Data analytics can help marketers tailor campaigns based on geographic data; there is even research suggesting a correlation between the number of Facebook likes a given film gets in a location and its chances of selling out at a nearby movie theater. Marketers can also use social listening to optimize release date based on geography, subject matter, or topic. Movies are all about storytelling. Take a moment to think about how you as a consumer--not you as a media professional--interacts with any given movie.
Each action gives something away about how you are interacting with that story and the way that story was marketed to you. The delivery method, when and where you buy your ticket, when you pause, if you keep watching, if you skip ahead, if you read the description before hitting play: each is a point that tells a story about you.
And the facts of those moments--the music, the dialogue, the way the scene was cut--possibly correlate to performance. By collecting data to understand those driving forces, marketers can identify and target even the most specific groups. Through third-party companies, studios use geographic and demographic information to find and send tailored messages about given movies. Disney takes it even further by using AI to analyze viewers in real time.
And by analyzing the social behavior of those users, the messages themselves can be customized based on their style and engagement. At the movie and television post-production stage, data analytics can improve elements of editing and budgeting, turning eye-crossing spreadsheets into useful information and actionable insight. Sometimes this can be a pleasant surprise, but it can also be a huge disappointment. Taking advantage of sentiment analysis, predictive analytics, and visual analytics, editors can create trailers that are more enticing and more representative of their films.
By using data analytics platforms to advance test trailers and promos, studios learn more about market reception and can adapt accordingly or gain validation on chance decisions, as Stan Entertainment did in anticipation of its release of remake Wolf Creek. To test their theory, before release they distributed a version of the trailer that placed more emphasis on Fry than other characters in a second spot.
The results supported their casting and developmental decisions. Turning to Netflix and a similar story emerges. When embarking on their first attempt at original content production, the streaming giant was not going to leave anything to chance. From casting to the concept and promotional trailers, data led the charge.
Netflix made five times as many unique trailers for their debut original series House of Cards as most studios make for prime-time television shows or feature films. Starring Kevin Spacey and Robin Wright and directed by auteur filmmaker David Fincher, each version targeted a specific audience with particular preferences, all based on historical viewer behavior. And David Fincher fans saw a trailer featuring his touch. One of the most significant strengths data analytics gives decision-makers is the ability to take a comprehensive but detailed view of the past and apply the lessons found to the present and future.
A script could test positively, the story and topics correspond with trends observed in social analytics, and the movie can still fail. However, by using the savant-like recall that data analysis gives us, a movie can be compared to past performance of similar movies based on storyline, budget, star-power, release timing, etc. With those features identified, comparable distribution can be analyzed to surface both successful strategies to replicate and pitfalls to avoid.
To be able to predict an outcome accurately with any statistical significance, regressive models are a core necessity. Regressive models are entirely dependent on vast amounts of varied, clean, high-quality data. Web-based companies are inherently data-rich. Streaming companies like Amazon, Hulu, and Netflix capture and track information about their users on everything from location and browser preference to behavior and attention span. And media companies are intrinsically content-rich, filled to the brim with variations of media to engage their audience with.
With data analytics, these streams of information become roadmaps to successful conversion. With Netflix leading the pack, streaming services are using their immense amount of data and resources to power algorithms that solve for timing, as well as use data to develop original content and re-package licensed content.
Ten years later, it was one of the first companies to offer affordable web streaming subscription of premium and high-demand content. Just five years later, in Netflix entered the arena as a bonafide producer with the hit series, House of Cards. Netflix algorithms know where you are in House of Cards and how likely you are to keep watching based on other viewing habits.
Using machine learning and artificial intelligence, Netflix scours all the data they have to find patterns with meaningful output to their customers. And they use that data in every stage of the consumer experience, from content development and acquisition to user interface and engagement. Licensing deals for such films are expensive, so to prioritize their acquisition budget, they turned to data. These are movies that are cheaper to acquire but look similar from a data analytics level to the movies their subscribers already love. Netflix also uses web scraping to track what movies and television shows are being pirated online to make strategic acquisition decisions, using the actors, directors, story types, and kinds of programs most common as a guiding force.
Many users are not aware that algorithms inform each piece of their interaction with Netflix: one subscriber sees a different trailer or cover image based on their viewing history taking into account both videos watched and videos abandoned and rating history. They work this data-driven magic frame by frame and pixel by pixel by measuring each meaningful consumer action like :. As told to Wired by Netflix engineer Charles Smith and Data Architecture Platform Manager Jeff Magnusson, each aspect of a video adds analytic value: even the color spectrum of the cover image.
