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I would also exclude the English of whom there are many in the Indies. Avril, as already pointed out in this book, died on 18 August following a shipwreck off the isle of Formosa. Antoine de Beauvollier S. To my mind, this enterprise is free of any danger, since all nations have been tried out and it is proved that only Frenchmen and Englishmen [13v. In , the crew of the Moco frigate mutinied north-east of Pulo Way, in the Banda Islands, murdered the captain, and sent the supercargo and seventeen others adrift in the pinnace, Morse, Chronicles, vol.

The book became an instant success, running to four editions in two years. To be truthful and sincere, I should not forego a piece of advice, which is to look carefully at the Danes, especially the pilots, to ensure you hire those who do not get drunk, because I have been subject to this infelicity, and each day ten or twelve were drunk, and at some times more than twenty, with considerable confusion, and danger for the vessel, to the point that several times I suggested to myself, and decided, never to again go to sea on Danish vessels.

This, however, was because the captain himself suffered from such a vice and thus they did were not able to uphold sobriety on board; on the contrary they seemed to delight in seeing some drunk, and if there [14v. And this is what is to be said for that vice commonly found amongst Danes. Quoted by C. When we suffered shipwreck off Formosa the pilots were drunk and sleeping, but that even if it were dry [without alcohol], the ship would have had difficulty keeping itself intact and able to respond, from which you can imagine the universal confusion of all and sundry, the boat being half-full of water [15v.

And another time I embarked in Siam for Bengal, but because that captain got drunk sometimes, putting us once at risk of going down and without any good reason. I wanted then to return to Siam and not continue with that journey. From which we can certainly thank God, for if we had continued on our journey, he [the captain] would have put us all at risk of losing our lives, which all can affirm is a particular disposition dispositione from God.

As to the difficulty to decide upon which flag to fly, [16r. Mark might only encourage [ansa a, Venet. This would lead to great losses and with the threat of war; to be sure the human malice and capacity for misery is very great, and there would only be so much more to fear where avarice and self-interest obscures spirits, much more likely to excite their [16v. With all of this experience teaches the opposite [i.

Mark], while the Danes have not found any opposition and happily undertake the journey and commerce itself. So many private English merchants, who go there and never want to join up with their company, wanting to try their own fortune, do they not pass freely and without impediment across those seas, finding impediment neither from the Dutch nor their own company?

One can suppose that these [Dutch and English companies] would like to force them to join up rather than conduct their [17r. Bernardini della Chiesa, pp. From other letters of della Chiesa, we know that Cima claimed reimbursement of the goods stolen from him by English mariners from the Chinese mandarinate. For this reason, neither French, nor Danish, nor Dutch allow their subjects to go there, nor to undertake commerce or any kind of individual commerce, otherwise their goods are confiscated, they are seized and punished.

The King of Prussia [Frederick I], who is not to be compared with the value and state of this Serene Republic, has tried for two years to undertake commerce, and finds no impediment, neither from the Dutch nor the English [17v. The King of Sweden also sometimes sends every now and again two vessels to India and especially to Surat and Bengal, and on other occasions to Bandar Abbas, even into the Persian Gulf.

And these Swedish vessels have never found any kind of impediment. Chi non tenta, non rosiga he who never dares, never gains is often said by way of a proverb, and the perils are always made out to be larger than they are, and often one fears what is not [18r. What is also true is that the Italian nation, for being held up as the most prudent and astute, is also among other European nations the most envied and hated. Jealousy should not, however, prevent others from operating prudently, usefully and naturally as is their manner, but should on the other hand provide courage and patience in order to suffer, it being better to be envied than to envy and to win sympathy, and with all of these difficulties I would like to say that the remedy is easy.

Firstly, because it [the remedy] would be very easy to have either from the King of Denmark, or from the King [18v. We would adopt their royal standard, as I believe was the case with those merchants of our market who traded with Turkey at times of war between our two countries. They navigated their seas especially under the French flag, and went to trade in those parts. Carrying the flag of a king or European power which might have in those parts fortresses and trading factories is an excellent remedy, and princes give their standards out easily and straightforwardly to captains and merchants upon [19r.

Cima confuses Sweden Svezia and Swiss Svizzera. The general viceroys and top-rank directors too, who are generally to be found in Surat and Bengal, also have the right to give out their license and flags for [those vessels sailing to] Europe. The great possibility, then, to go and trade in all those places subjected by that Crown, whether in China or in the East Indies, or in Africa, with instructions to all the general viceroys and governors of those places to receive, to defend and to help, can only stimulate and never destroy; and that which has been said about these two kings [of Portugal and Denmark] can also be meant and intended [20v.

