This is what a U. Biologist Mary Schweitzer discovered this soft tissue when it was necessary to break a T. Schweitzer said that the vessels were flexible and some could even be squeezed. After extensive testing, there was confirmation that this T. Schweitzer is puzzled and cannot understand why this bone was not mineralized.
In , Joe Taylor, a professional dinosaur excavator and a biblical creationist, was curious about the hip girdle of another T. Taylor was amazed that this 65 million-year-old specimen still had the appearance of skin on the sacral vertebrae. He sent a sample to Azusa Pacific College in California and had it scanned with an electron microscope by Professor Mark Armitage, who found that the bone had collagen filaments intact inside the bone.
The presence of collagen suggests that this supposedly 65 million year old fossil was not completely fossilized. The statements are deliberately challenging, asking every reader to compare his own opinions with the plain teaching of Scripture, examining carefully the Bible passages offered as proof. If, as a result, a change of mind and heart is called for, there will be no doubt that the teaching of the Lord, and the book he trusted, must be followed and not what the churches teach.
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Read The Bible Guide. Download your personal Bible Reading Chart:. Would you like to know more about Bible History ie. Then download this Bible Timeline:. Wake up the Mighty Men of War! A resurgent Russia is seen across the world, heralding the return of Christ and the coming of the Kingdom of God. Russia is seen to be preparing for this all over the world.
New submarines are being built. Military operations are seemingly continuously on full ahead GO! The Western nations are increasingly worried and are warning their military establishments and defence organizations to "wake up" - just as the Bible predicted. In scanning through recent news, one is impressed by the number of articles speaking of a resurgent Russia. It is a Russia that has been preparing:.
Many Ships. When taking a broad view of the arrangements that need to be made, according to the scriptural narrative, we see there are several elements that are required. The news has been full of reports of a resurgent Russian naval presence causing alarm and provoking the Western dominance in the region. Russia is about to add a new class of submarine to its fleet - a multipurpose sub. Once the vessel is operational, she will be the most formidable enemy submarine that the U. Navy has ever faced. Causing alarm in America, CNN reported,. Crammed with eavesdropping equipment, the Viktor Leonov has loitered in these waters before, but its current visit is the latest in a string of provocations….
The report went on to state:. Russia is using this modernized force to test US commitment to safeguarding international security and looking for signs of self-doubt, chinks in its armour. The alarms have been sounding in the USA but also in the Mediterranean. Vladimir Putin is testing British military patience by sending the deadly subs past the oversees territory on their way into the Mediterranean. UK military sources also confirmed the presence of Russian submarines off the Gibraltar coast.
Norway has also been stating its fears of the growth and activity of the Russian Navy in its own waters. The Russian posture in the high north has changed. Moscow has developed a fleet of increasingly sophisticated submarines and aircraft, which are being tested in the north Atlantic alongside new high-precision long-range missiles. The fear is that Nato could lose the ability to deny Russia naval access to the north Atlantic, and Russia could block or disrupt US reinforcement to Europe.
If we leave a vacuum, they will fill it. In Ukraine we have seen their mobility is completely different to the past. In Syria they have shown they can undertake an expeditionary operation that we have not seen since By firing missiles from the Caspian Sea, they were messaging they can fire them from anywhere.
They are trying to put a stranglehold on political progress. In our own country they have shown an ability through cyber to disrupt out politics and economy….. It is not conflict. It does not mean cruise missiles will rain down in Norway. Conflicts are much more likely to be triggered in the Baltic or the Black Sea, but the strategic balance has shifted, and we all need to be worried. Russia to Stay in the Middle East. These are things our brethren have looked for over the past two centuries, and they are happing right in front of our eyes.
The article went on to state:. You understand that they are thinking long term," he added. According to Friedman Israel has had to change its operation behaviour:. Russians stationing of the Admiral Kuznetsoz aircraft carrier in the Mediterranean off the coast of Syria was also something that the Navy had to account for. Russia absorbs the Ossetian army into its own expanding its influence and territory. It has been almost ten years since the Georgian war in , when the South Ossetian region broke away and was supported by Russia militarily and politically.
