But it must be confessed that, after the fights at Miahuatlan and La Carbonera, he treated the French prisoners in a proper way, and also gave the Austrians who remained in his hands after the fall of Oajaca every facility of exchange. Everything leads to the belief that the emperor himself, moved by a generous but imprudent feeling, was privy to his escape.
It was soon perceptible that the minister of war took upon himself to move troops, and to give orders directly to the generals, without consulting or even informing our head-quarters, and tacitly abolished the flying-guard placed to secure the communications on the road from Mexico to Vera Cruz, thus giving free course to a system of brigandage which now made fresh victims.
After a month of Mexican management, the emperor, now undeceived, adopted the course of entrusting the supervision of his army to better hands. On May 5, , the emperor made up his mind to invest the Austrian general Count de Thun with this post of command. This took place during his stay at the hacienda of Jalapilla.
Maximilian of Hapsburg
He himself there settled on the plan for a fresh military organisation, and summoned to Puebla a portion of the troops stationed at Toluca, Ario, Jalapa, Morelia, and Mexico, in order to form a brigade. My dear marshal,—Sharing, as I do, the opinion of your excellency that the organisation of the army must be rapidly proceeded with, and being unable to find a French or Mexican general who either would or could undertake it, I have made up my mind to entrust the task to General Count de Thun.
The first arrangement to be made is to bring together the forces necessary to form a brigade. I request that your excellency will give orders that the under-named corps proceed to Puebla, the place that I have chosen for its organisation:—. I have selected these troops as being those the least required for the time in the places which they occupy.
The rise and fall of the Emperor Maximilian/Chapter V - Wikisource, the free online library
After all I have observed on my journey, and reflecting seriously on military matters, I adopt the opinion of the necessity of a prompt and effective organisation of the gendarmerie. I think that it will be necessary to commence by embodying a not very numerous force, which will occupy the capital, and will form the nucleus of a progressive organisation. This letter of May 5, by which Maximilian gave the order to remove the troops from the town of Morelia and its environs, proves that the sovereign acted of his own accord, and that the marshal, as chief of his army, was not in an independent position.
It also effectually impugns a military statement emanating from Maximilian at this time, and reproduced in a recent publication, entitled 'The Court of Rome and the Emperor Maximilian':—. The public treasury is ruined; the poor country must pay the French troops.
It is difficult to explain the view thus taken of the country. The French army, as well as the fleet, can attest that at this very epoch they occupied all the chief cities of the states, and the principal ports of Mexico. We are not aware that they ever yielded up a place to the liberals as conquerors.
One city alone, the capital of the state of Guanajato, had been confided to the care of the Mexican arms, because it was protected on all four sides by a cordon of fortified places under our charge, which acted as barriers against the advance of the enemy. On the other hand, Oajaca had just succumbed to the brilliant siege and attack directed by Marshal Bazaine in person. But the truth must be told. The imperial notes, which were intended for certain public journals in Europe, were often worded in the secretary's office in a way that, by giving a more gloomy view of matters, would exercise an indirect pressure on public opinion and on the French cabinet; the latter being too much inclined to diminish prematurely its military force, as subsequent events have proved.
It must be observed that these military modifications in the distribution of the forces, which were repeated time after time by the Emperor Maximilian, were but little calculated to give solidity to the troops, who were amazed at constantly having to obey fresh chiefs.
Moreover, the mixture of the Austro-Belgian auxiliary contingents with the national troops was a mistake; for the latter looked upon them with mistrust, and were too much reminded of the foreign extraction of their sovereign; Puebla, too, was exactly like an Austrian camp. Maximilian was likewise in the wrong in establishing, in addition to the ministry of war, a military cabinet—an institution he had derived from his own country—and also in decreeing the formation of a military section comprising the Austro-Belgian troops exclusively, and under direct management.