A survey of the East Indies scene This was something that the Venetian authorities strongly contested. That bishop, who is French and superintendent of the French community campo , as soon as he knew from the interpreter, ordered me not to take it, and I asked for that order in writing, he never wanted to give it to me, and ordered the interpreter to never again come with me to the King [21r. Secondly, because having arrived in those seas, everyone is most free to go where he wants, and settlements are very safe everywhere, although there is more safety, liberty and usefulness in going to those gentile or Muslim trading places than going to those ports and places, which are European.

Cima may have had the model of the free port of Livorno Leghorn in mind, which attracted merchants by offering a freedom from restrictions on the right to reside and to conduct business. David Abulafia, The Great Sea. The latter offered the French full property rights. I, parte III, cap. IX, par. His biography was written by Palys, Un Breton en Indo-chine. As soon as places are taken by Europeans in those parts, they make up a constitution with taxes and duties Gabele e Dacji and instructions as regard weights, as is done in Europe, so that foodstuffs and merchandise are no longer to be had at a [22r.

One, which came full of tobacco, had to leave after several days without the slightest portion of its cargo sold, and only French vessels go there to pick up merchandise and carry it to France. By , this policy was no longer upheld: the Danes, for example, were henceforth allowed to trade in Manila. Colonie Cl. The French had not managed what the Dutch were so good at: producing a stable institutional framework in which native trade flourished and from which Europeans could reap duties.

Similarly, the French never go to marketplaces of the Dutch, Portuguese, English or Danish, but only to those of gentiles and Muslims to trade and bargain, trying to set up their factories in various places, and the English and Danes behave likewise. Private merchants [22 bis r. In Manila, however, it is well worth going to sell Indian merchandise, selling everything at a great price, more than at any other place, because [22 bis v. Dutton, , pp. The [23v. XI, p. Security, Trade and Society in 16th and 17th- century Southeast Asia, ed.

Chinese artisans in Manila ran a good trade producing gold and silver products, mounting pearls and producing jewelry. See also Schurz, The Manila Galleon, pp. Our great piety and devotion in that city and amongst that people is impossible to convey, in such a way it is possible to say that in all truth there is nowhere in the East Indies a city more devout and pious than that one, and Christians more good than [24r.

In , there were said to be over priests in the islands, or more than the total of the Spanish lay population at that time, see Schurz, Manila Galleon, p. There were around I myself in the year sent a petition to meet the Minister of the King of Siam, known as the Barcalon, who is superintendent and supreme judge over all foreign nations, and who is to be found in that city and kingdom, and over the nations and foreign ships that go there, in order that the King grant me the grace of a safe harbour for all Italian ships that were to go there.

He possessed a quinta in Madras on the Mount, like many Englishmen. William Irvine London: J. Murray, , vol. In , the Portuguese flag was flying in the city, although a renewal of the firman in specified that the Portuguese flag could only be flown on Sundays and public holidays. Available digitally at www. Mensaert, Rome: Sinica Franciscana, , vol. VI, p. Here, however, I should not forget to say that in my opinion it would be wise for them [Italian merchants] to be received in transit at the Cape of Good Hope, where there is a fortress and town belonging to the Dutch, both so as to have some rest from journeying as well as provisioning with necessary foodstuffs and water, it being a very commodious place half-way to the Indies.

In Ayutthaya, there are no such heights, but Cima was reluctant to ditch the idea. The medicine which Cima mentions might have been the quinine or cinchona which the French Jesuits Fontaney and Visdelou, Joachim Bouvet and Dominique Parrenin introduced to such good effect at the court in Peking in , although difficult to obtain. That place is copious in all things necessary for this world, and for all peoples both Indian and European.

And as for myself, I have never seen a more apt and more beautiful site than that one, abundant in all foodstuffs and indeed especially for this effect, and it is clear that if there were free stopovers and trade for all, as really [27v. I am astonished that the Dutch do not expect anything from that place of such relevance, or that in peace treaties after so many wars that fortress is not included for those to pass by and go there as they wish. It would facilitate even more the voyages of East Indiamen, for those coming from the Indies to leave their European goods and take on quickly [28r.

Letters of John III, ed. Ford, Cambridge, Mass. S London: Francis Leach, , p. What would not be earned from the duties gabelle would be earned from merchandise. This, however, is not for now but should be foreseen for an appropriate time, for now we need to consider which beach [28v. To the island of Madagascar one can also go for provisioning refreshments, that island being abundant, indeed exquisite, and the Dutch having a factory on that island. In fact, given the shipwrecks in Table Bay during the winter months May and June , when it was frequently lashed by violent northerly and north-westerly gales, the Heeren XVII ruled that Indiamen calling at The Cape should anchor here in order to be better protected.

