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No such provision exists with regard to individual dismissals based on the worker's conduct or capacity. As a general rule, dismissal is deemed unfair unless the employer proves the existence of one of the reasons exhaustively listed in the legislation.

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However, this does not apply when the employed woman is found guilty of a serious offence or behaviour justifying termination of the employment relationship, when the undertaking ceases its activities, or when the contract period has come to an end sec. Remarks: No list of prohibited grounds in the LC but a general prohibition of "any form of discrimination in labour relations" sec. There is however an express reference to non discrimination for "claiming rights ensuing from the labour relations in a lawful manner" Sec.

Note that the adoption of an Anti-discrimination Act has been discussed at the Parliament but no agreement has been reached so far Remarks: - Sec. This provision only applies in respect of white-collar employees. Remarks: No ground for dismissals required in the laws reviewed.

In addition sec. Remarks: See anti-discrimination regulation: - The Consolidation Act on Equal treatment of Men and Women as regards Access to Employment, 28 June , prohibits discrimination due to sex. The Act also lays down special rules of the burden of proof in cases were an employee is dismissed during pregnancy, adoption or maternity.

On temporary illness: see sec. Without good cause: Sec. Remarks: - See art. Labour Law [LL], No. In particular, "the committee" is to be replaced by "the labour court" wherever it is mentioned in the principal law. Remarks: No express obligation to provide reasons for dismissing an employee. In addition, there are specific provisions authorizing termination of the contract by the employer in certain circumstances termination in the event of the worker's total incapacity: art.

In addition, the LL provides for a specific regime in the event terminations for economic reasons art. Remarks: See art. In addition, see art. The employer has to notify the worker of the contemplated dismissal fifteen days before the end of the workers' leave entitlement.

Remarks: - Not all the workers' representatives are protected. The Trade Unions Act No. The employer can legally terminate without notice the contract under the following grounds: - if the worker deceived the employer by means of false letters of recommendation or certificates when the contract was concluded. Remarks: - The general provision on non-discrimination in employment art. Even in such case, the dismissal will only be effective immediately after the end of the maternity leave. Note that, as expressed in the previous category, El Salvador has a limited list of valid ground for dismissal.

That means that although many grounds are not expressly observed as prohibited in the legal text, they are still prohibited by exclusion to art. Remarks: - On pregnancy and maternity leave, see art. Trade union immunity protects trade union leaders, candidates for election to the union board, workers in the process of establishing or organizing a union and the founding members. This protection is subject to certain conditions with regard to numbers of persons protected and periods of protection which can be increased through collective agreements.

During the process of establishing the union, protection lasts for not more than 60 days from the date of notification of the administrative authority art. In the case of trade union representatives, protection lasts for up to one year from the expiry of their mandate and for candidate officers, from one month before the elections take place until one week after the election. Employment Contracts Act ECA , adopted in December and entered into force in July , consolidated version including amendment of 28 April , effective since 8 May Remarks: Under the ECA, an employer can terminate an employment contract referred to in the law as "extraordinary cancellation" only for a good reason as provided for in this Act and in accordance with the statutory prior notice requirements art.

The ECA provides a list of valid reasons for termination of employment by the employer which fall within 2 categories: reasons relating to the employee personally art. Reasons relating to the employee personally: - decrease in capacity for work due to the state of health, - decrease of capacity for work due to insufficient work skills, - breach of duties, - appearance at work in a state of intoxication, - commission of a theft, fraud or an act bringing about the loss of the employer's trust in the employee, - bringing about a third party's distrust in the employee, - wrongfully causing damages to the employer's property, - violation of the obligation to maintain confidentiality or violation of the restraint of trade clauses.

Economic reasons : - if the continuance of the employment relationship on the agreed conditions becomes impossible due to a decrease in the work volume, reorganisation of work or other cessation of work lay-off. Remarks: Anti-discrimination provisions : The Equal Treatment Act prohibits discrimination on the grounds of of nationality ethnic origin , race, colour, religion or other beliefs, age, disability or sexual orientation in certain areas including in relation to employment and specifically refers to termination of employment see art.

In addition the Gender Equality Act establishes the prohibition on discrimination based on sex which also cover pregnancy and child-birth, parenting, performance of family obligations or other circumstances related to gender, and sexual harassment in the professional life including in relation to termination of employment see art. If an employer terminates the employment contract of a pregnant woman or a employee raising a child under three years of age, it is presumed that such termination was based on pregnancy or family responsibilities, unless the employer proves that termination was based on a reason permitted under the ECA.

Remarks: - Pregnant women and workers with family responsibilities: Art. In addition, its is prohibited to dismiss a pregnant woman or a woman who has the right to pregnancy and maternity leave due to a decrease of the employee's capacity for work. These prohibitions only apply if the employee has notified the employer of her pregnancy or the right to pregnancy and maternity leave before receipt of a cancellation notice or within 14 days thereafter. The LP defines limited grounds relating to the worker's conduct for resorting to termination without notice art.

