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La Stock Spirits Group annuncia la chiusura della storica fabbrica di Trieste e il trasferimento da giugno della produzione nello stabilimento in Repubblica Ceca. Nello stabilimento di Trieste, secondo i dati dell'azienda, oggi lavorano su una linea di produzione 28 persone che perderanno il posto di lavoro.

Il governo italiano ha fatto richiesta di attivazione del Fondo europeo di adeguamento alla globalizzazione, al fine di aiutare i lavoratori a trovare un nuovo impiego e a riqualificarsi? La Commissione non era finora al corrente della situazione menzionata dall'onorevole deputato. L'Italia non ha presentato una domanda di finanziamento del Fondo europeo di adeguamento alla globalizzazione FEG relativo ai piani di trasferimento dello Stock Spirits Group. The Stock Spirits Group has announced that its long-established plant in Trieste is to close in June and all production operations are to be transferred to its plant in the Czech Republic.

According to a statement issued by the Trieste-based company, the decision was dictated by a business environment hard-hit by the decline in consumer spending and the need to remain competitive by consolidating production operations in order to reduce costs and increase efficiency. According to the company, 28 people currently work on the production line in the plant in Trieste, all of whom will lose their jobs. Has the Italian Government applied for the European Globalisation Adjustment Fund to be mobilised in order to help the workers retrain and find new employment?

The Commission was not, until now, aware of the situation referred to by the Honourable Member. Oggetto: Protezione del consumatore — revisione della normativa. Nella revisione della legislazione corrente, come la direttiva per i diritti dei consumatori, la Commissione ha migliorato notevolmente i diritti di questi ultimi, soprattutto per quanto concerne la rivalsa sulla compagnia ad esempio in relazione ai fallimenti dei tour operator. Tuttavia, la protezione finanziaria nell'acquisto di biglietti aerei presenta ancora notevoli lacune.

The EU has shown strong commitment in recent years to protecting consumers purchasing goods and services in the Member States from financial loss and damage resulting from fraudulent practices. In reviewing current legislation, such as the directive for consumer rights, the Commission has significantly improved the rights of the consumer, especially as regards compensation from companies for example in relation to tour operator bankruptcies.

However, there are still significant gaps that need to be plugged as regards financial safeguards in the purchase of airline tickets. Today, however, the situation has changed and millions of holidays are sold according to various types of contracts, sometimes directly by the airlines themselves, which gives rise to a regulatory shortcoming in that the aforementioned legislation no longer provides adequate protection to the consumer. In order to take good account of the ongoing works in the area of airline insolvency and Air Passengers' rights, it can be expected that a proposal will be presented before the end of Oggetto: Versamento di petrolio nel mar Grande, Taranto.

A causa di una falla nel serbatoio, una nave battente bandiera panamense ha riversato alcune tonnellate di carburante nel mar Grande, a Taranto. La falla ha causato una chiazza di olio di circa metri quadrati. Presente sul posto anche personale dell'Arpa per le analisi del materiale versato in mare. Due to a breach in its fuel tank, a ship flying the Panamanian flag has leaked several tonnes of fuel into the Mar Grande in Taranto. The incident occurred during the night but it was not until the next morning, with the first light of day, that people realised what was happening.

The boat is moored at the third jetty of the port. The rescue operation began immediately. ARPA personnel are also on site to perform tests on the material spilt into the sea. Does it not consider it essential to review the current rules relating to the safety of boats transporting oil? What initiatives does it intend to launch on an international level to protect the marine environment against spills of oil and other harmful chemicals?

The Mar Grande in Taranto should be included in the analysis of the national authorities. I dati relativi a coloro che si candidano a un finanziamento dell'UE non sono disponibili a livello centrale presso la Commissione. Ottenere tali informazioni dai diversi servizi della Commissione richiede tempi lunghi. La Commissione si dichiara tuttavia disposta a raccogliere tali dati per un insieme di candidati potenziali e di programmi UE che rivestono interesse per l'onorevole deputato. Attualmente nel FTS sono disponibili soltanto dati per gli esercizi finanziari Detto questo, nel periodo non risulta siano stati concessi finanziamenti all'associazione Frontiera.

The Frontiera community, a non-profit association, carries out social activities and work based on Christian values, aimed at educating children, adolescents and young people in an informal manner. The project adopts an approach of prevention rather than rehabilitation. This is a very demanding approach because it means going into an area with action aimed at children, adolescents and young people, providing opportunities for human, spiritual, moral and vocational development, while clashing with unlawful private interests that have never allowed this to happen, as they have always exploited young people as much as possible as a source of labour.

Each year, the association is committed to organising, in Apulia and Sicily, sporting events that involve mainly young people, and which bear witness to the close ties between children that sport can produce. Can the Commission say whether this association has previously applied for EU funding? If not, given the great efforts the association has made in relation to sport, and in view of the EU's interest in social inclusion in and through sport, would it be possible for it to receive direct funds in order to improve the events it organises? Data on applicants for EU funding is not available at central level in the Commission.

Obtaining such information from different departments of the Commission is a lengthy process. The Commission would, nevertheless, be prepared to gather such data for a batch of potential applicants and EU programmes that are of interest to the Honourable Member. The Commission would like to draw the attention to of the Honourable Member to the fact that the name of an organisation introduced in the FTS database is its full official name, that does not always match the name commonly used in the public domain.

On this basis, no funding appears to have been provided to the Frontiera association in the period With regard to the request of the Honourable Member for direct funding to this organisation, the Commission applies the principles of equal treatment and transparency and organises open calls for proposals for the purpose of awarding grants. Among other things, the directive requires an independent, national supervisory authority to be appointed to ensure the correct application of the measures adopted and to comply with the principles established by the directive.

It should be remembered that the collection of airport charges charges for aircraft take-off and landing, charges for the hangaring or parking of aircraft outdoors and charges for boarding passengers borne by the airlines, allows the airport management companies to recover the cost of the infrastructure and services connected with aircraft operation and passenger and cargo operations, which the companies themselves provide for the airlines.

The Commission has launched infringement proceedings against the remaining Member States. Recuperare i gusci delle uova destinati alla discarica per trasformarli in materiali plastici adatti a ogni uso, dall'edilizia alla farmaceutica fino agli imballaggi per alimenti. Recycling egg shells that would have been sent to landfill to transform them into plastic materials suitable for all uses, from building materials to pharmaceuticals and even food packaging is the aim of a research project that a group of British chemists is due to launch immediately after Easter.

Their research is currently focusing on the best method for extracting glycosaminoglycans from the shells, proteins that are already being used in biomedical applications and that could turn out to be very useful in the pharmaceutical field. The researchers are also trying to find out how the shells could be used as fillers for different types of plastic, with applications that range from ready-meal packaging to assembly and repair workshops. The ultimate aim is to give egg shells a second life by using them to actually package and protect egg-based food products.

Is it aware of the new research and does it not think that a project of this importance, which would lead to a reduction in the amount of waste produced, should be funded? I would like to thank the Honourable Member for this interesting information. The Commission is not aware of a new project transforming egg shells into a raw material for plastics production.

However, on the basis of the presently available information, it is not possible to determine whether the project may be eligible for EU funding. Quali sono i progressi fatti dall'Unione europea nel campo dello sport dal , anno di inserimento nella politica europea, ad oggi? Le regole di sicurezza applicabili allo sport sono fissate a livello nazionale. In tale contesto la Commissione ha adottato diverse iniziative nel campo dell'antidoping. Unfortunately, sports reports increasingly contain news of deaths and illnesses that are not reflected in the normal population of the same age.

Sudden deaths due to serious damage to the heart, tumours at a young age, specific degenerative diseases of the nervous system are all clearly or partially linked to long-term drug abuse. We now have athletes who are unable to accept their limits and who replace physical and mental effort with synthetic substances that can allow them to perform better in terms of results. Does it not consider it appropriate to identify more stringent regulations in sport which would guarantee greater safety and protection for athletes?

What progress has been made in the European Union in the field of sports since , the year it became part of European policy? Safety rules applicable to sports are set at national level. In this context the Commission has already taken many different initiatives in the field of anti-doping. Oggetto: Alimenti capaci di stimolare le difese immunitarie.

La salute passa dal cibo, persino dai primissimi anni di vita. Un istituto di oncologia ha iniziato a progettare alimenti e molecole funzionali capaci di stimolare le difese immunitarie dei bambini, con lo scopo di ridurre il rischio di malattie immunitarie come allergie, patologie infiammatorie, morbo celiaco e alcuni tumori.

Gli studi saranno condotti da un gruppo di ricercatori guidati da esperti di immunoterapia antitumorale. Inoltre, nel quadro del programma Orizzonte proseguiranno gli studi su alimenti e regimi alimentari in quanto principali fattori per promuovere e conservare la salute e per ridurre il rischio di sviluppare malattie. Food is vital for health, including in the very first years of life. The research will be conducted by a group of researchers led by antitumour immunotherapy experts.

The researchers will focus in particular on functional foods, which are foods that, as well as having nutritional value, have a positive effect on one or more bodily functions and are thus capable of improving health and reducing the risk of illness. There are high hopes for this research: the way is open for the development of innovative products — in the form of everyday foods, rather than pills or capsules — that can help children to grow healthily. In view of the above and the increasing attention being paid by the European Union to policies relating to public health, can the Commission say whether it is aware of the new study and whether it believes that this research could be financed through the Seventh Framework Programme FP7 or through the Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme?

The species and composition of the human gut microbiome have recently been discovered to be potential key factors in the development of innate and adaptive immune function, in development of metabolic syndrome and obesity and in brain development and behaviour. There is, therefore, a need to further investigate the effects of food and diet including food production methods and other lifestyle factors on the human gut microbiome and its role in health, disease and ageing. Horizon will continue to explore food and diet as the main factors for promoting and sustaining health and for reducing the risk of diseases development.

As the Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme CIP does not support any kind of research, no related activities have been funded under this programme. Non ritiene che si possano prevedere degli incentivi per chi fa un uso razionale dell'energia, incentivi non necessariamente economici? Per imprimere nuovo slancio alla tematica dell'efficienza energetica, la Commissione ha proposto una nuova direttiva sull'efficienza energetica.