Theal ed. Struik, , vol. For some context, see C. Then, as to Mozambique, it is not a place to pass by, the air being very bad there and it being the grave of Portuguese travellers, and although the country is very rich, good health is more valuable than anything else in this world. For the seven decades after the closure of Fort Dauphin in , southern Madagascar was judged too dangerous to risk any French activity.

De Propaganda Fide, , p. Neaulme, , Bk I, ch. II, pp. They are not just used to build houses, but also as piles, on top of which [30v] the houses are then constructed, which is how they build given the flooding of the rivers. Their chief occupation is slash and burn agriculture and their staple products are rice and liquor, see Amiran Gonen ed. Leonard Andaya agreed with this attribution in a private communication of 18 March Nicholas Gervaise, Histoire politique et naturelle du royaume de Siam , pt I, ch.

XIV-XV, pp. XVI, pp. I have tried to characterize these different communities in my book Creolization and Diaspora in the Portuguese Indies, ch. And although the houses are made of bamboo, all said one can live there very safely, free from all peril, due to the justice of the land, it being the policy there to grant and maintain the liberty of all nations to go there and to live there from the great commerce undertaken, and which is carried out by the principal mandarins and even by the king, who owns warehouses of all the national [31r.

And this is how other religions are practised, everyone in his own colony and church professing his or her own rites. Indeed, our men of the cloth are held in great veneration by them, in such a way that the same king, when he admits one of us men of the cloth into audience with him, makes [a gesture of] reverence, holding up the right-hand to his forehead [32r. The mandarins, moreover, even the most high up, not only raise their hand, but stand and give the churchmen a cushion on which to sit upon a carpet, as they do to their priests, called Talapoins, who are held in the greatest veneration and are esteemed as a divine thing, living as they do in grand asceticism, eating only rice, Historians of Siam confirm the royal monopoly in these metal and mineral products, Sarasin Virapol Tribute and Profit.

Sino-Siamese Trade, Cambridge, Mass. Aqa Muhammad, a Persian Muslim, was granted the export monopoly in eaglewood by Phra Narai, the Siamese king who ruled between , most of which was shipped to Indian destinations. They spend the greater part of the day and night in their pagodas singing and chanting in front of their idols, to the [32v. III, ch. The friars, however, despite founding to that purpose San Pietro di Montorio in Trastevere, typically trained their missionaries in the Chinese language on Formosa Taiwan , or amongst the large Chinese community in Manila, James S.

Giovanni Battista Morelli O. Della Chiesa was doing at that time. And as this Serene Republic has in Constantinople a college with twelve students, where it is no longer possible to learn Oriental languages, here [in Siam] [33v. Pour une histoire medieval du moyen Mekong Bangkok: Duang Kamol, Boys were to stay five years in the Ottoman capital. Set up in , by there were more than ten young men regularly in attendance. Antoine Hainques M. Tachard provides us with a description on fol. In the church of the aforementioned seminary, Frenchmen compete with Tonkin and Cochinchinese, as well as Peguans, and a few Portuguese.

Those reverend [34v. The exact timing and majesty with which that Church observes the Mass, and the hours, and the way those reverend priests and seminarians go about their functions is indescribable, all in their surplices and with the Bishop officiating, and all those seminarians go into the priesthood and on to the missions raised and instructed with all due zeal and charity. In the Portuguese district, which is very large and contains many people, there is the Church of the Dominicans, one of whom is the Vicar and the Superior, and is at the same time also Vicar [35r.

This church was the first to be founded in this kingdom and the Dominicans were the first to come here, for which this church has always been the parish church of the Portuguese. This he did in favour not of the Dominicans but the M. The mission was built up by Tommaso Valguarnera, named first Superior in After his death in , it was characterized by the long partnership of J.

The relationship between Dominicans and Jesuits in the parish of Ayutthaya was ambivalent: although they prevented Jesuits from going about burying Luiz Madre de Deus O. The problem with authority was not easily settled, because the Bishop was effectively without a diocese Melaka had fallen to the Dutch in Foodstuffs are so abundant and at such a low price that with twelve scudi alone one can live excellently: normally for one paolo one can acquire eight or ten hens; for the same price you can get 16 or 18 chickens; for one paolo you can get or eggs.

One cannot acquire beef publicly, because these gentiles never slaughter oxen, indeed hold them in veneration, but anyone who wishes for it conducts their own slaughter privately. I bought in Pipli and in Siam two large cows for two paoli each, with the liberty of taking and slaughtering them by musket whenever I wanted.