The company can record the specific range of colors that a given user engages in over a set period. If they are, should their recommendations adjust? Data should be accessible, easy to discover, and easy to process for everyone. Whether your dataset is large or small, being able to visualize it makes it easier to explain. The longer you take to find the data, the less valuable it becomes. This foundation guides the company, but they do not own the ideas inherent in it.
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With the right tools, there is no reason that original content production companies cannot do the same or similar things with data analytics to game the success of their productions. Variety Insight. Science and Entertainment Exchange. How movie and television studios can use big data to improve greenlighting, budgeting, and marketing.
What are data analytics?
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Textual Analysis. There are several methods of text-based analysis: Word frequency Collocation words that often appear near one another Concordance the contexts in which a given set of words appear N-grams common two-, three-, etc. Network Analysis. Sentiment Analysis. Neural Network. Bag of Words. PART I. How can the movie industry put big data to use? Analytics in Movie Development.
Data analytics can help development departments determine: How topically relevant a story is right now, where geographically it is projected to be most well-received, and if there is a cyclical nature to the topic. How to replace cliches in a script with more nuanced ideas. How to find the right stories for specific audiences and how to best reach them also useful to the marketing department.
What audiences are looking for by analyzing viewing histories, searches, clicks, engagement, and more. StoryFit AI-powered story and audience insights. Use AI to beat the competition. See Packages. View Study. Analytics in Movie Promotion and Distribution. Integrating Audience Data A semi-technical explanation of how textual analysis can be used to determine success.
Post Production At the movie and television post-production stage, data analytics can improve elements of editing and budgeting, turning eye-crossing spreadsheets into useful information and actionable insight. Analytics in Streaming Services. Online content providers leading the charge. They work this data-driven magic frame by frame and pixel by pixel by measuring each meaningful consumer action like : At which point you pause, rewind, or skip ahead.
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What date and day you watch fun fact! TV shows are mostly watched during the week, while movies are a weekend activity Your zip code What kind of device you use to view Browsing and scrolling behavior And more. Trade Organizations. Cohen, and Mirella Lapata. Walker, Grace I. Lin, Jennifer E. October 07, The Atlantic. Data Science. The sensitivity of the new panchromatic film delivered superior image tonal quality and gave directors the freedom to shoot scenes at lower light levels than was previously practical. As David Bordwell describes, technological improvements continued at a swift pace: "Between and , [Western Electric and RCA] created directional microphones, increased the frequency range of film recording, reduced ground noise By , rerecording of vocals by the original or different actors in postproduction, a process known as "looping", had become practical.
The ultraviolet recording system introduced by RCA in improved the reproduction of sibilants and high notes. With Hollywood's wholesale adoption of the talkies, the competition between the two fundamental approaches to sound-film production was soon resolved. Over the course of —31, the only major players using sound-on-disc, Warner Bros.
Vitaphone's dominating presence in sound-equipped theaters, however, meant that for years to come all of the Hollywood studios pressed and distributed sound-on-disc versions of their films alongside the sound-on-film prints. In May , Western Electric won an Austrian lawsuit that voided protection for certain Tri-Ergon patents, helping bring Tobis-Klangfilm to the negotiating table. As a contemporary report describes:. All other countries, among them Italy, France, and England, are open to both parties.
The agreement did not resolve all the patent disputes, and further negotiations were undertaken and concords signed over the course of the s. While the introduction of sound led to a boom in the motion picture industry, it had an adverse effect on the employability of a host of Hollywood actors of the time. Suddenly those without stage experience were regarded as suspect by the studios; as suggested above, those whose heavy accents or otherwise discordant voices had previously been concealed were particularly at risk.
The career of major silent star Norma Talmadge effectively came to an end in this way. The celebrated German actor Emil Jannings returned to Europe. Moviegoers found John Gilbert 's voice an awkward match with his swashbuckling persona, and his star also faded. The career of Harold Lloyd , one of the top screen comedians of the s, declined precipitously. Studio heads, now forced into unprecedented decisions, decided to begin with the actors, the least palatable, the most vulnerable part of movie production.
It was such a splendid opportunity, anyhow, for breaking contracts, cutting salaries, and taming the stars Me, they gave the salary treatment. I could stay on without the raise my contract called for, or quit, [Paramount studio chief B. Questionable, I say, because I spoke decent English in a decent voice and came from the theater.