La proposta contiene diverse misure atte a consentire al consumatore di compiere una scelta informata in base al consumo energetico, prevedendo tra l'altro che gli utenti usufruiscano di contatori individuali che misurano con precisione e indicano il consumo energetico reale e ricevano bollette concepite in modo tale da orientare le loro scelte in materia di consumo energetico. Savings can be achieved both by modifying energy processes, so that there is less waste, and by using technologies capable of converting energy from one form to another more efficiently.

The initiative is laudable, but attention also needs to be paid to energy saving on an everyday basis, not just for an hour a year. In large companies, energy saving is not taken into great consideration and offices are overheated in winter and excessively cooled in summer. Does it not consider that incentives — not necessarily financial — might be provided for those who make a rational use of energy? A comprehensive mix of energy efficiency policies and supporting measures has been implemented at European and national level promoting more efficient use of energy in buildings, household appliances and industrial equipment, transport, industry and energy generation.

These include measures aimed at raising citizens' awareness of their energy consumption and ways of making it more efficient. In addition to these measures directly providing consumers with information, the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme supports initiatives aimed at raising the awareness of consumers on these matters. To provide a further impetus for energy efficiency the Commission has proposed a new Energy Efficiency Directive.

The proposal includes several measures which would allow consumers to make informed choices linked to their energy consumption. It would ensure that consumers are provided with individual meters that accurately measure and inform them about their actual energy consumption and that they receive energy bills in a way that allows them to make informed choices.

The proposal is currently the subject of negotiations between the Council and the Parliament. The Sudan air force recently went into action, bombing parts of Bentiu, the capital of the South Sudanese state of Unity, located close to the border. Several international media outlets were alerted by South Sudanese Government officials, who also indicated that the alleged target was a bridge that connects the city with the north of the country, where a United Nations compound has been set up. Sudan and South Sudan have been involved in clashes, with border violations by their respective armies and air raids along the border.

Both the African Union and the United Nations have expressed their concern over the possibility that tensions may lead to open conflict between Sudan and South Sudan and have called on both sides to remain calm; they have also called on South Sudan to withdraw its troops from Heglig. In addition, they have appealed to the international community to attempt mediation efforts. According to a recent UN estimate, the recent clashes in the border areas have resulted in the displacement of 20, people in South Sudan. La coltivazione e la lavorazione del tabacco rappresentano un settore trainante per l'economia di interi Stati europei con un indotto che garantisce lavoro a migliaia di addetti.

Sulla base delle considerazioni sopraesposte l'interrogante chiede alla Commissione:. Tobacco cultivation and processing is a driver for the economy of entire European States with satellite industries that guarantee employment for thousands of workers. Jobs and businesses are, however, increasingly at risk and the sector is going through a critical period. There is difficulty in disposing of high quality stocks, there are issues involving uncompetitive prices on the world market and there has been a significant fall in the surface area being cultivated.

The tobacco sector must be protected and relaunched in a business sense, so as to avoid an irreversible crisis in a sector which for many years has guaranteed significant tax revenues. At the same time, the expenditure incurred by companies to reduce the risk associated with tobacco consumption is constantly increasing, which demonstrates continuing efforts to guarantee consumers higher quality and better safety. What policies have been put in place to guarantee the sustainability of tobacco production and to try and restore a sense of certainty and stability to the thousands of agricultural companies and workers in the sector?

Regarding the policies in relation to the tobacco sector, the production of raw tobacco is fully integrated into the general agricultural policy instruments. These are the single payment scheme or the Single Area Payment, basic income support schemes that, under certain conditions, provide payments independently from which kind of commodities farmers actually produce.

Thus, tobacco production is treated in a neutral way. However, there also exists a well developed policy for rural development which in case of difficulties or special needs can provide assistance to tobacco growing regions. The Commission is currently working on the revision of the so called Tobacco Products Directive.

A legislative proposal is expected for the end of The impact on farmers will be duly considered in this legislative process. Mentre una normale stampante laser fornisce una carica positiva a ogni singolo pixel su carta, a cui poi aderiranno singole particelle del toner, una stampante che cancella funziona in maniera del tutto diversa. Questa procedura permetterebbe di effettuare passi da gigante nella riduzione della CO 2 che si produce sia per realizzare la carta che per riciclarla.

A printer that can use the same sheet of paper several times: that is the goal achieved by researchers at the University of Cambridge, who have produced the first laser printer that can delete as well as print. Whereas a normal laser printer gives a positive charge to every single pixel on the paper, to which individual particles of toner stick, a printer that can delete works in a completely different way.

In this case, extremely brief laser pulses in the order of picoseconds one thousandth of a second consists of a billion picoseconds to vaporise the toner present on the page without damaging the paper, since the particular type of light is absorbed by the toner but passes through the cellulose fibres that make up the paper. This process would make it possible to make great progress in reducing the CO 2 produced both by producing paper and recycling it. The Cambridge researchers estimate that, at best, one sheet of paper could be reprinted and deleted 20 times before becoming unusable and, at worst, once.

This process would cut carbon dioxide emissions by half in comparison with paper recycling. In view of the above, is the Commission aware of the recent discovery at the University of Cambridge of a printer that can reprint the same sheet of paper several times, and does it intend to launch an experimental programme to assess the appropriateness of using this new discovery with the main aim of reducing CO 2? The idea of print ink removal with laser light pulses has been published recently and seems interesting.

Two opportunities exist for possible co-funding of such a project from the Commission's budget. Consortia of partners from at least three different EU countries may apply for these funding, granted on the basis of a peer review evaluation process, which is highly competitive. For closer-to-the-market solutions, e. Lattine, barattoli, tubetti, scatole, sottili fogli per confezionare il cibo, dopo la raccolta, un'accurata selezione, la fusione e la liquefazione, sono trasformati in lingotti e poi venduti.

Per una caffettiera moka da tre tazze Per un cerchione di auto ne servono , mentre per un paio di occhiali ne bastano tre. Intende la Commissione avviare iniziative volte a favorire la raccolta differenziata dell'alluminio e sensibilizzare i cittadini in proposito, visti i molteplici vantaggi che derivano dal suo riutilizzo? After being collected, carefully sorted, melted and liquefied, cans, tins, tubes and foil for food-wrapping are transformed into bars and then sold.

The applications of this versatile metal are almost endless and include construction, electrical goods, transport, furnishings and technical installations. A 3-cup espresso coffee maker requires A tyre rim requires and just 3 are enough for a pair of glasses. The scale of the work behind this sorted waste sector is revealed in the figures. Can the Commission provide a general overview of the data on the sorted collection of metals, and in particular of aluminium, in the various Member States?

This is particularly important for materials such as aluminium which require a far larger amount of energy to extract and process as virgin material than to recycle. In response to the specific questions raised by the Honourable Member:. Aluminium is present in several waste streams most of them covered by European recycling targets packaging, electric and electronic equipment, construction and demolition waste, end-of-life vehicles.

The priority of the Commission is to ensure the full implementation of existing collection and recycling targets so that aluminium and metals in general are recycled at high rates and in good conditions. Questi tre nomi compaiono in un dossier redatto dall'intelligence saudita sulle possibili minacce di Teheran. Informazioni su scenari poi condivise con paesi amici nel corso di tre riunioni: le prime si sono svolte alla fine del , l'ultima a marzo. I sauditi hanno studiato attentamente le mosse dei rivali storici.

Three names — Qassem Suleimani, head of the Quds Force, the Iranian group for covert operations, Hassan Boromand, an official who coordinates covert activities in major European capitals, and Majid Alavi, suspected of having played a role in the failed anti-Israeli attack in Thailand — appear in a dossier compiled by the Saudi intelligence services on possible threats from Tehran. The Saudis have carefully studied the movements of their historic rivals, from whom they are divided by religion Shiites against Sunnis and by a desire to assert their own influence in the Middle East.

In view of the above, can the High Representative say whether steps are being taken to monitor the activities of Iranian terrorist cells within the European Union? The European Union has neither the competence nor the operational capacities to monitor the activities of specific targets e. Both the European External Action Service and the European Commission can rely on situational awareness capacities, mainly based on the monitoring of open sources information.

However, these capacities do not constitute a competence or operational capacity to monitor specific targets. Oggetto: Dispositivo che dimezza i consumi dell'auto. L'inventore varesino l'ha inseguita per anni e, dopo averla perfezionata, ha brevettato il sistema in Italia e Svizzera. Per avviare la marcia basta una lieve accelerata di 4 secondi.

Finita la propulsione, con altri 4 secondi di acceleratore si assicura un altro minuto di marcia. Intende avviare un programma sperimentale al fine di promuovere tale brevetto in tutti gli Stati membri? La Commissione ha fissato un forte quadro politico per la misurazione e la riduzione del consumo di combustibile e delle emissioni di CO 2 delle autovetture. Questo comprende il regolamento CE n. Inoltre sono state adottate numerose legislazioni nazionali di attuazione, anche in favore delle ecoinnovazioni.

Queste normative creano efficacemente un importante incentivo per la diffusione di tecnologie per il risparmio di carburante e la riduzione della CO 2 , sulla base di oggettivi criteri di prestazione. The mechanism, known as the kinetic drive system KDS , is inspired by the cycloid curve principle, a principle of physics dating back to Galileo Galilei. The inventor from Varese worked on the system for years and, after perfecting it, patented it in Italy and Switzerland.

The prototype has also been approved by the traffic department of the Ticino canton. All that is required to start moving is a slight acceleration for four seconds. After that, thanks to the KDS system, the car carries on at the desired speed for a minute with no need to keep the accelerator pressed down and, therefore, at the minimum engine speed where the saving is made.

Once propulsion is finished, another four seconds of acceleration provide another minute of driving. This ensures a smooth drive. In view of the above, can the Commission state whether it is aware of this device, which can reduce fuel consumption and, above all, harmful fuel emissions for cars? Does it intend to launch an experimental programme to promote this patent in all Member States?

The Commission is aware of the new mechanical device to reduce fuel consumption and harmful emission from passenger cars mentioned by the Honourable Member. To mitigate emissions from transport, the European Union has adopted new regulations and continuously supports research and innovation for the development of new technologies and solutions.

The Commission has established a robust policy framework for the measurement and the reduction of fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions of passenger cars. Furthermore, numerous implementing legislations have been adopted, also covering eco-innovations. These regulations effectively create an important incentive for the deployment of CO 2 and fuel saving technologies, based on objective performance criteria.

