict, and Messrs. Manafort and Gates pleaded not guilty on Monday. This is embarrassing for the Free Beacon, which has been caught jumping in bed with sleazy operators like Fusion. But none of this absolves Democrats from their role in financing Fusion to hire Christopher Steele, the former British spook, to collect information about Mr. The Free Beacon says it had nothing to do with Mr. Steele or his dossier.
The Democrat-Fusion-Russia story requires as full an investigation as the question of Trump-Russia collusion. All the more so given that the FBI may have used the Steele dossier, much of which has been discredited, to begin investigating the Trump campaign and to seek a warrant from the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court. Some readers were offended that we suggested last week that Mr. Americans deserve to know how Russia interfered in the campaign, but one problem with special prosecutors is that they exist to prosecute—someone, somewhere for something—more than they shed light.
Belgrad will Verlegung von Turkish Stream durch Serbien. Zum Bau der ca. Davon verlaufen einige durch die Ukraine. Martin Luther wanted to coax theologians into a debate on indulgences—not reset Christianity. This week the world celebrates the th anniversary of an event that never happened. Well, something did happen, and it altered the course of history.
But what actually took place is astoundingly different from how it is portrayed today. As the story is told, on Oct. The thunder of his hammer resounded throughout the world. The document brazenly charged the Catholic Church with corruption.
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The corrupt powers-that-be were put on notice that the vile practice of indulgences—whereby the faithful could throw a coin in the coffer to buy their way out of purgatory or worse—must end forever. Except it never happened, at least not that way. And they might never have been posted by Luther, despite five centuries of paintings depicting him doing just that. As it happens, he may have handed the document to a church custodian to post. And if Luther did post it himself, he may even have unheroically affixed it with paste.
More important, posting the document on the door of the Wittenberg Castle Church was not an act of calculated defiance. That door had long served as the community bulletin board for anything and everything. For context, imagine the fabled document posted next to a flyer for a missing cat. The most important difference between how most people remember the event and what actually happened is that the something monk never dreamt that history would notice what he was doing. He did not intend to be defiant or to cause trouble. And he certainly did not plan to shake the foundations of the church he loved and obediently served.
The idea that this all might lead to a sundering of the church was unthinkable. If he had thought of it, it would have utterly horrified him. And the theses were written in Latin, which no one but cultural elites could understand. If there was anything provocative in what he wrote, it was only because such documents typically contained an edgy thesis or two in the hopes of instigating a robust debate.
The brainy Saxon monk merely wanted to coax his fellow theologians into an academic debate on indulgences, thinking that something might be done about the troubling practice through the proper and customary channels. What happened shocked Luther more than anyone. A copy of the document was promptly delivered to Rome, where it furrowed Vatican brows and upset the papal stomach. Then they duplicated it endlessly without his permission, courtesy of a relatively new technology invented by a fellow German, Johannes Gutenberg. Suddenly everyone was reading it across Europe and debating its points.
The frothy torrent of writings that poured from his pen would make printers and publishers rich, with no royalties ever paid to him for his troubles. And his woodcut portraits reproduced like rabbits across the German landscape. By prompting the end of Vatican hegemony, Luther opened the door for the creation of thousands of new churches under dozens of denominations, Lutheran among them. In the coming centuries, this attitude would help elevate the concepts of religious pluralism, tolerance, democracy and freedom. Certainly not Martin Luther, whose grotesque pronouncements against the Jews near the end of his life proved that he simply did not comprehend the ramifications of what he had loosed upon the world.
But by humbly raising the questions he had in , and then by responding to the attacks that followed as truthfully and carefully as he could, Luther ended up cracking the great edifice of medieval Christendom in twain. And for good and for ill both, out of that opening the future itself seemed to fly. New information shows ambushed Green Beret team was part of a larger, potentially more dangerous mission.
La David Johnson on Oct. New information shows the Green Beret team was part of a larger mission, one potentially more dangerous than initially described, and one believed to merit an armed drone. But the request was blocked in a chain of approval that snakes through the Pentagon, State Department and the Nigerien government, according to officials briefed on the events. Army Special Forces soldiers observe Nigerien armed forces service members during an exercise in Niger this year. The ambush and the circumstances surrounding it have taken on political weight in Washington as the deadliest military clash for Americans since President Donald Trump took office.
The drone request suggests that military officials were aware of a change in the security landscape in western Niger, where more than two dozen previous patrols had been conducted without incident. Intelligence indicated a low risk of enemy contact, and there had been no enemy attacks on U. The initial decision against the use of an armed drone reflects an effort by the U.
An Department of Defense handout shows U. Black top left , Sgt. La David Johnson top right , Staff Sgt. Wright, bottom left , and Staff Sgt. Johnson, bottom right , the four U. After the firefight broke out on Oct. An unarmed drone was dispatched, and French Mirage jet fighters arrived about an hour later, followed by French helicopters. The Green Beret patrol was one of two operating in the area at about the same time, Pentagon officials said.
The second consisted of an elite commando team specializing in missions to track down wanted jihadists; both were involved at the time in a hunt for an associate of Adnan abu Walid al-Sahawi, the leader of Islamic State in the Greater Sahara, according to current and former officials briefed on the events. Revises Timeline on Niger Battle. The targeted militant was operating in the border region, moving between Niger and Mali, and the elite team was also operating on both sides of the border, officials said.