So without hesitation I quit. Buster Keaton was eager to explore the new medium, but when his studio, MGM, made the changeover to sound, he was quickly stripped of creative control. Though a number of Keaton's early talkies made impressive profits, they were artistically dismal. Several of the new medium's biggest attractions came from vaudeville and the musical theater, where performers such as Jolson, Eddie Cantor , Jeanette MacDonald , and the Marx Brothers were accustomed to the demands of both dialogue and song.
The new emphasis on speech also caused producers to hire many novelists, journalists, and playwrights with experience writing good dialogue. As talking pictures emerged, with their prerecorded musical tracks, an increasing number of moviehouse orchestra musicians found themselves out of work. Hubbard, "During the s live musical performances at first-run theaters became an exceedingly important aspect of the American cinema.
The American Federation of Musicians took out newspaper advertisements protesting the replacement of live musicians with mechanical playing devices. Canned Music on Trial This is the case of Art vs. Mechanical Music in theatres. The defendant stands accused in front of the American people of attempted corruption of musical appreciation and discouragement of musical education. Theatres in many cities are offering synchronised mechanical music as a substitute for Real Music. If the theatre-going public accepts this vitiation of its entertainment program a deplorable decline in the Art of Music is inevitable.
Musical authorities know that the soul of the Art is lost in mechanization. It cannot be otherwise because the quality of music is dependent on the mood of the artist, upon the human contact, without which the essence of intellectual stimulation and emotional rapture is lost. By the following year, a reported 22, U. In September , Jack L.
Warner , head of Warner Bros. Sound film, in fact, was a clear boon to all the major players in the industry. Over sixty Hollywood musicals were released in , and more than eighty the following year. Even as the Wall Street crash of October helped plunge the United States and ultimately the global economy into depression , the popularity of the talkies at first seemed to keep Hollywood immune. The —30 exhibition season was even better for the motion picture industry than the previous, with ticket sales and overall profits hitting new highs.
Reality finally struck later in , but sound had clearly secured Hollywood's position as one of the most important industrial fields, both commercially and culturally, in the United States. In , film box-office receipts comprised The motion picture business would command similar figures for the next decade and a half. The American movie industry—already the world's most powerful—set an export record in that, by the applied measure of total feet of exposed film, was 27 percent higher than the year before.
In fact, the expense of sound conversion was a major obstacle to many overseas producers, relatively undercapitalized by Hollywood standards. The production of multiple versions of export-bound talkies in different languages known as " Foreign Language Version " , as well as the production of the cheaper " International Sound Version ", a common approach at first, largely ceased by mid, replaced by post- dubbing and subtitling.
Despite trade restrictions imposed in most foreign markets, by , American films commanded about 70 percent of screen time around the globe. Just as the leading Hollywood studios gained from sound in relation to their foreign competitors, they did the same at home.
As historian Richard B. Jewell describes, "The sound revolution crushed many small film companies and producers who were unable to meet the financial demands of sound conversion. Historian Thomas Schatz describes the ancillary effects:. Because the studios were forced to streamline operations and rely on their own resources, their individual house styles and corporate personalities came into much sharper focus. Thus the watershed period from the coming of sound into the early Depression saw the studio system finally coalesce, with the individual studios coming to terms with their own identities and their respective positions within the industry.
The other country in which sound cinema had an immediate major commercial impact was India. As one distributor of the period said, "With the coming of the talkies, the Indian motion picture came into its own as a definite and distinctive piece of creation. This was achieved by music. While the European film industries fought an endless battle against the popularity and economic muscle of Hollywood, ten years after the debut of Alam Ara , over 90 percent of the films showing on Indian screens were made within the country.
Most of India's early talkies were shot in Bombay , which remains the leading production center, but sound filmmaking soon spread across the multilingual nation. In , Sati Sulochana , the first Kannada talking picture to be released, was shot in Kolhapur , Maharashtra ; Srinivasa Kalyanam became the first Tamil talkie actually shot in Tamil Nadu. Already by , the majority of feature productions were in sound; two years later, of the Indian feature films were talking pictures. In the first, edition of his global survey The Film Till Now , British cinema pundit Paul Rotha declared, "A film in which the speech and sound effects are perfectly synchronised and coincide with their visual image on the screen is absolutely contrary to the aims of cinema.