At about the same date, Maximilian entertained the happy idea of establishing a corps of gendarmerie on the French model, intended to occupy the capital and its environs, and to be extended by degrees to the other military divisions. To help in its formation, he appealed to the officers and sub-officers of the expeditionary corps, who did not delay in responding.
A French lieutenant-colonel received the command; but he soon had to give way to a Dutch colonel, named Tindal, who was appointed to this post by the sovereign's desire. General de Thun, who was invested with the highest confidence, soon sought to shake off the French direction. These tendencies were, however, inevitable, if we take into account the national susceptibilities which were called into action. It must be confessed, on the other hand, that his position presented great difficulties; for the Austrian general met with no cooperation from his subordinates in the ministerial body, and the Mexican officers hindered his readiness of will by their natural inertness.
Although Maximilian fell into errors, resulting especially from his indecision and his fickleness of temper, as well as from his ignorance of the Mexican character, the impartiality of history will pronounce that his imprudent ambition had accepted a very heavy task, alike momentous both within and without the empire; and we are justified in asking if anyone else, filling his position, would have proved either more capable or more fortunate? In the first place, the settlement of the mortmain endowments still remained in suspense. The court of Rome had not yet consented to declare its sentiments, and appeared still less inclined to do so, as the emperor had repudiated the clerical party, to whom he owed his crown.
This sudden change of policy had but little inclined the pope to make any concessions. For the Holy See, in assisting an Austrian archduke to place himself on an old Spanish throne, had expected that it would bring back these distant lands into the bosom of the Church. On the other hand, the holders of the clerical property professed that they were anxious for a settlement favourable to their interests, although, to a great extent, their right of property had originated in fraud.
And there was also the American question, which was just as replete with danger. The late events in the United States, and the threatening movements of the Juarist general Negrete on the northern frontier of the empire, constituted a peril affecting the security of the crown. It was well known that the partisans of Juarez were bestirring themselves, and were only waiting for the cessation of hostilities between the Northern and Southern States in order to bring serious difficulties on Maximilian.
Then it was that Maximilian, in the hope of baffling the filibusters, and of putting an end to the system of American volunteering, made up his mind, without consulting the French authorities, to endeavour to obtain the support or at least the neutrality of the cabinet at Washington by means of certain secret measures. In order to carry out this purpose, he despatched M. Arroyo with directions to attempt certain overtures.
It may be recollected what kind of reception was reserved for this mysterious ambassador, who was politely bowed out by the republican cabinet. It really is a cause for astonishment that Maximilian, subject as he was to evil influence, should have yielded to such a temptation. Was not the status quo, with its concealed filibusterism, a hundred times preferable to a loss of influence which could not fail to become public and disquiet those who were still in doubt as to the real sentiments of the United States?
The Emperor of Mexico had very quickly forgotten the following important document, which could hardly have escaped his examination, the form as well as the matter of which were equally unfriendly to the French cabinet:—. Sir,—I send you a copy of a resolution passed unanimously by the house of representatives, on the 4th of this month.
It asserts the opposition of this body to any recognition of a monarchy in Mexico. After all I have written you with so much candour for the information of France, it is scarcely necessary for me to say that this resolution honestly represents the unanimous feeling of the people of the United States with regard to Mexico. We beg to inform you that Mr. Maximilian was a particularly clever boy who displayed considerable culture in his taste for the arts, and he demonstrated an early interest in science , especially botany. When he entered military service, he was trained in the Austrian Navy.
He threw himself into this career with so much zeal that he quickly rose to high command. He was made a lieutenant in the navy at the age of eighteen. In , he sailed as commander in the corvette Minerva , on an exploring expedition along the coast of Albania and Dalmatia. Maximilian was especially interested in maritime matters and undertook many long-distance journeys for Brazil on the frigate Elisabeth.