Mendes Pinto had noted in Ayutthaya as many as seven mosques catering for the Moors and Malay communities, numbering as many as The eighteenth-century Carteggio di Pietro e di Alessandro Verri, ed. Fish too are excellent and very cheap. Clothing also costs very little. The currency of the country are small cowries caragoi , which come from Manila, and for one paolo one gets up to one thousand, from which you can appreciate how low the prices are, and whole ships come from Manila carrying them.

In Siam, business is very great [37r. There are two considerable and secure ports in that kingdom: one is in the [interior], but when the water is scarce they only proceed as far as Bangkok twenty miles distant from Siam, where the French have built a great fortress and are based.

But they were chased out by the priest[s? Reginald S. The local currency in Ayutthaya was Pod Duang coinage which was round-shaped, with long, sharp and pointed tips of legs and large holes between the legs. But then he was miserably killed, his wife and children are presently slaves of the King, and I have spoken several times with them. Next to the seaboard there is a large port, called Amsterdam, where the Dutch have houses [38r.

Smithies, Three Military Accounts, p. Phaulkon to Fr. De la Breuille, dated 1 January She was later vindicated via a decree from the Council of State in France, which provided her with a maintenance allowance, Smithies, Three Military Accounts, p. One of the fullest descriptions is left us in the Journal of Gijsbert Heeck, kept between 16 November and 18 October , recently published as A Traveller in Siam in the year Extracts from the journal of Gijsbert Heeck, trans.

In Siam, in other words the capital of the kingdom, where the King resides, every year between 20 and 25 sampans Ciampari come from the cities of China, that is to say partly from Canton and partly from Lochius, with all the Chinese merchandise of all types. One of those ships, although not so large as our ships, still manages to carry more than ours; when [38v. There also come every year ships from Tonkin and from Cochinchina with their own products consisting of silk cloth, sails of silk, and lacquer objects lavori di vernice. Boxer ed. The anonymous reviewer of this book from the Royal Asiatic Society, however, disagrees with this interpretation and sees it rather as the Ryukyu islands.

Yoneo Ishii has compiled a table illustrating how much shipping from the various short and long-distance runs actually docked in Nagasaki. From Madraspatnam come the English, Armenians and Portuguese, who to all regards take with them the goods from that coast and from Tranquebar where the Danes are congregated, but for [39r. Every year, moreover, two Siamese ships travel to Japan, from where they transport all the merchandise of that kingdom, consisting in silks, golden porcelains, decorated with both gold and silver filigree, very beautiful woollen goods decorated with gold, copper, very fine lacquer work, that is to say chests, drawers and boxes and desks and other things from that realm.

Publications, , p. In this long list of international trading contacts, Cima neglects the contacts with the Malay world and further afield. The sandalwood of Timor, the gum benjamin of Laos and Sumatra, the mastic of Cambodia, the camphor of Borneo, the ambergris of the Nicobar islands [40r. Ebony and soapwood are here in great supplies and at a very low price; this serves to colour wood, like Brazil wood, and is worth lire more than 4 paoli and for comestibles ships are sent to Sumatra, Manila, Massawa. Elephants are to be had for a very low price [40v. A ship in Mergui loaded in my time 24 beasts, and they are sold along the Coromandel coast, at best in Masulipatam for to scudi, and each year a great number of elephants are exported, the Mogul ruler and his nobles delighting in these beasts.

IV, pp. Gaspar da Cruz O. Wills, Embassies and illusions. Dutch and Portuguese envoys to Kang-hsi, Cambridge, Mass. The King of Siam sends [for goods] every year from Mergui to Tennasserim by river and then by land and thus into Siam; these merchants transport from Mergui victuals, wine, rice, oil for Sumatra, with a two or three-fold profit. Very little European merchandise goes this way, being of very low value. That being said, there is good profit to be had in false stones [41r. The King of Siam maintains that the King of Cambodia is his subject, who sends him every year a white elephant, which is served upon and treated as if it were a sacred and divine thing.

It eats and drinks from silverware, and the nobility serve upon it, indeed greeting it and heaping reverences upon it. Nails [41v. In Siam, slaves are not to be had so cheaply as in Bengal or the cities of Malabar, but anyone who goes into debt however small remains a slave of his creditor until he pays off the debt, and if the debt is of some size, then the wife and children of the debtor are also enslaved.