In addition, the grounds for termination with notice relating to the worker's capacity or operational requirements are listed in article 28 1 and 2 LP. Employment Contract Act, No. Remarks: See: sec. As a general condition, termination of employment cannot take place without a "proper and weighty reason". Two types of reasons are listed in the ECA: these are reasons connected with the employee's person conduct, and capacity and economic reasons. Economic dismissal of those representatives are authorized provided the job they occupy ceases completely and the employer has been unable to find another suitable job or to train the person for some other work.

Remarks: Motives must be provided by the employer during a prior oral interview: art L LC. In addition, the reasons behind the dismissals should be exposed in the letter of notification of the dismissal: art. L LC. L LC Dismissal for economic reasons: must be equally justified by a serious and genuine cause : art.

NOTE: This information has changed since the previous period covered. L LC: list of prohibited grounds of discrimination. L LC: lawful exercise of the right to strike. L LC: whistle blowing. L LC: dismissal is prohibited during pregnancy, where this has been medically certified, during maternity leave whether or not the worker uses the right to take the leave.

Dismissal is nonetheless permitted in case of a serious fault of the worker unrelated to pregnancy, or when the employer is unable to maintain the contract of employment for reasons unconnected with pregnancy or confinement. The same protection against dismissal applies to a employee in adoption leave see art. L LC - Worker's adviser: art.

L and L LC, employees on adoption leave: art LC Dismissal is prohibited during pregnancy, where this has been medically certified, during maternity leave whether or not the worker uses the right to take the leave and during the period of paid adoption leave, as well as during four weeks after the end of maternity and adoption leave. Dismissal is nonetheless permitted in case of a serious fault of the worker unrelated to pregnancy, or when the employer is unable to maintain the contract of employment for reasons unconnected with pregnancy, confinement or adoption.

However, the dismissal or notice of dismissal may not take place during the periods of maternity and adoption leave. Remarks: - Dismissal based on personal reasons: Art. The violation of the obligation under the work rules and regulations set forth in Paragraph 1 g and h of this Article may serve as the basis for termination of a labour agreement only if the work rules and regulations are an integral part of the labour agreement. Remarks: The General Equal Treatment Act , as amended in prohibits discrimination including with respect of termination of employment on the basis of race, ethnic origin, gender, sexual identity, religion, disability and age: sec.

Prohibition of dismissal during pregnancy and maternity leave: sec. Remarks: - Pregnant women : sec. Prohibition of dismissal except in case of serious misconduct good cause. Remarks: No legal provision requiring justification to the employee. See however art. Remarks: The law does not require the employer to provide reasons to the employees when dismissing them.

However, in the event of collective dismissal, the reasons for it shall be given to the workers' representatives art. Employers can draft a social plan, but they are not obliged to do so Law No. However, during consultation, the parties should cover ways to avoid or reduce the need for dismissals and to mitigate their adverse effects Law No. Remarks: - Contracts of an indefinite duration : No grounds are required. In addition, severance pay has to be paid by the employer, the amount of which varies depending on whether notice was given or not, is compulsory.

Although no grounds are required, this does not result in a total freedom of the employer to dismiss an employee for any reason since the employer shall act within the limits set by the general prohibition of any abuse of rights art. If a Court holds that a dismissal constitutes an abuse of right, it will nullify it. According to case law, a dismissal "which is not justified by the well-meant interests of the employer is void" i. In addition, the employer's freedom to dismiss employees is also limited by the existence of prohibited grounds and by the existence of a special protection against dismissal for certain categories of workers see below.

In such cases, no compensation is payable. However, the dismissal can be valid if there is an important reason for it i. However, dismissal is permitted if it is justified by a specific reason indicated in the Law and if it is approved by the Committee for the Protection of Trade Union officials. Under Law No. As a general rule, dismissal based on trade union activities and membership is prohibited. This includes a prohibition on discriminatory dismissals based on any of these grounds, see Art.

In addition, dismissal is prohibited within one year after the employee returns to work. Such dismissal can however be valid if it is justified by a serious reason and approved by a special committee art. In addition, art. Remarks: Dimissal on the grounds of pregnancy and lactation is prohibited in art. Note that Art. Remarks: - Employees who are members of the Board of Directors of a trade union enjoy special protection: they can only be dimissed with prior authorization from the Labour judge the autorization will be only delivered if the employer duly proved the existence of a just cause art.