The jihadist is an important figure in Islamic State in the Greater Sahara, an organization operating in the two countries, according to a person briefed on the investigation.
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But then, before the October mission began, the group was asked to advise the Nigerien quick-reaction force that was to assist the elite commando unit on its mission to capture or kill the terrorist target, according to a military official. That mission was scrubbed because weather conditions increased the risk for helicopter flight to the site where the jihadist was thought to be, the official said. The commando unit then sought another U. The Green Beret patrol, now available to be retasked, was sent to the camp, the officials said.
The patrol was made up mostly of Green Berets, with other soldiers attached. All were considered well trained, having gone through the comprehensive work-ups of the elite Special Forces, according to Pentagon records. The new mission, to find the abandoned camp and shelter, was considered relatively low-risk. An assessment showed there was little likelihood of an enemy attack, officials have said, after the wanted terrorist was known to have abandoned the camp.
Military investigators have been examining the official orders that led to the assignment. Africa Command, known as Africom, the U. Joint Special Operations Command, or another agency.
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Investigators also are working to find out if there was adequate intelligence to evaluate the likelihood of enemy contact and whether the team was prepared for helping an elite commando team track and kill Mr. Investigations into the ambush by military officials, aided by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, are likely to take weeks, according to officials briefed on the inquiry. The area is made up in large part of wildlife preserves, allowing militants, often in groups of just a few dozen, to move across borders, hide out and strike as needed.
From there, late on Oct. Based on the reports submitted by the Green Berets after they left the abandoned terrorist camp, the team hiked throughout the night of Oct. While on the route back to their camp, in the morning of Oct. That meeting went longer than expected. The length of the village meeting has caused some military officials to question whether villagers tried to delay the Green Berets. One official noted that the areas were far apart, and the Green Beret team had taken steps to avoid being tracked.
Other officials believe he was likely responsible for the attack. An hour into the fight, minutes after a request from the team for air support, the unarmed drone arrived, allowing more senior military commanders to watch the firefight. The French Mirage jet fighters from an airfield in Niamey were underway within a half-hour and in the area 30 minutes later, the Pentagon said.
French helicopters left from Mali, officials said. During the fight, four soldiers became separated from the rest of the team. Those soldiers would be the Americans killed. Late on the afternoon of Oct. The body of the fourth soldier, Sgt. La David Johnson, was still missing. He was found two days later by Nigerien forces. Military officials declined to say why the initial request for an armed drone was made. Africa Command, which is responsible for military operations for most of the continent, typically must request permission from the U.
If the ambassador blocks the mission, the decision can be appealed by military officials to the Pentagon. That step typically requires a discussion between the secretaries of Defense and State. No high-level discussion in advance of the Green Beret patrol that began Oct. One of the officials briefed on the events said sensitivities in Niger concerning the use of armed drones have delayed their use. Esign controls for the medical device industry.
The book of the river black current b. The renaissance of field experimentation in evaluating interventions annual review of psychology book The unity of mystical traditions the transformation of consciousne. The us military intervention in. In an unsuccessful attempt to drown out the soloist, German tennis players and fans started to sing the third verse instead. Hoffmann von Fallersleben also intended the text to be used as a drinking song ; the second stanza's toast to German wine, women and song are typical of this genre.
Unity and justice and freedom For the German fatherland; This let us all pursue, Brotherly with heart and hand. Unity and justice and freedom Are the pledge of fortune. An alternative version called " Kinderhymne " Children's Hymn was written by Bertolt Brecht shortly after his return from exile in the U.
It gained some currency after the unification of Germany, with a number of prominent Germans opting for his "antihymn" to be made official: . Grace spare not and spare no labour Passion nor intelligence That a decent German nation Flourish as do other lands. That the people give up flinching At the crimes which we evoke And hold out their hand in friendship As they do to other folk. And because we'll make it better Let us guard and love our home Love it as our dearest country As the others love their own. The German musician Nico sometimes performed the national anthem at concerts and dedicated it to militant Andreas Baader , leader of the Red Army Faction.
In , the Slovenian "industrial" band Laibach incorporated Hoffmann's lyrics in a song titled "Germania", on the album Volk , which contains fourteen songs with adaptations of national anthems. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Unification of Germany. Retrieved 27 June Blickpunt Bundestag in German. Archived from the original on 6 September Retrieved 1 December Oxford University Press.
Retrieved 25 February University Press of New England. The History Place. Retrieved 9 September Mai " [Exchange of letters from regarding the national anthem, as published in the bulletin of the federal government, Nr. Bundesministerium des Innern. De Gruyter. Retrieved 18 January Retrieved 24 May Der Spiegel in German. Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 2 March George Allen and Unwin, London. In: Etienne Francois, Hagen Schulze ed. Radio Netherlands Worldwide in Dutch. Archived from the original on 7 June Spiegel Online. Retrieved 10 August Archived from the original on 29 October Het Nieuwsblad in Dutch.
Geisler The New York Times. Der Tagesspiegel in German. Timeline Historiography Military history.