I liberated the enslaved wife of a Christian Portuguese for 60 Ticals, which amounts to 33 pieces of gold. IV, letter of 29 April , p. Franciscans and Augustinians actively sought to redeem slaves through payment, or direct intercession with the monarch, while the ever self-interested Jesuits provided loans. There are three possibilities. The Chaumont embassy had indeed obtained the rights to this commercial port, with a French garrison and full sovereignty. However, the French were put off by its distance from Ayutthaya, nor were Phuket or Ligor more attractive propositions, Hutchinson, Adventurers in Siam, , pp.

This suggestion has a close phonetic concordance. And to the other nations there was no harm done whatsoever, which leads me to say that the persecution was purely political and had to do with the said Constance Phaulkon, and had nothing to do with religion, as others have noted. Therefore, as such a secure and useful place, I humbly beseech the prudence of this Most Serene Senate to try to establish a foothold [there] and [found] a place to settle; which I have already tried to do with respect to the Italians around that king, [he] desiring an increase of trade and to have every nation there.

I am more than certain that he will easily concede everything, especially if we send one or two ambassadors [43r. Maldonado S. Michael Smithies Bangkok: Siam Society , pp.

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Giambattista Maoletti O. Norbert de Lorraine, O. M, Memorie Istoriche, vol. See also Albino, Da Roma alla Cina, p. Both receptions were inspired primarily out of formality. A second choice Surat, or Bengal I wanted to give a clear report of this kingdom where I lived for three years , so that everything can be known and so that the [43v. After Siam, the cities of Surat and Bengal, places belonging to the Great Moghul, are excellent for merchandise of all sorts, both for local produce as for imports from various places, and where great freedoms are similarly to be enjoyed.

In Surat, there are the factories of the French, English, Dutch and Portuguese, which are most magnificent and are also fortified and defended by cannons and a few soldiers, besides the three Directors, the first, second and third. Amsterdam: H. Brouwer, , p.

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Besides the three directors there is the bursar, the secretary and other officials, and it is similar in other factories as much as with the Dutch and the English ones. Here they also store those goods from Europe, and this is so that ships do not lose time and are loaded immediately and readied for their journeys or return to Europe, and this is what the Danes in Tranquebar do as well as all the Europeans [44v.

In Surat, there is the convent of the French Capuchin fathers, who have been here for a long time as parish priests and missionaries. The abbots pl. Appiani, C. Appiani was destined to become famous in the Chinese Rites controversy as interpreter to the papal legate Mgr.

VII, pp. Planchet, Missions de Chine et du Japon Peking, , no. There are merchants in Surat who have ten or twelve or more ships, who send them around India and Persia carrying their goods and to buy foreign goods, from which can be conjectured the great traffic and business of that marketplace. When a boat arrives, a list is presented of all the merchandise which it carries, and even before it arrives in port, [the goods] are all sold, because the merchants buy wholesale to then send on for resale in that great country.

The Capuchin diary, however, suggests the Jesuits arrived in see p. Franks, p.

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Wright, Annesley of Surat, pp. The French company, and with them the Jesuits, abandoned the factory at the beginning of the eighteenth century amidst very large debts, and moved to Pondicherry, Malleson, History of the French in India,p. He notes that very few Hindus are here represented. While the Mulla family possessed as many as 34 vessels, and Abdul Gafar could send out fourteen ships together in one year , the usual number was ten.

In Bengal there is, moreover, security and great liberties for all. The French have a most beautiful factory. As to the Dutch and the English, they have two factories, very well fortified and secure. A useful overview of the Armenian early modern trading diaspora is Philip Curtin, Cross-cultural trade in world history Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, , ch. The Dutch factories of this period Cima was referring to would have been Fort Gustavus at Chinsura, founded in next to Hughli, and Casimbazar, with its silk factory, some way further upstream, a comptoir with an opperkoopman.

Balasor, although historically in the Dutch Bengal directorate, is today in Orissa. Hendrick van Schuylenburgh has left us a detailed oil-painting of the Chinsura factory, now in the Collectie Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, which was commissioned by Pieter Sterthemius, director of the Hooghly trading post, in The E. Their principal cloister at Bandel became the Basilica of the Holy Rosary in the s.

Nicholas Tolentino, built in at Nagori, 35 kms north-east of Dacca. VI : ; cf. LXXII, , p. Sainte-Catherine, , 2 vols. Foodstuffs are very abundant and at a price lower than in Siam. Male and female slaves are at a very low price, mothers and fathers selling their sons and daughters. The country is Muslim: however, all told there are more gentiles than Muslims under the Great Moghul. In that place and across the realm of the Great Moghul the gold and silver coinage is minted each year to his liking. It is necessary however to bring silver there, because a lot is to be lost if paying in gold.