If the employer fails to comply with this requirement, he or she will be liable to pay the 6 months' salary to the trade union organization. Such authorization to dismiss can only be given if the existence of one of the just causes listed in art. Remarks: - Race, colour, sex, etc. New in Section 89 7 of the previous Labour Code provided that workers who are between 57 and less than 62 years old, can only be dismissed in "particularly justified cases", unless they are already entitled to pension benefits. However, new Labour Code does not contain such provision.

Contrary to the previous regulation, the new Labour Code allows for dismissal of an employee during the period of sick leave. The order of the superior should normally be in writing. Remarks: The IDA Fifth Schedule on Unfair Labour Practices - these include prohibition of dismissal based on: trade union activity or membership and taking part in a strike which is not deemed to be illegal according to the IDA. To discharge or dismiss workmen: a by way of victimisation; b not in good faith, but in the colourable exercise of the employer's rights; c by falsely implicating a workman in a criminal case on false evidence or on concocted evidence; d for patently false reasons; e on untrue or trumped up allegations of absence without leave; f in utter disregard of the principles of natural justice in the conduct of domestic enquiry or with undue haste; g for misconduct of a minor or technical character, without having any regard to the nature of the particular misconduct or the past record or service of the workman, thereby leading to a disproportionate punishment.

NOTE: This applies only in relation to public employment. Remarks: No express obligation to state the reasons for dismissal. However, according to art. Remarks: See: art. Remarks: No statutory obligation to state the reasons for dismissal. However, according to sec. Remarks: Where a worker is negligent in discharging his or her duties or if, after written warnings, he or she continues to violate the disciplinary rules of the workplace , the employer shall, provided that the Islamic Council is in agreement, pay the worker a sum equal to his or her last monthly wage for each year of service, and to terminate his or her employment contract sec.

In addition, according to sec. Economic reasons as authorized valid grounds for termination of employment result from an amendment to the Labour Code not included in the electronic version of the text provided under "references". Remarks: No information found in the legislation reviewed. Ulteriori misure urgenti per la crescita del Paese. Remarks: A dismissal is unfair unless it is for a just cause no notice required or a justified motive notice required See art.

Under art. Whether such a breach has occurred would normally have to be determined ultimately by a court, taking all relevant factors into account. Justified reason is defined as a very significant breach of contract made on the side of the employee subjective justified reason as well as ; or reasons inherent in the production process, the organization of work or the smooth running of the undertaking objective justified reason sec. Remarks: - Worker's representatives: there is a protection in art.

Specific remedies are also provided under Art. This prohibition does not however prevent an employer for dismissing a female employee in the event of serious misconduct just cause or in case of cessation of the activities of the employer. Remarks: Upon request of the dismissed employee, the employer shall issue a certificate indicating the reason for dismissal in writing and without delay, i.

Remarks: Under the Civil Code, both parties can terminate an employment contract of indefinite duration at will provided that two weeks' notice is given art. However, the freedom of the employer to dismiss an employee has been restricted by the Japanese courts which have developed the doctrine of abusive dismissal based on the basic principle of prohibition of abuse of rights enshrined in art. The amendment to the LSA codified this long-established case-law under art. Since the entry into force of the Labour Contract Act , art. This provision reads as follows: "A dismissal shall, if it lacks objectively reasonable grounds and is not considered to be appropriate in general societal terms, be treated as an abuse of rights and be invalid".

These rules must be established in all enterprises employing ten or more workers. If an employee is dismissed during the above-mentioned periods, such dismissal will be void. Specific laws regulating certain aspects on employment also contain provisions on the prohibition to dismiss a worker for reporting violations of these laws to the competent authority i. More specifically, art. Although political opinions is not listed as a prohibited ground in art. Hanami, Fumito Komiya: 'Japan', in R. Blanpain ed. Section 14 3 of the same Act also prohibits dismissal and other unfavourable treatment of a FTC or part-time worker for having requested information to the employer regarding their treatments on the difference in treatment compared to regular workers and reasons for it in accordance with Section 14 2.

Note that art. Remarks: The LL does not require the employer to provide the reasons for termination. The party who intends to terminate the contract is only requested to notify the other party in writing of his or her intention to terminate the contract art. Remarks: The LL does not list Art. They are however not mentioned in the LL as prohibited grounds for dismissal. There shall be no discrimination between them as regards to their rights and duties on grounds of race, language or religion.

For an employee disabled in connection with an industrial accident or occupational disease, his job position is retained until his working capacity is restored or disability established; 21 a corruption-related crime committed by the employee and excluding, in accordance with a judicial act, the possibility of his continued work. This does not apply in the event of payment of the statutory compensation following an occupational injury or disease or in the event of business closure. Labour Code of , as last amended on 26 June with Law No.

Labour Code, Order No. Such statement shall be given to the employee either before dismissal, at the time of dismissal or within four weeks of the dismissal having taken effect".