Like Archduke Friedrich — before him, Maximilian had a keen private interest in the fleet, and with him the Austrian naval force gained an influential supporter from the ranks of the imperial family. This was crucial, as sea power had never been a priority of Austrian foreign policy, and the navy itself was relatively little known or supported by the public. It was only able to draw significant public attention and funds when it was actively supported by an imperial prince. As commander-in-chief, Maximilian carried out many reforms to modernise the naval forces, and was instrumental in creating the naval port at Trieste and Pola now Pula , as well as the battle fleet with which Admiral Wilhelm von Tegetthoff would later secure his victories.
He also initiated a large-scale scientific expedition — during which the frigate SMS Novara became the first Austrian warship to circumnavigate the globe. In his political views, Archduke Maximilian was very much influenced by the progressive ideas in vogue at the time. He had a reputation as a liberal , and this was one of several considerations leading to his appointment as Viceroy of the Kingdom of Lombardy—Venetia in February Emperor Franz Joseph had decided on the need to replace the elderly soldier Joseph Radetzky von Radetz , to divert growing discontent amongst the Italian population through token liberalization, and to encourage a degree of personal loyalty to the Habsburg dynasty.
She was first cousin to both Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. Maximilian and Charlotte had no children. They lived as the Austrian regents in Milan or viceroys of Lombardy-Venetia from until , when Emperor Franz Joseph, angered by his brother's liberal policies, dismissed him. Shortly after, Austria lost control of most of its Italian possessions. Maximilian then retired to Trieste, near which he built Miramare Castle.
At the same time, the couple acquired a converted monastery on the island of Lokrum as a holiday residence. Both estates had extensive gardens, reflecting Maximilian's horticultural interests. The Habsburg family had ruled the Viceroyalty of New Spain from its establishment until the Spanish throne was inherited by the Bourbons.
Maximilian was considered to have more potential legitimacy than other royal figures, but was unlikely to ever rule in Europe due to his elder brother. He did not accept at first, but sought to satisfy his restless desire for adventure with a botanical expedition to the tropical forests of Brazil. However, Maximilian changed his mind after the French intervention in Mexico. The new emperor of Mexico landed at Veracruz on 29 May ,  and received a cold reception from the townspeople.
Veracruz was a liberal town, and the liberal voters were opposed to having Maximilian on the throne. There was continuous fighting between the French expeditionary force plus Maximilian's locally recruited imperial troops on one side and the Mexican Republicans on the other.
The Imperial couple chose as their seat Mexico City. The emperor and empress set up their residence at Chapultepec Castle , located on the top of a hill formerly on the outskirts of Mexico City that had been a retreat of Aztec emperors. Maximilian ordered a wide avenue cut through the city from Chapultepec to the city center named Paseo de Chapultepec or Paseo de la Emperatriz. The royal couple made plans to be crowned at the Catedral Metropolitana , but due to the constant instability of the regime, the coronation was never carried out.
Empress Carlota began holding parties for the wealthy Mexicans to raise money for poor houses. He cancelled all debts for peasants over 10 pesos, restored communal property and forbade all forms of corporal punishment. He also broke the monopoly of the hacienda stores [ clarification needed ] and decreed that henceforth peons could no longer be bought and sold for the price of their debt. Iturbide and his cousin were granted the title Prince de Iturbide and style of Highness by imperial decree of 16 September and were ranked after the reigning family.
However, Maximilian never intended to give the crown to the Iturbides because he considered that they were not of royal blood.
- Works of Gustave Le Bon.
- The rise and fall of the Emperor Maximilian/Chapter V.
- Maximilian I of Mexico: Astrological Article and Chart?
- UNTIL THE HEART BREAKS: Previously published as Ghosts In Sunlight;
- Maximilian of Hapsburg.
Meanwhile, Maximilian invited ex-Confederates to move to Mexico in a series of settlements called the "Carlota Colony" and the New Virginia Colony , with a dozen others being considered, a plan conceived by the internationally renowned U. Navy oceanographer and inventor Matthew Fontaine Maury. Maximilian also invited settlers from "any country", including Austria and the other German states. Maximilian issued his "Black Decree"' on 3 October Its first article stated that: "All individuals forming a part of armed bands or bodies existing without legal authority, whether or not proclaiming a political pretext, whatever the number of those forming such band, or its organization, character, and denomination, shall be judged militarily by the courts martial.