La Duke University di Durham ha realizzato un impianto pilota che sfrutta gli escrementi degli animali per ricavarne metano, da bruciare per mettere in movimento un generatore di energia elettrica. La ricerca e lo sviluppo sui rifiuti agricoli sono stati portati avanti nell'ambito dei programmi-quadro di ricerca promossi dall'UE fin dall'inizio. Il biogas viene prodotto in impianti commerciali con l'ausilio di numerose fonti quali i fanghi di depurazione, i rifiuti agricoli, i concimi, i rifiuti biologici e le discariche municipali.

Attualmente la Commissione sta valutando se tali criteri volontari siano sufficienti oppure se non sia necessario introdurre criteri vincolanti. Duke University in Durham has constructed a pilot plant that processes animal dung to recover methane from it, which is burned to power an electricity generator. It is a new form of renewable energy that many, in fact, have thought about for some time, and which could make a large contribution to the reduction of greenhouse gases and to energy production.

Capturing the methane produced to put it on the market to fuel cars, for example, would be extremely difficult, which is why it is better to use it in situ. Research to assess the actual environmental impact has just begun, as has work to find solutions for making the system even more efficient and economically viable. Research and development on agricultural waste has been pursued under EU Research framework programmes from the beginning. Biogas is been produced at commercial installations using a large number of sources including sewage sludge, farm wastes, manures, municipal organic waste and landfills.

In , 3. Across Europe, more than biogas plants are operating commercially today. Biogas production may indeed help to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This will depend on the extent to which biogas will substitute the use of fossil fuels in a life cycle perspective, and on whether methane emissions to the atmosphere can be avoided. Research and development is continuing in this area to produce better gas quality, to improve operational efficiency and safety and to help developing better regulation to bring the innovation to the market.

If biofuels are produced, Member States should ensure that it meets the sustainability criteria contained in that same directive. Regarding solid and gaseous biomass for heating and cooling, the Commission published a report on a sustainability scheme for non-biofuel biomass in and recommended to Member States to use the Renewable Energy Directive requirements. The Commission is currently assessing if these voluntary criteria are sufficient, or if binding criteria would be needed. Asunto: Escudo antimisiles de EE. Graves consecuencias medioambientales y retroceso en el necesario desarme mundial.

Does the Commission believe that Spain has infringed European law in the light of the provisions of the Aarhus Convention on public participation in environmental matters? Does the Commission not consider it necessary that information should be provided at all times on the payload of those ships so that environmental risks can be assessed effectively and plans can be put into effect to mitigate those risks?

Does the Commission intend to seek information from the Spanish Government regarding these issues? The Commission would like to inform the Honourable Member that the establishment of a defence shield as well as related measures is undoubtedly an activity serving national defence purposes and as such outside the scope of the Aarhus Convention. The Commission does not therefore intend to take any further action in this matter. Respuesta de la Alta Representante y Vicepresidenta Sra.

Taking into account the consequences for, and changes to, EU security which this decision by the previous Spanish Government involves:. The EU does not have a position on this issue, which is the sovereign responsibility of Member States. Betrifft: Auslegung der EU-Dienstleistungsrichtlinie. Der Bereich Bildung wurde nicht explizit aus dem Anwendungsbereich der Richtlinie ausgenommen. The directive, which was also transposed in Germany at the end of , should create a legal framework for facilitating freedom of establishment and freedom to provide services within the European Union.

The directive applies to all services provided for remuneration, albeit with the exception of a number of sectors such as financial or healthcare services. The educational sector was not expressly excluded from the scope of the directive. Therefore, the directive could be applied to fee-based private education.

The Services Directive applies indeed to education services as long as the educational institution concerned is not essentially financed by public funds. The activites of privately financed universities are therefore covered by Services Directive. In a federal Member State, an authorisation of a private educational institution granted by one state Land should therefore be recognised, in principle, in the other states.

Exceptions are possible where justified by a public interest objective. Exceptions to this general rule of unlimited duration of authorisations are, inter alia , permitted when the authorisations are automatically renewed or are subject only to a condition that they continue to fulfil certain requirements.

This could apply, for example, in the case of privately funded universities where a regular check is needed as regards the quality of the education being provided by a private university. To what extent is the Commission aware of this incident, and how has it been involved in any subsequent investigation? The study concludes that single-use plastic carrier bags, mostly given away for free by retailers, are particularly harmful to the environment as they are not degradable and are discarded more frequently.

Does the Commission recognise the inconsistencies present throughout the report, particularly in terms of the legal measures recommended by BIOIS? The views expressed in the study are the sole responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily reflect possible future actions of the Commission. The assessment of various options to reduce the environmental impact of plastic carrier bags is still ongoing.

A decision on the most appropriate instrument and its scope will be taken upon completion of the evaluation process. Nello specifico, si pone in rilievo che i cittadini in questione raccontano di un numero crescente di segnalazioni circa la presenza di personale militare inglese e francese a fianco degli insorti per organizzare azioni di guerriglia. L'Unione europea ritiene che le brutali aggressioni e le diffuse violazioni dei diritti umani inflitte alla popolazione dalle forze di sicurezza del regime hanno fomentato la violenza in Siria.

Tuttavia, l'UE ha continuamente sollecitato l'opposizione siriana a seguire un percorso non violento verso un cambiamento democratico ed inclusivo. L'UE sostiene pienamente l'inviato speciale delle Nazioni Unite e della Lega araba, Kofi Annan, e il suo piano in sei punti per una composizione politica della crisi. L'UE accoglie con favore le risoluzioni e del Consiglio di sicurezza dell'ONU, che autorizzano l'invio di osservatori ONU al fine di sorvegliare in modo imparziale la piena cessazione della violenza e l'attuazione degli altri aspetti contenuti nel piano dell'inviato speciale.

Tali misure sono concepite in modo da minimizzare gli effetti negativi sulla popolazione e vengono sottoposte a costanti revisioni. According to the witness accounts of a number of Italian citizens resident in Syria, reported in the newspaper Avvenire , the situation in the country is vastly different from that reported by European media.

In particular, the sanctions imposed on the Syrian Government have had a very negative impact. It is highlighted in particular that, according to these citizens, there are a growing number of British and French military personnel working alongside the rebels to organise guerrilla activity. Support for the liberation of Syria apparently now consists of contributing to the manipulation of information and fomenting civil unrest, which is destined to last for several years. In the coming days, the ultimatum for the withdrawal of the army will expire, despite the serious reservations of many inhabitants of outlying villages who see the military presence as a kind of guarantee of their safety as, according to reports, ambushes perpetrated by the rebels are rife.

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The EU considers that violence in Syria has been instigated by the brutal attacks and widespread human rights violations inflicted by the regime's security forces on the population. Nonetheless, it has consistently called on the Syrian opposition to pursue a non-violent path towards democratic and inclusive change. It welcomes the UN Security Council's Resolutions and authorising the deployment of UN observers, which will provide impartial reporting on the implementation of a full cessation of violence as well as the other aspects of the Special Envoy's plan.

The EU is ready to provide necessary assistance to the mission upon request and urges all parties to the conflict to fully cooperate with UN observers. The measures are designed to minimise any negative effects on the population. The sanctions are kept under constant review. Un'azienda ha messo a punto un'innovativa pompa di calore a gas zeolite che, se impiegata su larga scala, permetterebbe enormi risparmi sia economici che ambientali.

L'energia cinetica delle molecole che si trovano rallentate viene trasformata in calore. Le zeoliti sono materiali estremamente porosi che hanno trovato vasta applicazione in molti settori industriali. La Commissione ha sostenuto la ricerca in quest'ambito attraverso i programmi quadro di ricerca e sviluppo tecnologico ed altri programmi.

A company has developed an innovative zeolite gas heat pump, which, if used on a large scale, would have enormous advantages in terms of both saving money and protecting the environment. The new heat source was produced synthetically in order to be used in heating systems. The molecules are slowed down and give off kinetic energy, which is transformed into heat. The pump is powered by built-in solar panels which trigger the adsorption process in the zeolite. Zeolites are highly porous materials that have found widespread applications throughout many industrial sectors.

The Commission has supported research into these materials through its Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development and other Programmes. The topics cover all aspects from zeolite synthesis to innovative applications. The Commission also supports research on heat pumps where both, innovative heat pumps and heat pump integration into larger hybrid systems are considered. Oggetto: Cauzione per smaltire adeguatamente i cellulari. Si tratta di una cauzione di 10 euro sull'acquisto di telefoni cellulari e smartphone che verrebbe poi restituita al consumatore una volta che ha destinato l'apparecchio a un centro di smaltimento adeguato.

Una stima rivela che vi sarebbero circa 83 milioni di vecchi cellulari nelle case dei tedeschi. La cauzione sui cellulari rappresenterebbe un primo progetto pilota. Se dovesse funzionare, infatti, si potrebbe estendere ad altri prodotti tecnologici come i computer, i tablet, le console per i videogiochi e apparecchi simili. La restituzione di una somma di denaro ai consumatori potrebbe indurre gli stessi a porre maggiore attenzione al rispetto dell'ambiente e, quindi, a destinare i prodotti tecnologici a centri di riciclo adeguati. La proposta appena descritta ha suscitato non poche polemiche da parte delle associazioni dei produttori di oggetti elettronici.

In Germany a proposal has been put forward to encourage more responsible use of technological products among consumers. As we know, the recycling of electronic appliances is fundamental for protecting the environment. The deposit on mobile telephones would be a first pilot scheme. If it were to work, it could be extended to other technological products such as computers, tablets, video games consoles and similar appliances.

The return of a sum of money to consumers could prompt them to pay greater attention to respecting the environment and, as a result, to send technological products to suitable recycling centres. The proposal described has aroused fierce debate by the associations of electronic goods manufacturers. Deposit systems can make a contribution to the achievement of higher collection targets, but have also shown to have the potential to create administrative burdens and possible market barriers.

In particolare sul fronte delle PMI, la recente indagine sull'accesso ai finanziamenti condotta dalla Commissione europea consente di rilevare che in Italia le condizioni applicate dalle banche registrano un netto peggioramento rispetto agli altri paesi dell'UE. Dall'indagine emerge che, negli ultimi sei mesi, ben il 75 per cento delle PMI italiane ha registrato un incremento dei tassi d'interesse, mentre quasi il 65 per cento ha dichiarato di aver visto aumentare le commissioni bancarie applicate sui finanziamenti.