It is a degenerate and misguided attempt to destroy the real use of the film and cannot be accepted as coming within the true boundaries of the cinema. In the opinion of many film historians and aficionados, both at the time and subsequently, silent film had reached an aesthetic peak by the late s and the early years of sound cinema delivered little that was comparable to the best of the silents.
The first year in which sound film production predominated over silent film—not only in the United States, but also in the West as a whole—was ; yet the years through are represented by three dialogueless pictures Pandora's Box , Zemlya , City Lights  and zero talkies in the Time Out poll. City Lights , like Sunrise , was released with a recorded score and sound effects, but is now customarily referred to by historians and industry professionals as a "silent"—spoken dialogue regarded as the crucial distinguishing factor between silent and sound dramatic cinema.
The other internationally acclaimed sound drama of the year was Westfront , directed by G. Pabst for Nero-Film of Berlin. Swiftly banned by Paris police chief Jean Chiappe , it was unavailable for fifty years. While some regarded sound as irreconcilable with film art, others saw it as opening a new field of creative opportunity.
The following year, a group of Soviet filmmakers, including Sergei Eisenstein , proclaimed that the use of image and sound in juxtaposition, the so-called contrapuntal method, would raise the cinema to " Such a method for constructing the sound-film will not confine it to a national market, as must happen with the photographing of plays, but will give a greater possibility than ever before for the circulation throughout the world of a filmically expressed idea. Hamilton writes, "Silent films offered people who were deaf a rare opportunity to participate in a public discourse, cinema, on equal terms with hearing people.
The emergence of sound film effectively separated deaf from hearing audience members once again. On March 12, , the first feature-length talking picture made in Germany had its premiere. The inaugural Tobis Filmkunst production, it was not a drama, but a documentary sponsored by a shipping line: Melodie der Welt Melody of the World , directed by Walter Ruttmann. As described by scholar William Moritz, the movie is "intricate, dynamic, fast-paced To render the half-musical impressions of factory sounds in a complex audio world that moved from absolute music to the purely documentary noises of nature.
In this film every intermediate stage can be found: such as the movement of the machine interpreted by the music, the noises of the machine dominating the musical background, the music itself is the documentary, and those scenes where the pure sound of the machine goes solo. Many similar experiments were pursued by Dziga Vertov in his Entuziazm and by Chaplin in Modern Times , a half-decade later. A few innovative commercial directors immediately saw the ways in which sound could be employed as an integral part of cinematic storytelling, beyond the obvious function of recording speech.
In Blackmail , Hitchcock manipulated the reproduction of a character's monologue so the word "knife" would leap out from a blurry stream of sound, reflecting the subjective impression of the protagonist, who is desperate to conceal her involvement in a fatal stabbing. At a certain point, Mamoulian wanted the audience to hear one character singing at the same time as another prays; according to the director, "They said we couldn't record the two things—the song and the prayer—on one mike and one channel.
So I said to the sound man, 'Why not use two mikes and two channels and combine the two tracks in printing? Premiering in Paris in April and New York a month later, the picture was both a critical and popular success. A musical comedy with a barebones plot, it is memorable for its formal accomplishments, in particular, its emphatically artificial treatment of sound. As described by scholar Donald Crafton,. Le Million never lets us forget that the acoustic component is as much a construction as the whitewashed sets.
Clair created teasing confusions between on- and off-screen sound. He also experimented with asynchronous audio tricks, as in the famous scene in which a chase after a coat is synched to the cheers of an invisible football or rugby crowd. These and similar techniques became part of the vocabulary of the sound comedy film, though as special effects and "color", not as the basis for the kind of comprehensive, non- naturalistic design achieved by Clair.
Outside of the comedic field, the sort of bold play with sound exemplified by Melodie der Welt and Le Million would be pursued very rarely in commercial production. Hollywood, in particular, incorporated sound into a reliable system of genre -based moviemaking, in which the formal possibilities of the new medium were subordinated to the traditional goals of star affirmation and straightforward storytelling.
As accurately predicted in by Frank Woods , secretary of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences , "The talking pictures of the future will follow the general line of treatment heretofore developed by the silent drama The talking scenes will require different handling, but the general construction of the story will be much the same. This system used an operator adjusted non-linkage form of primitive synchronization. In showing the films, synchronization of sorts was achieved by adjusting the hand cranked film projector's speed to match the phonograph.