A large amount of gold from Sumatra flows there, although it [Bengal] is [47v. Eckford Luard ed. Elias Hesse. Gold-bergwerke in Sumatra, Masulipatam [48r. The Mughal state did not have a policy of promoting Islam, but Islam soon came to be associated with state- recognised control of reclaimed land in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta area, the expansion of wet-rice cultivation, and literacy.

Richard M. Decker, , p. Foodstuffs, however, are expensive, since there is a lot of money [48v] circulating there, given that this island is abundant in gold, so that golden millions flow out every year. Everyday money there is gold, and the very smallest gold coin is worth two paoli; but that gold is not perfect, being alloyed with silver. Many other nations go there, also the Chinese with their porcelains and sugars and for the gold, which is the most perfect across the Indies, speaking of the pure gold in Aren [Acheh? It is very hot there and in the summer the air is fairly bad, not to say terrible.

The majority head for a nearby hill twelve miles away, where they have little houses and live, and from this place drinking water is carried to Bandar Abbas by camel. Khan, Sovereign Women in a Muslim Kingdom. The Sultanahs of Aceh, Singapore: N. Press, , p. At the most some population temporarily displaced by the instability in Siam after stopped there, like the traders Francis Delton and Tyler.

AANW, inventaris nummer How to get a trading venture with the Indies off the ground: how East India companies work months normally went to cooler places like Shiraz to pursue the pleasures of wine and the hunt, but distances were considerable: one favoured destination, the prosperous little town of Lar, was km away.

Bettesworth, , vol. And although Italy is small to sell so much merchandise on, all said and done much more could be sold at a much [51r. Having stated the importance of that trade and Indian commerce and the principal places where one can securely go and live and obtain all that merchandise, with notice of the two doi Venet.

It is already known how the Dutch, like the Danes and the French, in order to exercise that commerce, established merchant companies founded on certain laws and privileges [51v. The Dutch have a certain percentage set aside, and all are brought round to the offices of the company thanks to a generous pay-out to the respective office, in such a way that a [private] official of that company, wanting to ascend the ranks, needs to take into account not only the first directors of the factories and governors of those places and fortresses, but also the acting directors [52r.

It is for this reason that we can speak of a republic known as the Republic of Merchants, because it is they who ascend to the top posts and manage those, but it could also be said that this business is more of a public thing than a private one, or of the company itself, which itself constitutes the government. Alsop for J. Parker, , p. Petrus J. However, only with the greatest difficulty can they achieve that for being obliged to serve the company under all those rigorous conditions. These periodic clampdowns did nothing, however, to stamp out private trade, which tended to be remitted via bills of exchange on the English EIC.

Boxer recounts how Hendrik Cansuis, chief of the Deshima factory in , boasted on his return to Batavia that more private than company trade went on in Japan in his time, The Dutch Seaborne Empire, , p. Indeed, historians like J. This is what is to be known, and it might be thought a very difficult thing [to engineer], but indeed in my opinion this is the least thing, indeed the easiest thing to be entertained.

Is it easier to simply bringing together the merchant and the nobleman? Or, if this [53v. It is a very sure thing that the said capital will soon be found both for the abundance of that money, which many hold to be dead, and for the security of the annual trade balance corrispondenza , and profit. And the greatest advantage and benefit to the public good is to establish directors who are wise and prudent in those [54r. Therefore, even if other trade is not to be conducted there than this, eould it not be a great advantage to use the fruits that can be picked there to pay for all the fruits here, and the rest would stay in the common funds box to the benefit of the trade, and also to extinguish and to restitute the capital borrowed in Europe.

This is how [54v. And of the many whom I have seen in Manila there is one Signor [55r. From all this can be understood how much more use is the profit from trade, just moving things around, the fruits of which make one rich quickly. And I do not doubt from just knowing this, that there [55v.

But I also suspect that, having gone there, and nourished by the great utility and great abundance of the country, very many will return, as is a fact when one turns to look at the Spanish, English etc. Thus a virile and vigorous spirit is required, whilst the action [navigation to the Indies] just by itself is so beautiful, useful, glorious and magnanimous. IV, ch. All said, amongst Christians there are many good people, especially in this city of Venice in questa Dominante , both citizens and amongst the nobles, and proceeding in this [56r.

I said that a special magistrate might have to be created among the Savii or Directors relating [57r. Doing this as a new magistrate in the name of the prince, the rich will more willingly give their money to the said bank, than blind, since by depositing blind according to the occasion and the public needs, due annuities are suspended. Under this new magistrate, these would not need to take place, from which greater ease and promptness will result in filling the said fund.