Tra i principali paesi dell'area euro, Francia e Germania mostrano uno scenario ben diverso da quello italiano. Analogo discorso per il credito al consumo: le commissioni bancarie, in percentuale dei finanziamenti, a gennaio sono state pari all'1,43 per cento in Italia, contro circa il mezzo punto percentuale di Spagna, Francia e Germania. Le PMI dipendono in larga misura dal finanziamento bancario e, pertanto, si dovrebbero evitare penalizzazioni di costo per le stesse all'interno dei singoli Stati membri. Le condizioni applicate dalle banche per la concessione di crediti sono determinate da molti fattori diversi.

Banks are exerting ever greater pressure on businesses and households alike. With reference to SMEs, a recent survey on access to funding conducted by the Commission clearly shows that the terms applied to bank loans in Italy have worsened in comparison with other EU countries. The figures for the major eurozone countries show that the situation in France and Germany is very different from that in Italy. With regard to interest rates, the assertions made by the SMEs polled by the Commission are borne out by comparative data compiled by the central banks and released by the ECB.

The figures for new loans granted to non-financial companies show that economic conditions in Italy have severely deteriorated over the last two years. In , the interest rates paid by Italian companies in were lower than those in the other major eurozone countries. In more recent times, however, expenditure on bank interest by Italian companies has been higher than that by their competitors elsewhere in Europe.

SMEs rely heavily on bank loans, and costs which penalise such companies should therefore be avoided in individual Member States. The aim should therefore be to maximise harmonisation, through a single corpus of rules. In view of the above, can the Commission say whether the terms applied by banks in Italy are incompatible with this objective and whether they could result in risks and underlying exposure being transferred to SMEs, thus constituting a measure that restricts competition between them?

Many different factors impact on banks' lending standards. This may explain why Italian banks have tightened their standards to a greater extent than their peers in other countries. In this respect, tightening of lending standards may be legitimate given that banks are expected to price loans according to the perceived riskiness of the borrower. La gestione degli immobili confiscati ai mafiosi richiede un sistema di trasparenza e di adeguate forme di controllo volte ad assicurare che gli stessi abbiano la funzione e la fruizione sociale che la legge impone e prevede.

Sulle orme della legge n. I beni confiscati normalmente sono venduti in aste pubbliche e i proventi ricavati sono trasferiti al bilancio nazionale. The management of properties confiscated from the mafia requires transparency and suitable forms of monitoring to ensure that they are given a social function and are used as required and established by law. The possibility of allocating the assets confiscated from mafia bosses and other representatives of organised crime to publicly beneficial purposes has assumed essential symbolic value in the fight against the mafia and is a strategic tool that also makes it possible to challenge the mafia in the media.

The commitment of the European institutions must be to create conditions which ensure that the confiscated assets can increasingly become a resource able to effectively support the intended economic and social development of a territory that has long been suffocated by the sprawling presence of organised crime. Within the framework of recent European legislation adopted to fight the interference of organised crime in businesses and the economy, particular importance attaches to provisions on the traceability of financial flows regarding the implementation and supply of public works and services.

In particular, these provisions aim to prevent criminal infiltration in the area of public tenders, contracts, supplies and funding, creating the conditions for the traceability of all financial resources invested, mainly thanks to the provisions regarding the use of dedicated bank or post office accounts, even if they are not exclusively used for such purposes. In view of this, can the Commission state whether European calls for tenders have been published to allow public involvement by the potential beneficiaries of properties confiscated from the mafia, and indicate the European legislation that guarantees the traceability of the flows of EU funds at all levels?

These directives are applicable only to purchases of supplies, services and works, made by Member States and other contracting authorities. In addition, the Commission has no specific information from Member States regarding possible tenders organised by Member States for the valorisation of the assets confiscated by Member States from the mafia. There are no specific provisions at EU level requiring the persons contracting with public authorities to use dedicated bank accounts for the related financial transactions with a view to ensuring the traceability of the flows of EU funds.

Confiscated assets are normally sold in public auctions and the resulting proceeds are transferred to the national treasury. In Italy and a few other Member States, confiscated assets may become public property and can be reused for public or social purposes. This proposal, which intends to facilitate the management of property frozen in view of later confiscation, requires Member States to introduce measures aimed at ensuring an adequate management of such property, notably by granting powers to realise frozen property, at least where it is liable to decline in value or become uneconomical to maintain.


  1. Learn Chinese In Korean Cartoon?
  2. A Sense-of-Wonderful Century: Explorations of Science Fiction and Fantasy Films.
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  4. Index of /page_1.

Oggetto: Junk Food: il cibo spazzatura verso un'armonizzazione fiscale europea. Interventi simili sono stati adottati in Francia la taxe soda sulle bevande gassate zuccherate, circa due centesimi di euro per lattina ed in Danimarca la tassa sul cibo ricco di grassi saturi, come snack e merendine, di circa 2 euro per chilo. Negli Usa, molti Stati applicano da tempo una tassa sulle bevande zuccherate dell'ordine del per cento del prezzo. Secondo le informazioni a disposizione della Commissione nel la Danimarca ha aumentato l'imposta su cioccolato e dolciumi la cui introduzione risale al Tale legislazione si applica ai prodotti confezionati ad alto tenore di zuccheri, sale o caffeina.

Al momento la Commissione non ha intenzione di occuparsi di normative europee sulla tassazione di determinati tipi di alimenti o di additivi alimentari. A study project has been set up in Italy to introduce a tax on junk food. Its purpose is to reduce the risk of excess weight and obesity. Studies conducted on the American population show a clear positive relationship between the consumption of soft drinks and body weight, above all among young people the relationship is only doubted by the studies sponsored by the soft drink industry.

Among adults, the obesity rate is However, the most alarming statistics are those regarding child obesity. An obese child has a greater risk of developing chronic illnesses as an adult. Obesity is, to all intents and purposes, a public health problem since, besides reducing the quality of life and work capacity, it is a risk factor for numerous chronic illnesses, such as hypertension, type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, the treatment of which requires considerable resources.

Does the Commission intend to start a specific study on this issue, so as to arrive at a clear European law, taking account of fiscal best practices and the measures already adopted by Member States, given the need to correct externalities and information gaps in the food and drink market? These programmes could be realised by allocating part of the tax revenue to health promotion for the categories most at risk both in schools, with the involvement of parents, and in healthcare structures through a promotional campaign for healthy eating, through improvements to the food supplied in hospitals and through limits on access to hyper-calorific products from automatic dispensing machines and hospital bars.

The Commission is aware that some EU Member States have introduced food taxes as a public health instrument. According to the information available to the Commission Denmark increased the tax on chocolate and confectionery in it was introduced in It applies to packaged products with high sugar, salt or caffeine levels.

There is limited experience with these type of taxes in Member States and limited knowledge of the impact of such initiatives on overweight and obesity trends. For a record of the most recent meeting on the issue the Honourable Member can consult the report at:. La plastica segnala quando subisce danni diventando di colore rosso. Tale cambiamento provoca la tipica colorazione rossa. A new material which can self-repair when it is damaged has been designed by a team from the University of Southern Mississippi. The innovative plastic imitates the ability of human skin to heal over.

The plastic reveals when it has been damaged by turning red. Then, if exposed to sunlight or artificial light, which causes changes in its temperature and pH, it can repair itself. The self-repair mechanism consists of long polymer chains that are crossed by small molecular links known as bridges.

When the plastic is damaged or cracked, the bridges break and modify their shape. This change causes the typical red colouring. Therefore, when the plastic becomes damaged, it will be possible to see this easily through the red mark that forms around the lesion. The new plastic is a sign of innovation and progress compared to other plastics which can only self-repair once. The product developed in the United States works just like human skin and can self-repair forever. Considering that this new material could have great potential and numerous applications, is the Commission aware of the innovation and does it consider that there would be environmental or human health risks should it be used in Europe?

The Commission is not aware of the specific innovation referred to by the Honourable Member and has no data on possible environmental or human health risks. However, if appropriate, the Commission will consult its risk assessment bodies and Scientific Committees if the use of these materials would give rise to any concern. Oggetto: Una regolamentazione per il crowdfunding.

Come nuovo strumento per la raccolta di capitali, il cosiddetto crowdfunding sta avendo un impatto in tutta Europa. Tuttavia, per questo tipo di piattaforme non risulta ancora chiaro se possa applicarsi la normativa europea in materia di tutela degli investitori e di rendicontazione finanziaria o se si debba far riferimento alle normative nazionali in materia di fundraising e strumenti finanziari.

Il crowd-funding potrebbe rappresentare un mezzo economicamente efficace per aggregare tanti piccoli contributi, individuare potenziali finanziatori e integrare le fonti tradizionali di finanziamento. A new tool for raising capital, so-called crowdfunding, is having an impact throughout Europe. Crowdfunding has been used as a model for funding the most diverse start-up ventures on platforms such as growvc.

However, it is still not clear whether European legislation on the protection of investors and financial reporting can be applied to this kind of platform or whether national legislation on fund-raising and financial instruments should apply. Can the Commission therefore say what rules are applicable with regard to the legal status of crowdfunding platforms and investors and to the ways of accessing funding through crowdfunding, also stipulating what legislation on financial market instruments should cover crowdfunding? Crowd-funding could offer a cost effective means for aggregating together many small contributions and locating potential backers, supplement traditional funding sources.

In practice, the funding provided can take a wide variety of complementary forms — from more traditional risk financing through to types of donation or forms of pre-payment for services. Given the variety in funding mechanisms on offer and nascent form of the models, the interaction of these models with regulatory requirements across the financial services will vary. Given this variety, a first step in order to ensure that the appropriate regulation is in place is to obtain greater clarity on the different forms of crowd-financing and the scope and nature of the services being provided.

Crowd-funding could become a vital source of potential funding for growth, social and cultural innovation across Europe. The Commission will follow developments closely, from a regulatory perspective as well as a policy perspective. No ano passado, este prazo era de quatro meses. He indicates the relative novelty of a scholastic Latin commentary applied to a vernacular poem. Boccaccio was invited to lecture on Dante in Florence, an event viewed by Eisner as a return of the exiled poet.