Is Music Worth Saving? No great volume of evidence is required to answer this question. Music is a well-nigh universally beloved art. From the beginning of history, men have turned to musical expression to lighten the burdens of life, to make them happier. Aborigines, lowest in the scale of savagery, chant their song to tribal gods and play upon pipes and shark-skin drums. Musical development has kept pace with good taste and ethics throughout the ages, and has influenced the gentler nature of man more powerfully perhaps than any other factor.
Has it remained for the Great Age of Science to snub the Art by setting up in its place a pale and feeble shadow of itself? From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Further information: Kinetoscope. Koerber notes that after Messter acquired the Cinema Unter den Linden located in the back room of a restaurant , it reopened under his management on September 21, p.
Dan Gilmore describes its predecessor technology in his essay "What's Louder than Loud? The Auxetophone" : "Was the Auxetophone loud? It was painfully loud. Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland. Archived from the original on July 7, Retrieved December 8, Film Sound Sweden. See also A. Pertti Kuusela, E. MSN in Spanish. Retrieved February 6, July 28, Encyclopedia of Arkansas History and Culture. Retrieved December 7, There are claims that De Forest recorded a synchronized musical score for director Fritz Lang 's Siegfried when it arrived in the United States the year after its German debut—Geduld , p.
There is no consensus, however, concerning when this recording took place or if the film was ever actually presented with synch-sound. For a possible occasion for such a recording, see the August 24, , New York Times review of Siegfried Archived April 5, , at the Wayback Machine , following its American premiere at New York City's Century Theater the night before, which describes the score's performance by a live orchestra.
Crafton misleadingly implies that Griffith's film had not previously been exhibited commercially before its sound-enhanced premiere. He also misidentifies Ralph Graves as Richard Grace p. March 24, Recording Technology History. History Department at the University of San Diego.
Archived from the original on September 5, Retrieved December 11, October 6, Archived from the original on April 29, January 9, Archived from the original on May 22, See also Motion Picture Sound — Archived May 13, , at the Wayback Machine , perhaps the best online source for details on these developments, though here it fails to note that Fox's original deal for the Western Electric technology involved a sublicensing arrangement.
The previous highest-grossing Warner Bros. Crafton's claim that The Jazz Singer "was in a distinct second or third tier of attractions compared to the most popular films of the day and even other Vitaphone talkies" p. Although the movie was no match for the half-dozen biggest hits of the decade, the available evidence suggests that it was one of the three highest-earning films released in and that overall its performance was comparable to the other two, The King of Kings and Wings.
It is undisputed that its total earnings were more than double those of the next four Vitaphone talkies; the first three of which, according to Glancy's analysis of in-house Warner Bros. AMPS Newsletter. Association of Motion Picture Sound. Archived from the original on October 22, Retrieved December 12, Note that Allen, like many, exaggerates The Jazz Singer ' s commercial success; it was a big hit, but not "one of the big box office hits of all time". It implied that producers were trying to put some new life into their old films" pp.
Murnau and Robert Flaherty 's Tabu Paramount. The last totally silent feature produced in the United States for general distribution was The Poor Millionaire , released by Biltmore Pictures in April Four other silent features, all low-budget Westerns, were also released in early Robertson , p. Saunders reports, it premiered the same month in Berlin, but as a silent. Weimar Cinema.
Archived from the original on January 9, Deutsches Filminstitut. Archived from the original on June 24, Note also that IMDb. The authentic BIP production Kitty is sometimes included among the candidates for "first British talkie. The stars later came to New York to record dialogue, with which the film was rereleased in June , after much better credentialed candidates.
See sources cited above. Erickson, Hal. Chiffaut-Moliard, Philippe Archived from the original on March 16, Note also that Crisp gives October 31 as the debut date of Les Trois masques and Cine-studies gives its release "sortie" date as November 2. Note finally, where Crisp defines in Genre, Myth, and Convention a "feature" as being a minimum of sixty minutes long, this article follows the equally common, and Wikipedia-prevalent, standard of forty minutes or longer.
Terra Media. The two claims are not necessarily contradictory. According to the Czech-Slovak Film Database , it was shot as a silent film in Germany; soundtracks for Czech, German, and French versions were then recorded at the Gaumont studio in the Paris suburb of Joinville.
Robertson claims Switzerland produced its first talkie in , but it has not been possible to independently confirm this.