Having dealt with the way of establishing the fund for the said business with ease and promptness, it remains to be mentioned and to be conceived what laws and privileges need to be established, the laws being the secure bulwark antemurale [57v. I dare not, however, say anything, and reveal how little I know of the sublime and excellent prudence of such experienced senators, supposing that very able and prudent persons will be elected by this Serene Senate, who will concede the capital to then be approved and confirmed publicly.

I just have to say that searching out and looking at the laws constituted by the Dutch and English and others for such a traffic and trade cannot but invigorate and illuminate. All the states of the Great Mogul, from the Indus to the Ganges, are subject to the Muslims, although the greater part of places are all heathen. That monarch possesses many armies, divided into various provinces, to obviate rebellions and to keep those gentiles, who are very sizeable in population, subject.

The thirsting generals often sell places and entire lands for money, and in this manner the French bought that place Pondicherry [58v. In my time, I saw how a Muslim general interceded with part of his army in order to prevent them from building a fortress, making out that such land was not sold for building fortresses, but the French offered fine presents and rupees, which amount to pieces of eight, and not only placated him but obtained another piece of land [59r.

And the Danes, who did not want to give anything, were besieged for eight months and the Muslims, seeing their obstinacy, departed having made some signs not greatly worthy of consideration. The concession from the King does not, however, come to much if the General cherishing the land contradicts him.

Indeed, more depends on the General than on the King, who depends on the report made him by his General. The Dutch still try constantly to enlarge their dominions, notwithstanding the many places and factories taken from the Portuguese, and they buy [59v. Much of the fortification was knocked down in Tranquebar had to pay A recap of what needs to be done, and how to proceed The first thing, then, which I regard as necessary to be able to quickly, fully and prudently conclude this trade and business, is to elect people who are able to inform themselves of everything, and take the notice due, and bring [that information] back to this Serene Senate in order for it to reach the due resolutions.

The election of such people will result in great utility, because they will see much more than I have related here. Indeed, I see such a nomination as necessary, because the things determined by this Serene Senate cannot be resolved with such speed, indeed [60v. The resolutions therefore can be reduced to the following points, namely: 1. According to which route this would be undertaken, whether via Alexandria and the Red Sea, or via the Cape of Good Hope, or via both [61r. In which places to go to establish factories, whether in Siam, or in Bengal, or in Surat, or in one or several places; 4.

If, besides direct passage of the ships, a captain needs to examine the places where factories be set up or to discover uninhabited places so as to have a proper place for refreshment and rest from journeying; India] have spent the winter here and in consequence many Moors, Armenians and other barbarians have settled without the walls of Manila, and in various provinces. Clark Co. From these eighteen points everything else follows, and when the traffic has taken place, those laws will be imposed to stabilise it and to conserve it, and from this everything will depend and happily succeed.

Archives of the Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew. Bound MSS. Kyd, R. Archivio di Stato di Firenze A. Lettera , filza and unnumbered letters following. Ginori correspondence , files MP Archives Nationales, Paris. B4 20, f. Archives of the Propaganda Fide, Rome. Scritture Riferite, Indie Orientali, a. APF Acta, vol. Archivio di Stato di Roma. Assistencia Galliae, Prof. Provincia Japoniae et vice provincia Sinensis. Folder 76, f. Chancellaria de Afonso V , L.

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Inventory ID: Bellin, Nicholas. Suite de la Carte L'Indoustan. Biblioteca Casanatense, Rome. MS Biblioteca da Universidade de Coimbra. Codex Manuel de Ave Maria O. Biblioteca de Ajuda, Lisbon. Bibliotheek van de Universiteit van Amsterdam. Cartes et plans BNF site Richelieu. Fonds Marine, portf. Collection d'Anville, B. India Office Records and Private Papers.

MSS George Diary and Consultation Book. Scattergood Papers, Add. Collectie Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. Historical Archives of Goa at Panaji [H. Receuil de cartes , colloc. Museo Civico di Venezia. Museo Correr, Venice. VOC collection. Kaartcollectie Buitenland Leupe: part of a series of six town plans of Pondicherry from the end of the seventeenth century VEL Overgekommen brieven en papieren, vol. Collectie Aanwinsten Afdeling Kaarten en Tekeningen, nummer toegang 4. AANW, inventarisnummer National Library, Australia, Canberra. Rare Maps collection RM Inventory object Constance et de sa triste fin Printed literature.