Boccaccio equated his deteriorating health to punishment for lecturing on Dante. For Eisner, this proves that Boccaccio viewed himself as an agent of the vernacular tradition. In acting as biographer, editor, and scribe, Boccaccio advanced the vernacular and created a space for his own literary works. Scholars deciding to develop any of the countless spunti unearthed by Eisner will be aided by his thorough review of literary criticism and extensive endnotes. This book is invaluable for those who wish to move beyond a general comprehension of the tre corone, and understand exactly how they coalesced.

Michael J. Feng, eds. Farnham: Ashgate, On a literary level, the essays reflect also on the metapoetic moments created by Stampa, convincingly exploring her strategic use of playing with multiple poetical personae within her oeuvre. They provide a nuanced reading of her adoption of the Ficinian theory of love in order to aim for a more complex view on the matter. In chapter 7, William J. Italian Bookshelf This analysis leads to an investigatation of how Stampa coherently challenges the Petrarchan paradigm of desire in embracing a new lover, Bartolomeo Zen, after the end of the relationship with Collaltino.

Italian Bookshelf Paolo Falzone. Bologna: Il Mulino, La dottrina della conoscenza, secondo un assunto aristotelico esplicitamente citato da Dante ad apertura della sua opera Conv. Nella vigna del testo. Per una etologia della lettura, Milano: Cortina, di non poco conto appaiono il quarto e il quinto paragrafo della sezione.

Il grande studioso auspicava la conoscenza ad ampio raggio della cultura e delle preoccupazioni intellettuali di Dante; nel suo lodevole volume Falzone assolve appieno la speranza del lontano — nel tempo ma vicino nelle intenzioni — maestro ideale. Italian Bookshelf John Freccero. Danielle Callegari and Melissa Swain. New York: Fordham University Press, This volume offers a sampling of essays from the singular career of John Freccero, known principally as one of the great North American Dantists. Despite original publication dates ranging from to , the set discloses a remarkably consistent voice and critical practice.

Freccero is a singularly solemn reader; he comes from a school of almost totemic veneration of the canon, and he writes with an enviable depth of erudition. One gets the sense that he is a singularly pious reader as well, as evidenced by the consistent capitalization of pronouns referring to God. At the same time, his critical practice is intimate, with an emphasis on the primary sources — for example, Dante and Augustine — that he puts into play.

Contemporary voices, for example, most of the generation of North American Dantists who came after Singleton, get minimal acknowledgment, as Freccero seems not too terribly interested in having a critical conversation with them. Freccero chose for this volume essays that put Dante and Augustine in play with one another and with other later authors. The result is rather unbalanced, with six essays devoted to Dante and the remaining four addressing Petrarch, Machiavelli, Donne, and Svevo. These essays create an interlace of meaning across disparate passages and scenes, at times relating the seemingly unrelated through a key citation from an Augustine, a Boethius, a Macrobius.

Italian Bookshelf Ages, as his efforts to do battle on the terrain of modernity betray a less firm footing. The mere fact that Freccero feels impelled to make such a claim reflects rather sadly on the pressure that the novel has exerted on our critical thinking, a pressure to which we surrender only at the risk of admitting, uselessly, that non-novelistic forms are somehow inferior. Surely some attentive editing could have eliminated these problems without compromising the overall argument.

The wake that Dante himself leaves, then, for Freccero as a Christian reader, would be perhaps less echo than choice, to follow Dante or Ulysses. For all the value of these essays, it is regrettable that Fordham, one of the few university presses in the United States that reliably publishes in the Italian Middle Ages, would choose to invest in what is principally a volume of reprints rather than a new publication.

At a time of shrinking resources academic publishers would do well to think more expansively. Michael Sherberg, Washington University in St. Pp On the one hand, it sets out to offer teachers a greater understanding of Petrarch, his works, and his legacy in literature and culture; on the other, it proposes to offer pedagogical advice to help teachers in a variety of contexts. The latter section demonstrates pedagogical questions and techniques directed toward teaching Petrarch and Petrarchism for teachers in diverse languages, curricula, and academic institutions.

Thus, the advice offered is practical, based on actual experiences, and not only theoretical. Furthermore, the materials are presented in such a way that a wide variety of teachers can adapt with ease whatever aspects might most benefit their class, whether undergraduate or graduate; in Italian or in English; a survey or specialized seminar. The resources are also presented clearly enough that they readily facilitate syllabus design for numerous course scenarios. A multitude of resources is made available that can assist instructors as they teach in a number of contexts.

For whatever reason, images or screenshots were not included for the digital resources. Such an inclusion would have further strengthened an understanding of these materials for the reader. Particularly useful are the lists of courses, poems, and themes taught by survey respondents as well as volume contributors. The editors openly admit the difficulties found by instructors when teaching Petrarch. Italian Bookshelf with two polls. On one end, there is more teacher-centered, academic, and theoretical information; on the other, one finds more student-centered, pedagogical, and practical advice.

It accentuates many aspects of the teaching process: from lesson planning and syllabus design to execution of in-class activities and student feedback. Let us look at a couple exemplary essays from each variety. He offers four thematic clusters to demonstrate the divergence between Petrarch and Dante. These themes and associated poems could easily be turned into class lectures or even syllabus units. Fiora A. She details typical in- class discussion questions and activities, and shares strategies for helping students who might be new to the material.

She supports her practices with a variety of sources from the scholarship of teaching and learning, not just with observations and results culled from classroom experience. Time and again the editors and contributors provide abundant material and teaching methods, together with the instructions for deploying them successfully in the classroom. These materials and tools provide ample fodder for both sides of the teaching experience: on the one hand, theory, preparation, and course design; and, on the other hand, student-centered, practical, in-class execution.

Italian Bookshelf Christopher Kleinhenz. Dante intertestuale e interdisciplinare. Saggi sulla Commedia. Ariccia RM : Aracne Editrice, Le analisi testuali di Kleinhenz prevedono sempre una lettura puntuale ed estesa del passo biblico in questione. Italian Bookshelf Di esso, che compare nel momento del bacio di Giuda, Dante deve aver fatto un emblema di tradimento, trasferito poi alla scena infernale.

La stessa struttura parallela dei canti, che consente una lettura orizzontale e verticale del poema, avrebbe il suo modello nei mosaici della cupola del Battistero di Firenze , sotto gli occhi del poeta quotidianamente. Concludiamo col primo saggio del volume. Italian Bookshelf Marilyn Migiel. The Ethical Dimension of the Decameron. I due capitoli successivi considerano due novelle della terza giornata: la seconda e la ottava. Francesco Ciabattoni, and Pier Massimo Forni. Italian Bookshelf che tale simpatia non sia ben riposta.

Read the Story of Tofano and Ghita [Decameron 7. Boccaccio offre ai suoi lettori uno sguardo sul mondo disincantato e in divenire, aperto a interpretazioni concorrenti, modellato su personaggi che non sono o buoni o cattivi ma, come qualunque essere umano, un misto di entrambi. Johnny L. II, Firenze: Sansoni, , p. Interessante a proposito notare come, a tal fine, Pio II ricorra a linguaggio, attributi e ideali propri del potere secolare per trasmettere la supremazia del papa sia nella sfera temporale che in quella spirituale.

Italian Bookshelf Kristina M. According to Olsen, Dante possessed a strong sense of nostalgia for the aristocracy, and for him cortesia was an essential bygone element of courtly life. Olsen concludes her introduction with an examination of Boccaccio as dantista, his distinct view of cortesia, and the need for it to be nurtured as a civic ethos in the factionalized city of fourteenth-century Florence. The first chapter treats the history of cortesia as Boccaccio expressed it in his literary works, focusing especially on the greed and incivility of the Florentine elite.

Each chapter is divided into sub-categories which support and reinforce the principle theme of the chapter. Italian Bookshelf Florentine banking crisis, which, she argues convincingly, coupled with the Black Death severely changed the social and political orders of Florence. Because of the astronomically high death rate during the plague, the elite families were reduced in both size and political influence, thereby allowing the gente nuova to gain power. Enumerating the vices which Dante mentions in Inferno 16 and Paradiso 16, and which Boccaccio reiterates in Decameron 9.

The first of these is Cangrande della Scala, who generously hosted Dante in his exile, and to whom Dante refers in Paradiso In the final chapter, Olsen suggests that Boccaccio intended to create a future for cortesia through his portrayal of certain historical figures. While her study is intellectual, it is not overly academic, which produces an enjoyable and very informative work. Alfred R. Italian Bookshelf Franco Pierno, ed. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, He next explores the case of the Visions of St.

Leandro Alberti, however, in his Vita della Beata Colomba da Rieto , makes his own linguistic and editorial role much clearer, directly stating his purpose of making the life of the mystic accessible to all Italians. He demonstrates the distinction between these two approaches with examinations of sermons by Bernardino and Girolamo Savonarola. Savonarola, he writes, preaches in the old Dominican style, while Bernardino prefers a narrative style of preaching through exempla.

Coletti concludes that Bernardino is the more modern preacher of the two. The first texts in the Lombard volgare, Polimeni explains, had the goal of esplanimento, making accessible the word of God. Italian Bookshelf conjunctions and other intra-phrasal connectives. Confraternities that often sang laude in public would have almost certainly exposed any writers in Florence or Bologna to this genre. She argues that many of the images and other elements said to tie profane poetry to laude could actually point to Latin hymns or to the Marian imagery of the courtly love tradition.

Instead, she identifies a lexical change in the descriptions of the beloved in the stilnovo poetry of the s and s, in particular in pseudo-latinisms present in the laude but absent in more prestigious genres, concluding that, while we cannot determine the extent, some contact must have occurred between laude and secular poetry. She concludes by stressing the importance of metaphorical language for Benivieni, including that language borrowed from Bonaventure. Italian Bookshelf in Italy. From her vast data set, she is able to identify the regions in which the practice is most and least frequent as well as the most common sources for religious names.

Overall, the volume makes strides towards a better understanding of a number of early Italian texts of linguistic interest and points to rich avenues for future research. Historians of language will find this book of particular value, but it will also be of interest to literary scholars working on the period. Italian Bookshelf Christian Rivoletti.