If found guilty, even though only of the fact of belonging to an armed band, they shall be condemned to capital punishment, and the sentence shall be executed within twenty-four hours". It is calculated that more than eleven thousand of Juarez's supporters were executed as a result of the decree, but in the end it only inflamed the Mexican resistance. Nevertheless, by , the imminence of Maximilian's abdication seemed apparent to almost everyone outside Mexico. Her efforts failed, and she suffered a deep emotional collapse and never went back to Mexico.
After her husband was executed by Republicans the following year, she spent the rest of her life in seclusion, never admitting her husband's death, first at Miramare Castle in Trieste, Austria-Hungary, then Italy, and then at Bouchout Castle in Meise , Belgium,  where she died on 19 January Though urged to abandon Mexico by Napoleon III himself, whose troop withdrawal from Mexico was a great blow to the Mexican Imperial cause, Maximilian refused to desert his followers.
Maximilian allowed his followers to determine whether or not he abdicated. Maximilian fought on with his army of 8, Mexican loyalists. The city fell on 15 May and Maximilian was captured the next morning after the failure of an attempt to escape through Republican lines by a loyal hussar cavalry brigade led by Felix Salm-Salm. Following a court-martial , he was sentenced to death. Many of the crowned heads of Europe and other prominent figures including the eminent liberals Victor Hugo and Giuseppe Garibaldi sent telegrams and letters to Mexico pleading desperately for the Emperor's life to be spared.
Felix Salm-Salm and his wife masterminded a plan and bribed the jailors to allow Maximilian to escape execution. However, Maximilian would not go through with the plan because he felt that shaving his beard to avoid recognition would ruin his dignity if he were to be recaptured. He spoke only in Spanish and gave each of his executioners a gold coin not to shoot him in the head so that his mother could see his face. May my blood, which is about to be shed, be for the good of the country. After his execution, Maximilian's body was embalmed and displayed in Mexico. After arriving in Trieste, the coffin was taken to Vienna and placed within the Imperial Crypt , on 18 January , where it can be viewed today.
The Emperor Maximilian Memorial Chapel was constructed on the hill where his execution took place. Other researchers consider him short-sighted in political and military affairs, and unwilling to restore democracy in Mexico even during the imminent collapse of the Second Mexican Empire.
In the wake of his death, carte-de-visite cards with photographs commemorating his execution circulated both among his followers and among those who wished to celebrate his death. One such card featured a photograph of the shirt he wore to his execution, riddled with bullet holes. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Maximilian I Archduke Maximilian around Imperial Crypt , Vienna , Austria.
Charlotte of Belgium m. See also: Imperial Crown of Mexico. See also: Second Mexican Empire. Anna Knight 1st class of the Order of St. Knight of the Order of Saint Januarius. Ancestors of Maximilian I of Mexico 8.
Infanta Maria Louisa of Spain  2. Archduke Franz Karl of Austria Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies  5. Princess Maria Theresa of Naples and Sicily  Archduchess Maria Carolina of Austria  1. Maximilian I of Mexico Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria  Countess Palatine Maria Franziska of Sulzbach  3. Princess Sophie of Bavaria Charles Louis, Hereditary Prince of Baden  7. Princess Caroline of Baden  Princess Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt . New York Times. March 6, Mexico City: Editorial Planta Mexican. Historia y Vida in Spanish. Retrieved June 7, Cristina Toledano Vergara Reiseskizzen Part 11 2 Edition.
K bzw. A Lurid Grandeur. Maximillian and Carlota of Mexico. Maximillian and Carlotta. The Mexican Adventure Maximilian and Carlota. Europe's Last Empire in Mexico.