It is back in the news. The rebel forces, supported by Russia have now been rolled into the Russian Army, sparking protests from Georgia. Reuters reported:. Russian President Vladimir Putin on Tuesday ordered his officials to seal an agreement which will, in effect, incorporate the armed forces of Georgia's breakaway South Ossetia region into the Russian military's command structure…. Collateral damage from trade tensions between America and China seems inevitable. Even if a full-blown trade war is averted—because either country backs down—both sides would not return to the rules-based trade order that has prevailed until now.
Rather, a deal would involve some kind of managed trade. That is certainly better than full-blown conflict. But it repudiates that order, while diverting trade and investment. As for a full-blown war, it could upend the world-spanning supply chains which epitomise Asian economies. Yet some spy a silver lining. Led by China and Japan, Asian countries are at last opening to one another.
They are striking bilateral trade deals among themselves, as well as with the European Union.
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And that begs a question: if the Trump administration succeeds in smashing existing supply-chains, why assume manufacturing will return to America? Might more links in the chain simply relocate within Asia instead? After all, as Japanese policymakers point out, America does not have a monopoly on tech. Reforming Vietnam, which is a member of the CPTPP and has eight bilateral free-trade agreements, including with the EU, has great allure as a production base. Recently President Joko Widodo of Indonesia, which does not typically make life easy for foreign investors, has been asking visitors whether there might be an upside for his country.
Even American multinationals are accountable to shareholders, not to Mr Trump. Not that anyone would wish an all-out trade war to be the occasion to experiment. Join them. Subscribe to The Economist today. Media Audio edition Economist Films Podcasts. The prevalence of difficulty in getting to sleep or sleep-onset insomnia has been reported in Neylan et al.
Although insomnia is frequent among PTSD patients, several studies have been carried out for a comparison of the subjective and objective sleep assessments in these patients. In summary, giving an insight into the severity of the insomnia reported by veterans with PTSD, the findings based on objective measures are mixed with some studies indicating that veterans with PTSD do not have significantly disturbed sleep and low sleep efficiency.
Nevertheless, veterans with PTSD frequently complain of insomnia. We suggest that due to unreliable self-reported insomnia in veterans with chronic PTSD, objective sleep evaluations for these patients are necessary. Further study of sleep state perception and objective sleep parameters in veterans with PTSD appears warranted. Nightmares of the trauma are one of the defining features of PTSD.
The emotional content of nightmares in veterans with PTSD is varied and contains anger, intense terror, grief, guilt and helplessness. War-zone trauma exposure had shown the strongest correlation with nightmare complaints. Although high rates of self-reported nightmares in PTSD patients are definite, there are controversies as regards the explanation of the sleep architecture parameters associated with nightmares. Mellman et al. The authors recommended that because the frequency of threatening dream recall was minimal, these awakenings may be best considered as panic or startle responses.
However, no associations between nightmare complaints and REM sleep architecture were observed. The authors suggested that increased WASO was specifically related to trauma-related nightmare complaints, and both them are different from normal dreaming, phenomenologically and functionally.
Also, Woodward et al. Numerous studies have investigated the nightmare content experienced by PTSD patients. The authors concluded that the target dreams of veterans with PTSD vary regarding to replication of trauma and typically are threatening. Schreuder et al. Participants were asked to fill in a questionnaire about their sleep and dreams for four consecutive weeks.
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Nightmares and anxiety dreams occurred with equal frequency among veterans and civilian war victims. Nightmares often appeared to be exact replications of the trauma, and replication and repetition were highly correlated. Woodward et al.
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However, it should be noted that dreams and nightmares are only remembered if they are attended by an awakening. However, the PTSD group reported more sleep-related anxiety symptoms, such as fear of the dark, fear of going to sleep, having thoughts of the trauma whilst lying in bed and waking up from a frightening dream and then finding it hard to return to sleep.
In summary, it seems that difficulty in initiating and maintaining sleep and frequent nightmares are common complaints among veterans with PTSD. The frequently reported insomnia and nightmares among veterans with PTSD indicated the prognostic importance of sleep disturbances and endorses the presence of them in the criteria for PTSD.