Venezia: Marsilio Editori, Rivoletti dimostra come il poema ariostesco funziona come un intertesto per varie opere letterarie successive al Furioso. Lo studio include anche un capitolo dedicato alle arti figurative con illustrazioni a stampa, dipinti ed affreschi di artisti di considerevole rinomanza. Il capitolo quarto e quinto presentano la ricezione del poema ariostesco in Germania nel periodo romantico. In seguito Rivoletti analizza il famoso saggio sulla poesia sentimentale di Schiller che descrive come il poeta moderno non vive un rapporto diretto e armonico con la natura tipico del poeta antico Lo studioso menziona anche diversi esempi di interpretazioni artistiche, comprese le dodici acquaforti di Daniel Niklaus Chodowiecki , gli affreschi di Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld per il Casino Massimo Lancillotti a Roma ?

Italian Bookshelf Sherry Roush. As the author acknowledges in her opening comments, what began as an examination of Italian Renaissance ghost stories developed into a study focused on how and for what purposes early modern Italian authors gave voice to the spirits of prominent, deceased figures from the past.

The study consists of four chapters preceded by an ample Introduction on the essence of eidolopoeia in both antiquity and the works of Dante, Petrarch and Boccaccio. In the chapters that follow, the author examines some of the ways eidolopoeia influenced various outcomes in the literary, legal and political spheres. Girolamo Malipiero prefaces his Il Petrarcha spirituale with a prose dialogue between himself and the spirit of Petrarch who pleads with him to correct his error in praising Laura instead of Jesus or divine love. In all three cases, Roush demonstrates how well the authors engage with the spirits of the texts in question — in both senses of the word — and how the use of spirit messengers bestows a special status upon the authors as percipient interlocutors.

Italian Bookshelf influence. She highlights how Boccaccio uses the story to renew interest in the Commedia and its author as well as to elicit feelings of guilt among Florentines for their civic ingratitude. Though his remains were never returned to Florence, Roush argues convincingly, Florentines compensated by reclaiming his spirit: the corpus in lieu of the corpse. Italian Bookshelf Rocco Rubini. Elements of its intellectual culture, on the other hand, have often exhibited a peculiar stubbornness when it comes to finding a home abroad.

In the minds of many, it is as if Italian thought flourished during the Renaissance and never quite recovered. Many of the key figures under discussion might be unfamiliar to readers not steeped, as Rubini is, in Italian intellectual history indeed, most are not even read by Italianists these days.

Yet there is no doubt that Rubini succeeds in showing that these figures were engaged, in different ways, in as ambitious and interesting a project as their better-known counterparts in Italy and abroad. This project involved undertaking a quite vast intellectual archaeology in the service of a cultural and political revitalization of the Italian spirit, in short, a way of forging the future from a re-reading of the past. In chapter 1, Rubini offers readers a panorama of 19th- and early 20th-century Italian philosophy through the lens of Vichianism.

Through analyses of thinkers like Cuoco, Gioberti, Balbo, Spaventa, De Sanctis, Villari, Gentile, Croce, and Gramsci, the author traces a tradition of modern Italian thinkers for whom the struggle for a new intellectual and political identity came to be predicated upon a critical interpretation of the Renaissance and its political failures. Focusing on Spirito, Calogero, Castelli, and especially Abbagnano, this chapter reconstructs their attempt to achieve existentialism as a reinvention of Renaissance humanism, one which construed individuality as a historiographical act.

Rubini focuses, in chapter 3, primarily on the figure of Ernesto Grassi, whom he refers to as the first Italian Heideggerean, along with the emergence of the anti-humanist tradition in the Italian philosophical landscape. In the 4th chapter, Rubini turns instead to Eugenio Garin and the fusion of Hegel and Heidegger in his thought, along with his massive contributions to Renaissance studies. A brief review does little justice to the thorough, intricate nature of The Other Renaissance, so I will conclude by saying that it represents intellectual history at its finest.

I recommend it not only for its content, but for its style, too, which manages to be both engrossing and engaging without sacrificing any of its rigor. Dylan J. Montanari, Ph. Italian Bookshelf Agostino Valier. A cura di Francesco Lucioli. Cambridge: Modern Humanities Research Association, Questo filone comprende opere eterogenee come Del reggimento e de costumi delle donne di Francesco da Barberino, Regola della vita matrimoniale di Cherubino da Spoleto, le opere di Giovanni di Dio Decor puellarum, Gloria mulierum e Palma virtutum I testi di Juan Luis Vives De institutione feminae Christianae, e Dolce costituiscono un momento di rottura, focalizzandosi sulla donna cristiana.

Come vescovo, Valier aveva promosso iniziative educative e assistenziali di carattere pratico, come la fondazione di associazioni, scuole, seminari e monasteri. I Ricordi vengono pubblicati separatamente, lo stesso anno, presso lo stesso stampatore, a cura di Zini. Secondo il curatore questo farebbe dei Ricordi una sorta di appendice al volume sui tre canonici stati femminili. In venetia per Bolognino Zaltieri. Bologna, Biblioteca Universitaria, A. Appresso Bolognino Zaltieri. Verona, Biblioteca Civica, Cinq. Le note riportano le fonti anche se non esplicitate dal testo di Valier.

Espagne, France, Italie. Paris: Presses Sorbonne Nouvelle, Seguono quattro ulteriori indagini condotte da Pedro M. Passeri, sul finire del secolo decimottavo, oscillante fra riscrittura e plagio. Italian Bookshelf questa donna volitiva e indipendente in una rigida e stereotipata agiografia. La ricercatrice spazia poi nella ricca fioritura di biografie prodotta dalla veneziana Accademia degli Incogniti di cui fu adepto lo stesso Loredano. John C. Dublin: Four Courts Press, The volume, War and Peace in Dante: Essays Literary, Historical, and Theological contains ten essays that had been public presentations.

Barnes, was based on a lecture he gave in University College Cork in February The volume constitutes the tenth collection of essays compiling the talks from the annual Dante Lecture published by Four Courts Press. The opening essay, composed by John C. Barnes, also serves as a type of introduction to the entire volume in which he discusses the general concept of war. Dante, Barnes notes, never rejected warfare outright, only unjust wars.

For Dante war could be a noble pursuit, at times waged by glorious warriors for just causes. Barnes concludes that Dante was no pacifist but rather he accepted war as part of the human condition. Subsequently, theologians grappled with the Christian justifications for war. Augustine wrote that it was just to wage wars to avenge injuries, and as a consequence or remedy of sin. Aquinas stressed that three conditions needed to be met for a war to be just: 1 the war needed to be declared on the authority of an appropriate ruler; 2 the causus belli needed to be just; and 3 the warriors needed to possess the right intentions when waging war.

Rather, Dante seemed to believe that the God-given mission of the Empire exempted it from waging only just wars. Skoda explores the profoundly destructive effects of war on society. Through the rules established for them, just wars preserve the social order in much the same way as a judge secures peace by enforcing justice. Conversely, unjust wars produce chaos; they are declared by tyrants who seek personal aggrandizement rather than civil harmony.

The following two essays turn the focus of the volume from historical matters to literary topics. In the fourth chapter, Barnes discusses the episode in Inferno when demons of Dis deny Dante and Virgil entry to the city. Barnes reads the passage as a siege, listing its references to military engineering, and concluding with the angel who forces open the gate. Milner looks at war as the thirteenth-century metaphor for tenzoni. As Dante received the notion from Brunetto, tenzoni were the legal cornerstones for the Italian comuni. Lombardi discusses the theme of peace and discord that runs through the infernal circle of lust.

The final four essays change direction and explore not war but peace in Dante. Matthew S. According to Kempshall, Dante defined peace as a unity of wills among citizens relative to one another, and relative toward their ruler. The other essays deal with peace defined metaphorically rather than literally, to wit, they all discuss the spiritual notion of peace.

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In his essay, Spencer Pearce explores spiritual peace as reflected in Purgatorio, while Vittorio Montemaggi examines it from the perspective of Paradiso Both scholars come to similar conclusions: peace occurs when individuals overcome their personal differences to arrive at a state of concord with another.

For Dante, peace has a positive connotation, indicating a self-fulfillment, while for Petrarch it is negative, suggesting the absence of a psychological tension. While the first half of the volume examines Dante from a social or political point of view, the second half discusses him in the context of medieval theology. As such it makes an important contribution to Dante scholarship in the twenty- first century.

Milano: Ledizioni, Italian Bookshelf esegetico, prediligendo Lombardi le varianti con forme vocaliche piene e corroborando le note su una solida base documentaria. Italian Bookshelf Natalia Costa-Zalessow, ed. New York: Bordighera Press, The anthologized poems, arranged chronologically with facing translations by Joan Borelli, are drawn from seven books published between and La chitarra, Il violino, Lo stipo, La selva di cipressi, her sacred narrative poem Cecilia martire, La selva di Diana, and La tromba di Parnaso.

The poems are accompanied by historical and lexical footnotes in both languages and, when only excerpts from a given work are provided, a long dotted line signals the omission of a full line or more of verse. Borelli provides concise explanations of the major metric forms adopted by Costa — sonnets, ottave, canzonette, and idylls — and traces the history of each, from Giacomo da Lentini to Petrarch to Bembo, from Boccaccio to Ariosto to Tasso, and from the Sicilian School through the seventeenth century.

Italian Bookshelf Giovan Battista Marino. Dicerie sacre. Introduzione, commento e testo critico a cura di Erminia Ardissino. Roma: Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura, Diceria prima sopra la Santa Sindone, La Musica.

Diceria Seconda sopra le sette parole dette da Cristo in croce, Il Cielo. Italian Bookshelf Lara Michelacci. Bologna: Pendragon, Italian Bookshelf Zuccari, in arte Neera. Per quanto Giacinta abbia come interlocutori principali i modelli francesi Dumas fils, Balzac, Zola , il dialogo tra lo scrittore siciliano e Neera si rivela fondamentale. Nel terzo capitolo, Michelacci analizza Profumo, in cui Capuana muove verso i territori della patologia fisica. Profumo rappresenta probabilmente il passaggio fondamentale verso questa revisione critica. Italian Bookshelf Katharine Mitchell.

Focusing primarily on the works of La Marchesa Colombi , Neera , and Matilde Serao , Mitchell situates these writers in the context of post-Unification Italian literature, specifically, and Italian literature, in general. In the first two chapters that follow her introduction, Mitchell begins by guiding her readers through the literary history leading up to the emergence of Italian women writers in the mid to late s.