Abella, Domingo. Abulafia, David. The Great Sea. Adams, Percy G. Aissaoui, Driss. Conflict and Conversion. Albino, Anna ed. Alden, Dauril. Neil Smelser California: Sage, , pp. Alvarez, Rev. Anagnostou, Sabine. Andaya, Leonard. The heritage of Arung Palakka. Anderson, John. Anderson, Philip. The English in Western India being the early history of the factory at Surat, of Bombay, and the subordinate factories on the western coast. Andrade, Tonio. Walsal, Arasaratnam, Sinnappah. Astley, Thomas ed. Atkinson, Geoffroy. Aubin, Jean. Avril, Philippe. Goodwin, Axelson, Eric. Azevedo, Carlos Moreira ed.

Baldini, Ugo. Barbagallo, Ignazio. The Arabian Seas. Sharpe, Barlow, Edward. Bassett, David K. Baudiment, Louis. Beauchesne et Fils, Beaulieu, General Augustin de. Beckmann, Johannes. Beletsky, V. Belfanti, Carlo Marco. Beltrami, Daniele. Nirit Ben-Aryeh, Debby. Bembo, Ambrosio. The Travels and Journal of Ambrosio Bembo, ed. Bentley Duncan, Thomas. Bernard, Henri. Encounters between Jews and Jesuits, Leiden: Brill, School Press, Beutin, Ludwig. Biermann, Benno.

Michaud , , 82 vols. Biron, Claude. Bontekoe, Cornelis. Ribbius, Bosch, David. Gentil-homme Angevin Paris: Gervais Clousier, Gatty, J. Leiden: Brill, Bowen, H. Blyth, Monsoon Traders. Bowrey, Thomas. Boxer, Charles R. South China in the sixteenth century London: Hakluyt Society, Braudel, Fernand. Out of Italy, Paris: Flammarion: Siam and the Vatican in the seventeenth century Bangkok: River Books, Britto, Fernando Pereira de. Brodrick, James. Brooks, George E. Eurafricans in Western Africa: commerce, social status, gender, and religious observance from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century Athens: Ohio University Press, Brown, Lloyd A.

Bruce, John ed. Farnborough, Hants. Bruijn, Jaap R. Buckley, C. Buisseret, David. Monarchs, ministers and maps: the emergence of cartography as a tool of government in early modern France Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Burn, Sir Richard ed. Chand, , vol. Burnell, John. LXXII, Bynum, W. Nutton eds. Campos, Joachim Joseph A.

History of the Portuguese in Bengal Calcutta: Butterworth Caracciolo, Alberto. Relatione della prouincia del Giappone, scritta dal padre A. Cardon, Rev. Careri, Gemelli. Others now first published in English London: A. Charles Boxer writt. Cassini, Giovanni Domenico. Avec divers traitez astronomiques Paris: De l'Imprimerie Royale, Celestine Elampassery, Fr. Bishop Peter. Roberts, , Challe, Robert.

Paris : Mercure, Chappoulie, Henri. Chardin, Jean. Chaudhury, Sushil. Chaunu, Pierre. Journal du Voyage fait en et Paris: S. Mabre-Cramoisy, Journal du voyage de Siam, ed. Chonlaworn, Piyada. Chupeau, Jacques. Cipolla, Carlo M. Hair, Liverpool University: Dept. Cole, Christian. Millan, Barcelona: Henrich, , 3 vols]. Collani, Claudia von. Joachim Bouvet, S. Collis, Maurice. Combeau, Yvan. Conrad, Glen.

Corneille, Thomas. Correia Afonso, John. Cummins, James S. This article can also be read in J. Coutre, Jacques de. The Memoirs and Memorials of Jacques de Coutre. Security, Trade and Society in 16th and 17th-century Southeast Asia, ed. Cunha, Mafalda Soares da. Curtin, Philip. Cross-cultural trade in world history Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Curto, Diogo Ramada. Dallolio, Alberto. Da Mosto, Andrea.

Dansk biografisk leksikon, ed. Povl Engelstoft Copenhagen: Gyldendal, Mukherjee eds. Indian Merchants and the Decline of Surat, c. Davies, Philip. Debergh, Minako. Defoe, Daniel. De Gubernatis, Angelo. Storia dei viaggiatori italiani nelle Indie Orientali Livorno: F.

Vigo, Dehergne, Joseph. De Jong, Erik. Spink Felicitation Volume : Dellon, Gabriel. De Lucca, Denis. Jesuits and Fortifications. De Pauw, Cornelius. Decker, Dermigny, Louis. Dessert, Daniel. La Royale. Vaisseaux et marins du Roi-Soleil, Paris: Fayard, Dew, Nicholas. Search List collection List digital media. Catalogues of archives are usually arranged in hierarchies - one hierarchy for each collection in the archive. The details on display will be of a record at a particular level of the hierarchy.

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