Recurrent nightmares have been associated with poor overall sleep quality, depression and heightened risk of suicide. It has been noted that persistent nightmares, those seen in veterans with PTSD, often require targeted treatment interventions. Sleep-related breathing disorders SRBD the repetitive episodes during sleep of upper airway closure or obstruction, lead to the stop or decrease of airflow that can force persons to wake from sleep to reestablish their breathing.
Lavie and Hertz reported faster respiration during sleep among 11 combat neurotics who reported nightmares compared with 9 normal controls. PTSD patients free of nightmares actually breathed more slowly during sleep than controls, and exhibited relative reduction of rate variability during REM sleep, the state from which most nightmares emerge. In a case study by Youakim, et al. Williams et al. The mean AHI was The results also showed that OSA was more frequent among non-injured soldiers than injured soldiers They explained that non-injured soldiers may have suffered from a preexisting undiagnosed sleep breathing problem, which put these individuals at risk for chronic sleep fragmentation, raising the possibility that underlying sleep breathing problem is a risk factor for the PTSD development.
Exposure to stressors even without physical injury and subsequent sleep fragmentation may have reduced their resiliency and coping capacity, creating a higher potential for PTSD development. Regardless of the fact that many studies have shown that there are strong associations between SRDB and insomnia, 55 - 58 it has been shown that PTSD patients with SRDB, report extremely high rates of insomnia complaints.
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Recently, Krakow et al. Based on this theory, they suggested that research will need to focus on the role of sleep in PTSD. Nonetheless, the studies had some methodological limitations: random allocation was not assumed to treatment versus no treatment groups; the diagnosis of PTSD was not confirmed by a psychometrically validated interview; and the diagnosis of SRBD was confirmed retrospectively by review of the patient's medical files.
The causes and possible mechanisms of the reported association between OSA and PTSD require further investigation, as do the implications for treatment of these two disorders. Sleep-related movement disorders such as periodic limb movement disorder PLMD are described as repetitive limb movements during sleep and are associated with sleep complaints such as insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness. Body movements during sleep mainly have a medical origin, not a psychological one, and several diseases e. Limb movements are most frequent in Stages 1 and 2, less frequent in Stages 3 and 4, and mostly absent from REM sleep.
Lavie and Hertz revealed a positive correlation between sleep efficiency and movement time among combat neurotics which means that patients who moved less, slept worse. Also, they reported that combat neurotics had higher body movement during Stage 2 sleep compared to controls. There is a strong correlation between reduced MT with more frequent arousals as well as nightmare. Reduced MT may be due to a freezing state, such as a behavioral response to fear. Sleep with reduced MT and frequent brief awakenings may provide a benefit for survival because raised vigilance is essential for exposure to dangerous environments.
Inman et al. In summary, although several studies illustrated increased limb movement during sleep in veterans with PTSD, it is problematic to identify whether the origins are medical or psychiatric. On the other hand, it must be noted that antidepressant medications used in PTSD treatment can increase the incidence of PLMD, and possibly worsen insomnia. The assessment of body movement during sleep across a broader range of veterans with PTSD compared to non-veterans with PTSD and the control of subjects is necessary. In RBD there is an absence of REM sleep atonia, which can be related to the acting out of dreams related to traumatic experiences.
SP is usually a terrifying symptom that patients are afraid to report for the fear that they will be labeled as crazy.
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For example, a PTSD patient may wake up with a feeling of having been thrown out of a window. In summary, given the lack of studies on the assessment of parasomnias among veterans with PTSD, the frequency of parasomnias is unclear. Further study in this field is needed. In this review we summarized the literature on the sleep disturbance characteristics of veterans with PTSD. Future research is needed for an evaluation of the baseline mechanism of sleep disturbance among veterans with PTSD; inconsistency between subjective and objective findings in these patients; and especially an assessment of sleep-targeted medical and psychological intervention on the improvement of sleep disturbance as well as PTSD symptoms.
Competing interests: None declared. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. J Inj Violence Res. Find articles by Habibolah Khazaie. Find articles by Mohammad Rasoul Ghadami. Find articles by Maryam Masoudi. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Nov 29; Accepted Feb