She characterizes the readers and writers of Italian domestic fiction as having a great deal in common and forming a type of solidarity since they were often from the middle and upper classes in cities such as Naples, Rome, Milan, etc. Domestic writing, for Mitchell, encompasses a variety of genres, from novels and short stories to conduct books, etiquette books, essays, and articles.

While noting forms of solidarity among these women, Mitchell is also attentive to class and family differences as Italian women readers, whose everyday lives in the late nineteenth century revolved around the home, often lacked the high public profiles of the writers. In chapter four, Mitchell begins by exploring the question of whether there is a difference between a feeling and an emotion before ultimately asserting that she will deal with the two terms interchangeably. Her final chapter on female friendships, sibling relationships, and mother- daughter bonds discusses the solidarity that began to emerge in post-Unification Italy between middle-class women writers and readers which would go on to form a recognizable political female community and progressive social change.

She once more stresses the shared backgrounds between the women writers of this period and their readers. Her thorough close readings illustrate her points and are informative. Additionally, her theoretical apparatus sufficiently informs each chapter, and her incorporation into the text of reflections on romantic opera serves as yet another opportunity to better understand this literature.

Italian Bookshelf Charlotte Ross. Sameness and Eccentricity. Discourse on Lesbianism and Desire between Women in Italy, ss. Oxford: Peter Lang, For this reason, she has divided her book into three chronological parts: , , and ; each part is then divided into three chapters, the first of which is devoted to examining scientific or pseudoscientific texts while the last two chapters are meant mainly to analyse fictions. In the first part Ross explores medical debates on sexual degeneration of the late 19th century showing how the pathologization of homosexual behaviours was at times affected by an ambivalent vision of the subject of desire between women.

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The same happens to the motive of fiamma, the flame-like love between young girls in schools represented in many essays and fictions either as a step towards heterosexual love or as a form of corruption to be kept under control. This coexistence could have been a beginning of a different history, but the third part shows the long lasting effects of the fascist strategy of ghosting female homoerotism: desire between women got increasingly silenced as the regime imposed a conception of woman as mother and housewife which still underlies the current vision of woman in Italy.

Italian Bookshelf Italian culture between s and s. To begin with, Ross has carried out an innovative treatment of the subject at the heart of Sameness and Eccentricity, which is inspired by a theoretical shift from gay and lesbian studies to queer theory. Therefore, this factor might open up a further strand within studies on sexuality which could produce a theoretical reflection on such a hybrid relationship between past and present.

A second point of interest of Sameness and Eccentricity lies in the relationship between representation and experience at its core. Such an episodic instability leads to questioning the priority of representation or experience in a cultural perspective and draws attention towards the circulation of role models as a cultural repertoire allowing individuals to perceive their own sexual identity in social and performative terms.

The relevance of a sociocultural repertoire leads to a further issue concerning fiction as the most structured and mediated form of representation. The texts analysed in Sameness and Eccentricity belong to different genres, but the analytic key is steady: since Ross aims at deghosting desire between women as a matter of sameness and eccentricity, she mainly evaluates the degrees and the variations of the textual presence of female homosexuality, thereby approaching texts as cultural documents.

Italian Bookshelf this kind of reading is actually suitable for fictional texts, since they do not deal only with cultural inputs, but also with rules concerning modes and genres, rhetorical figures, and intertextual features such as quotations, parody, rewriting. On the contrary, it is aimed at comparing the results of her research with a different relationship between cultural approach and literary criticism. In this regard even the typically frequent, unhappy endings might be read as textual devices to escape censorship and paradoxically assert the right to narrate female homosexuality.

As a final and general consideration, we might eventually ask ourselves how a dialogue between queer approach and close reading would make it possible to include literary criticism within an overall cultural research. A possible solution would lie in a shared methodological reference to thematology, which is nowadays much more focused than previously on representation as an encounter of communicative strategies and socio-anthropological issues. The Atheism of Giacomo Leopardi.

Troubador: Leicester, Chapter one outlines the philosophical evolution which led Leopardi from the youthful Inni cristiani to the dark negativity of the poem dedicated to Ahriman. Both chapters three and four are comparative in nature. Both Mont Blanc and La ginestra are predicated on the overlap of philosophy and poetry, which produces the only space where what is beyond matter — infinity, for example — can be imagined or conceived through the artifice of language.

Beside the emotional affinities, Veronese and Williams are quick to point out also the differences between the noblewoman and the Recanatese, primarily his empiricist and materialistic position, which ascribed thought to the realm of matter, denying the possibility of any knowledge within the spiritual dimension. Unlike Christian consolation, which perceives human solidarity as giving life purpose and meaning, the one proposed by Leopardi is of classical origins primarily Epictetus ; it is a conflation of amor proprio and amor patrio, a sentiment guided by the recognition of the truth and inevitability of human suffering and of the limitation posited by nature to the human existence.

The particular attack grants a tone that the authors see as prophetic and philosophical. The same vox clamans in deserto, marginal and isolated, that had characterized Brutus and Sappho, returns here with the authority of the biblical tradition, where the presence of Solomon, Job Old Testament , and Christ New Testament is significant at many levels of the exegesis. Unquestionably the first to offer a new socio-historical, for some exceedingly Marxist, reading of the Recanatese, with Leopardi progressivo Luporini revolutionized the analytical paradigm, opening the possibility to new critical perspectives.

Speaking in persuasive ways, Giacomo Leopardi encourages us to continue to examine his work and to accept its challenges. Enlightening Encounters: Photography in Italian Literature. Toronto Italian Studies. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, , Enlightening Encounters focuses on the relationship between Italian literature and photography which has long been overlooked by scholars. The editors highlight sociological implications engendered by the encounter of visual and written codes, and socio-historical factors are singled out as responsible for the complex, peculiar exchange between Italian literature and photography.

The lack of scholarly studies is attributed to the identification of culture with high art by Italian academia, which has led to a disregard towards studies on interactions between literature and visual arts, such as photography and cinema. Through case studies on works of a different nature e.

The eleven essays, structured in four sections, follow a metaphorical progressive merger between narrative and photography. Copiously referring to and questioning theoretical reflections on photography, mostly by Barthes and Benjamin, the whole book engages with the problematic, paradoxical nature of photography in the particular case of Italy. Stressing its objective and subjective nature, temporal and spatial ambiguity, power of denoting and connoting, witnessing an absence and a presence, conveying reality and illusion, Enlightening Encounters makes the reader aware of the unusual dual status of photography.

On the one hand, Lolla highlights the narrative use of photography as a device that stood not for reality, but that created a fiction within a fiction e. On the other hand, she scrutinizes the use of the alleged invisibility of photography in literature and social sciences. Sociological implications of the encounter between Italian literature and photography, and the tensions generated by them, are further explored in two contributions from different sections. Enlightening Encounters has the merit not only of shedding light on a neglected field of Italian Studies, but also of doing so by accompanying readers on a journey that provides them with multiple occasions for reflection.

As the editors hope, the book succeeds in helping to pave the way for further research in the interaction between words and images in particular historical periods, specific literary genres and thematic studies. Italian Bookshelf Joseph A. My Three Sicilies. New York: Bordighera, Le tre sezioni sono precedute da una prefazione di Suzanne Noguere. Rosalia costituisce per Amato non soltanto una figura di riferimento che tiene le redini della famiglia e della cucina di casa, ma si profila anche come una maestra di vita a tutto tondo.

Italian Bookshelf biglietto per far venire lo sposo promesso, Vincenzo, questi arriva in America molto malato e muore non appena sbarcato. La sezione si conclude con una poesia che ripercorre la visita al cimitero di Detroit dove sono sepolti i suoi cari. Italian Bookshelf Sean Anderson. Modern Architecture and its Representation in Colonial Eritrea. An In-visible Colony, Farnham UK : Ashgate, Nella Preface pp. Il primo capitolo, Displaced in the Sun pp. Italian Bookshelf marginalizzazione e alla valorizzazione di un concetto altamente politicizzato e di propaganda del moderno.

Italian Bookshelf Paolo Bartoloni. Sapere di scrivere. Svevo e gli ordigni di La coscienza di Zeno. Catania: Il Carrubo, His contribution to our understanding of Svevo, moreover, in addition to new insights, also addresses a longstanding tradition in the critical reception of the Triestine author. The second chapter offers a genealogy of La coscienza, outlined in letters and diary entries, as well as in the climactic progression in a streamlined character development from Alfonso and Emilio to Zeno.

The strongest parts of the book are the third and fourth chapters, in which Bartoloni reads La coscienza with philological meticulousness first, and theoretical acumen later. Bartoloni reveals his interpretative coordinates when he places Svevo in the context of the Mitteleuropa that produced novelists such as Robert Musil, Franz Kafka, and Joseph Roth. It is indeed surprising how the scholarship on Svevo and Joyce abounds in biographical anecdotes that trace mutual influences, but registers a scarcity in comparative and intertextual readings. The result of this mutual interpenetration is a union between subject and object, between organic and inorganic life, that generates the quasi-subject and the quasi-object.

The result is a dense and broad network of critical approaches and evocative suggestions. The volume remains a highly recommended book and a welcome addition to Svevo Studies. Italian Bookshelf Marco Bellardi, Uno smisurato equilibrio. Le Conclusioni e la Bibliografia chiudono, efficacemente, il volume. Italian Bookshelf Stefania Benini.

Pasolini: The Sacred Flesh. In her thorough study of Pier Paolo Pasolini, Stefania Benini tackles a major and complex theme of his work, that of the Sacred, a theme that has caused critical problems and raised interpretative questions for many scholars. Most of them underline the strong influence that thinkers such Mircea Eliade, George Bataille and the ethno-anthropologist Ernest De Martino had on Pasolini. No resurrection is possible on either cross. What interests Pasolini is the immanent dimension of the sacred flesh.

Italian Bookshelf Chapter three thoroughly examines the work Bestemmia that was both a screenplay and a poetic text. However, it never became a film and it would have been interesting if the author had ventured to speculate on a possible reason for its not becoming film and therefore why it remained just a text — written language, which, for Pasolini is an inadequate representation of reality. Francis did not want to explain Christ, but make Him present to his followers. So does Pasolini, who does not want to represent Francis, but to make him act on the screen.