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The first talkies from Finland, Hungary, Norway, Portugal, and Turkey appeared in , the first talkies from Ireland English-language and Spain and the first in Slovak in , the first Dutch talkie in , and the first Bulgarian talkie in In the Americas, the first Canadian talkie came out in — North of '49 was a remake of the previous year's silent His Destiny. The first Argentine talkie appeared in and the first Chilean talkie in Robertson asserts that the first Cuban feature talkie was a production called El Caballero de Max ; every other published source surveyed cites La Serpiente roja Nineteen-thirty-one saw the first talkie produced on the African continent: South Africa's Mocdetjie , in Afrikaans.
Originally produced and premiered as a silent in , it was rereleased with a non-talking, music-and-effects soundtrack the following year Rollberg , p. Note that Burch misdates Madamu to nyobo as p. He also incorrectly claims that Mikio Naruse made no sound films before p. Be Like a Rose! See Russell , pp. Midnight Eye. February 11, Jacoby, Alexander April Senses of Cinema.
Archived from the original on January 14, Ozu's first talking picture, which came out the following year, was Hitori musuko The Only Son. See Richie , pp. Archived from the original on October 3, Archived from the original on July 11, A few websites refer to the version of Heer Ranjha as the first Punjabi talkie; the most reliable sources all agree, however, that it is performed in Hindustani. The first Punjabi-language film is Pind di Kuri aka Sheila ; The first Assamese-language film, Joymati , also came out in Many websites echo each other in dating the first Oriya talkie, Sita Bibaha , as , but the most authoritative source to definitively date it—Chapman —gives p.
The Rajadhyaksha and Willemen entry gives "? Archived from the original on May 28, Retrieved December 9, The Truth of Korean Movies. Korean Film Archive. Archived from the original on January 13, Archived from the original on January 8, Retrieved December 13, Note that Bordwell's assertion in the earlier text, "Until the late s, the post-dubbing of voices gave poor fidelity, so most dialogue was recorded direct" p.
His later coauthored description, which refers to the viability of looping in , appears to replace the earlier one, as it should: in fact, then and now, most movie dialogue is recorded direct. City of Nets: A Portrait of Hollywood in s reprint ed. Our History. American Federation of Musicians. Archived from the original on June 6, The AFM had its first encounter with wholesale unemployment brought about by technology. Within three years, 22, theater jobs for musicians who accompanied silent movies were lost, while only a few hundred jobs for musicians performing on soundtracks were created by the new technology.
Because synchronizing music with pictures for the movies was particularly difficult, the AFM was able to set high prices for this work. Duke University Libraries. The text of the ad continues: Is Music Worth Saving? Gomery describes the difference in profits simply between and , but it seems clear from the figures cited that he is referring to the fiscal years that ended September The fiscal year roughly paralleled but was still almost a month off from the traditional Hollywood programming year—the prime exhibition season began the first week of September with Labor Day and ran through Memorial Day at the end of May; this was followed by a fourteen-week "open season", when films with minimal expectations were released and many theaters shut down for the hot summer months.
See Crafton , pp. But in , for instance, the U. Note also that Crafton says of the exports, "Of course, most of this footage was silent", though he provides no figures p. In contrast, if not necessarily contradiction, Segrave points to the following: "At the very end of the New York Times reported that most U. May 5, Turner Classic Movies. See also, e. The Deutsches Filminstitut's webpage on the film Archived March 11, , at the Wayback Machine gives 48 minutes; the 35 Millimeter website's entry gives 40 minutes.
According to filmportal. See also Crafton , pp. See also Bordwell and Thompson , p.
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Altman, Rick The Japanese Film: Art and Industry , expanded ed. Princeton, N. Hugh Gray, pp. Bernds, Edward Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press excerpted online. New York: HarperCollins. International Dictionary of Broadcasting and Film , 2d ed. Burlington, Massachusetts: Focal Press. New York: Columbia University Press. Jefferson, N. The First Hollywood Sound Shorts, — Pabst", Image , no. Brownlow, Kevin The Parade's Gone By The Apocalypse and the Shape of Things to Come. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Volume 2: — , ed. Richard Abel, pp.
Cinemas of the World: Film and Society from to the Present. London: Reaktion Books. Cosandey, Roland Stephen Herbert and Luke McKernan. London: BFI Publishing available online. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Crisp, Colin G. The Classic French Cinema, — Middlesex, England, and New York: Penguin. Kees Bakker, pp.
Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. The Paramount Story. New York: Crown.