And of course, the attraction for this character is based on his diversity, on his being an outsider who rejected the bourgeois condition. Pasolini: The Sacred Flesh is an extensive and well-researched study. If there is a weakness, it is the excess and length of citations, especially those of secondary sources, and the frequent repetition of major points that weigh down this otherwise very enlightening study.

This anthology, which is obviously a work of great collaboration, passion, and dedication will remain a foundation for the field of Italian Diaspora Studies, and as the field continues to grow, I envision further editions. Poets of the Italian Diaspora represents the work of modern and contemporary Italian poets late 19th and 20th century who have resided and written abroad. Following Matteo, Francesco Durante offers seven critical and cultural considerations to the reader as a preface to enter the text with an open perspective.

From there, the anthology introduces the collection alphabetically, by country, highlighting the work of roughly 80 poets, which is an amazing feat. The poetry itself runs the gamut, not focusing especially on migration but touching a variety of themes. Moreover, whereas the poets chosen embody numerous places throughout Italy, no particular region is accentuated. The layout of the anthology is easily accessible. With few exceptions, almost every page is bilingual, and when the poet did not write originally in Italian, the translation is provided at the bottom of the page.

Italian Bookshelf endnotes would improve this aesthetic aspect as well as being more convenient for the reader. The fruit of the labor of many, this anthology boasts a series of translators who have done a marvelous job manipulating both parola and significato for the reader. The anthology hosts 33 editors and translators from numerous countries, reiterating not only the expansive creative works of the authors themselves, but also the need both to translate and study them.

The translations represent the original voices accurately and stylistically as closely as possible. Although the anthology will advance, and in many ways enhance, the field of Italian Diaspora Studies, a second edition of the work might in fact consider some of the following suggestions. One of the most evident aspects is the amount of space devoted to the authors and countries presented.

Three of the represented countries have fewer than 50 pages dedicated to them, while three others have over pages — one in particular has — which is a significant imbalance of attention. Second, while all the introductions are truly rich and provide the reader with noteworthy background information, there is very little structure amongst them, which seems crucial to the continuity of an anthology.

Some offer a larger historical overview of the migration phenomenon while others begin with a strong critical analysis of select authors and poems. Moreover, as attention to the topic of diaspora poets continues to grow, research revolving around additional countries hosting Italian migrant poets should be included — for example, Russia and Francophone countries such as Luxembourg, along with a larger representation of women poets there are roughly 15 women out of 80 poets discussed. Additionally, the editors might consider inviting another literary critic to offer a second critical model to address the poetry collected, thereby offering more than one critical lens to address this precious literary collection.

In closing, I would like to highlight the laborious efforts of the editors, Luigi Bonaffini and Joseph Perricone. Their book is a wonderful beginning collection that I am confident will be expanded and reworked over time. Italian Bookshelf studies, creative writing translation studies , along with Italian and Italian American studies, and will be utilized by students and academics alike. Destination Italy. Representing Migration in Contemporary Media and Narrative. Along with terrorism, migratory streams are the distinctive feature of our contemporary world, the source of most of the phobias of Western countries and one of the privileged topics of media representations.

Representing Migration in Contemporary Media and Narrative aims to provide a comprehensive overview of this phenomenon by approaching it from several disciplinary perspectives. This choice allows the book to display different points of view: from the mere objectivization of the diasporic subject to a sympathetic yet external and controversial look, and to examples of self-representations. The intersection of these two taxonomies — the media involved and the role of the subject — is the conceptual grid through which the book works as a profitable tool for inquiring into the contemporary world.

The first two essays aim to disclose the field of inquiry from two antithetical perspectives. It is a pleasure to confirm that this volume fulfills such a premise by providing a fundamental and comprehensive instrument to understand this epochal phenomenon of contemporary migrations. Italian Bookshelf Simona Bondavalli. Il presente volume affronta lo studio delle tematiche giovanili nel corpus letterario e cinematografico di Pasolini con esegesi matura e un linguaggio ricco e raffinato. Il secondo capitolo offre un'interessante e chiara analisi di due dei romanzi di maggior successo, Ragazzi di vita e Una vita violenta, che contravvengono ai classici canoni estetici e culturali del Bildungsroman e della cultura borghese.

Il terzo capitolo analizza questo ritrovato ottimismo che trova il suo coronamento ideologico nel romanzo del , Il sogno di una cosa, in cui gli adolescenti descritti sono aperti ai cambiamenti e alle innovazioni della nuova epoca, ma allo stesso tempo hanno un occhio rivolto alle tradizioni. Bondavalli evidenzia in maniera convincente la critica di Pasolini, nei modi ma non nella sostanza, alla rivoluzione del Sessantotto italiano. Italian Bookshelf Bernard J. Bruno, is a son of Italian immigrants, who grew up in Chicago. His parents immigrated to the United States in the early twentieth century for economic reasons.

As Bruno explains, his father fought in Europe in World War I and earned his citizenship certificate through his US Army discharge after he was badly wounded in the battle of Chateau Thierry. Afterwards he completed his studies in law school and was licensed to practice law in the state of Illinois, the Federal Courts, and the United States Supreme Court. It offers a glimpse of the everyday life of Italian Americans in the past with all its nuances, good and bad. In A Tear and A Tear in My Heart, we encounter multiple types of characters, whose paths have crossed with Bruno at some point in his life.

The stories represent husbands and wives, children, families and friends, bosses, petty criminals, priests, and nuns. The wife was responsible for all the housework and chores, including raising the children, but the husband had the right to impose corporal punishment on misbehaving children. That is for the woman. Some stories depict characters who take justice into their own hands after the law fails them. Consequently, Paci runs away and immigrates illegally in a boat to America, cutting all ties to his family. In Chicago he runs into Dante and Vito from his hometown in Italy.

I know that He said that you should not kill but when he boldfaced lied that he told the truth to the Magistrate, that he did not rape my sister, this I could not accept. That is when I decided to do it.

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Paci spends the rest of his life selling popcorn in the street, poor and homeless. Four stories portray his own family: his father, his mother, his aunt, and his granddaughter. Then I find tears in my heart. The mother thinks that she is going to marry him. Italian Bookshelf Massimo Cacciari. Massimo Verdicchio.

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The core principles of the so-called European Constitution seem to confirm this radical indeterminacy: free competition, anti-protectionism, and stability are the ideological pillars on which the European Community is structured. Or better, Europe has chosen to sidestep any far-reaching political project by transforming any political decision — and its own process of integration — into administrative calculation.

For Cacciari, this strategy is an old utopia. The idea of obtaining stability through technoeconomic mechanisms of self-regulation is short-sighted and insufficient to meet the challenges of our time. Nevertheless, the solution cannot be a return to state politics. In the age of globalisation the institution of the modern state, which is intrinsically connected with our idea of democracy, is plainly doomed to be emptied of its power.

So how can Europeans reinvent a politics beyond the state? How can Europe overcome its constitutive weaknesses and give shape to a globally relevant polity? Italian Bookshelf finds a metaphor in Venice, the city of islands, crossroad of globalism and localism. According to archipelago politics, each island is singular and yet connected to the system, neither a liquid melting pot nor a closed identity. The federative pact foedus requires political communication and the capacity to push forward a new European constituent process that acknowledges the epochal shift in which we are living.

Only in this case will Europe be able to play a part, albeit a non-hegemonic one, in the multipolar world to come. The second part of the volume revolves around the theme of empire. Cacciari formulates his idea of empire by reconsidering some key Roman concepts such as the republic, civil religion, citizenship, universal public authority. Nevertheless, in order to survive Rome had to transform and relocate itself. This line of thought leads Cacciari to wonder, in the essays written after September 11, whether there will be a Fourth Rome and, if so, which form it will take.

Since any sovereignty understood in territorial terms is unable to exercise its functions of containment and regulative power, the alternative is stark and dramatic: either we try to devise a polycentric globalization based on a political concept of citizenship which acknowledges the plurality of civitates, nationes, gentes and federates them in great cultural spaces according to different and specific modalities; or we will head toward a scenario of global war between empires that understand domination as the ubiquitous projection of their own economic-military system.

Europe and Empire is sharp, insightful, and painstakingly realistic. Only then will the international academic community be able to measure and discuss the critical acuity and impact of his thought. Italian Bookshelf Giuseppe Antonio Camerino. Primo Novecento. Avellino: Edizioni Sinestesie, In this new collection of essays, Giuseppe Antonio Camerino has gathered together fourteen journal and book articles, reviews, and occasional pieces originally published during the thirty-year period between and Most of them have been retouched and amplified for publication in book form, while one is completely new.

The essays are arranged in chronological order by the four major poets treated. The collection also has an appendix of two additional essays. The other is a review article of a book by Klaus Heitmann that considers the image of Germany in twentieth-century Italian culture, especially in the years just before and in the early years of the First World War.

This discussion of the importance for twentieth-century Italian literature of German and Austrian literature and thought is a topic Camerino has considered in his own books on Svevo of , and on Slataper and Michelstaedter of In the present work, he also identifies and discusses additional, important connections between the two cultures, especially in connection with Dino Campana, Umberto Saba, and others.

In the two succeeding essays, he goes on to consider issues of seeing, darkness, night, nothingness, and death in other poems from both Myricae and the Poemi conviviali in work that is remarkable for the delicacy and sophistication with which the all-important autobiographical issues in Pascoli are treated. These analyses are followed by an essay on echoes of Leopardi in Pascoli. This piece was originally a review essay of a book on that topic by a German scholar in which the two Italian poets are presented in a context in which both Beethoven and Schopenhauer, among others, are cross- cultural presences.

Italian Bookshelf concerns with darkness and nothingness discussed in previous essays, abiding preoccupations that the two decadent poets held in common. In the two essays on Saba, Camerino is working in an area in which he is very much at home: the culture of Trieste in the early and middle years of the twentieth century.

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In these readings, Camerino sketches connections between the psychological and physical wandering of Saba and those of such figures from European history and legend as Odysseus and the Wandering Jew. The essay on Montale is one of the most striking and incisive in the book. What interests Camerino here are the analogies Montale establishes between reflecting surfaces, as, for example, an expanse of water, and his inner sentiments — between a breeze ruffling the surface of the water and a troubling thought or emotion.

Italian Bookshelf Scholars everywhere who work in this field of the primo novecento will be grateful to have these nuanced, philologically rigorous, and carefully historicized essays available in one volume. Italian Bookshelf Rosetta Giuliani Caponetto.