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On HIV status, see: art. Remarks: - Women on maternity leave, see art. L 2 LC. Remarks: Except for marital status and pregnancy, those grounds are listed in art. L LC non-discrimination in employment including dismissal: art. L 1 c LC. L LC: No contractual clause can stipulate that the contract of a woman employee be terminated on the grounds that she got married. L LC: Dismissal with notice is prohibited during pregnancy as established by a medical certificate , during a period of 12 weeks after birth.

Art 73 LRA. Remarks: According to art. See also: art. Remarks: - Non-discrimination: Art. This prohibition also applies to fathers on parental or adoption leave. A trade union representative can only be dismissed with the prior approval of the trade union. In case the trade union refuses to give approval, such approval can be given by the court. This protection applies during the whole period of the mandate and and at least two years after its expiration.

Published in the Official Journal J. Remarks: - Worker's opinion and trade union membership or activities: see art. See art. Remarks: - Any dismissal of a workers' representative, a trade union officer or a member of the works council is subject to the authorization of the Labour Inspector see Arts. However dismissal is possible if the pregnant employee commits malpractice which is not connected to her pregnancy: Art.

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Employment Act [EA], No. Remarks: No explicit mention of an obligation to state the reasons for dismissal. If he or she fails to do so there shall be a presumption that the dismissal was unfair. See also the general provision of non-discrimination including in respect of termination of employment : art. On pregnancy, see: art 49 1 EA: an employer who terminates the employment of an employee because of her pregnancy or for any reason connected with her pregnancy shall be guilty of an offence and liable to a fine and 5 years imprisonment.

This Act entered into force on April 1st, Remarks: No statutory obligation. However sec. The EA authorizes termination without notice in the following cases: Sec. New as of April : The amendments to the EA have introduced a new part on Sexual harassment. Unlike the previous Section 40 3 EA which now has been deleted , sec. New as of April Prior to the amendments the provisions on maternity leave were applicable to female employees depending on their wages.

As of April , a new Section 44A has been introduced in the EA, and it states that maternity leave entitlements are now extended to all female employees, irrespective of their wage. Constitutes also an offence the dismissal of a female employee who remains absent from work after the expiration of the protection period as a result of illness arising out of her pregnancy or confinement sec. Remarks: The FLA establishes a distinction between dismissal despido art.

Under the FLA dismissal despido can only be justified by reasons related to the worker's conduct listed below. Before commencing service, the worker should inform the employer of the facts and submit a certificate signed by a medical practitioner; - if the worker receives an executory judgement sentencing him or her to a term of imprisonment preventing him or her from fulfilling the obligations under the employment relationship; and - on grounds similar to those laid down in the preceding clauses if they are of equal gravity and entail similar consequences as far as the work is concerned.

Note that poor performance of the worker is not a statutory ground for dismissal. No other economic reasons are listed. Note also that Art. In addition the Federal Law to prevent and eliminate discrimination of , last amended in defines discrimination as any distinction on the grounds of ethnic or national origin, sex, age, disability, social or financial condition, health condition, pregnancy, language, religion, opinions, sexual orientation, marital status or any other reason. In addition anti-Semitism and xenophobia are considered to be discrimination art. However, this law does not establish any civil or criminal liabilities, but rather promotional administrative measures which can only be imposed on individuals provided that they have accepted the corresponding conciliation agreement.

Art 88 1 a LC on economic dismissal. In addition, the necessity of the dismissal is to be proved before the court by the employer art. In addition to those grounds, are listed the place of residence and "other criteria not connected with professional qualities". Dismissal of a trade union member on certain grounds requires the preliminary consent of the trade union from the enterprise.

In other cases, preliminary consultation with the trade union is required. Remarks: No express obligation to indicate the reasons for dismissals. However, this might be inferred from the fact that the law provides a limited list of valid reasons for dismissing an employee art. Remarks: The LC provides for a list a valid reasons justifying termination at the initiative of the employer, as follows art. In addition, an employee can be dismissed for the following reasons art. This protection also applies to a single father with a child under the age of 3.

See also, art. This protection applies to the entire negotiation process and until 1 year after negotiations have been completed art. Note: following the amendments, the relevant article numbers have changed but not their content. Remarks: New in : The provision on valid grounds for dismissal has been substantially modified by the amendments to the LL adopted in December See also the following provisions which were already included in the LL: - Art. Therefore, what is new in is the introduction of a comprehensive provision on prohibited grounds for dismissal in addition to scattered provisions on discrimination or specific protection against dismissal in certain situations.

In addition, compared to the grounds already prohibited in the LL, new grounds have been introduced : temporary absence from work due to illness, accident at work or occupational disease; parental leave, absence from work for child care , and recourse to competent authorities where the following issues are at stake infringement of employment rights, corruption, environmental threats.

The law also specifies that they may not be declared redundant employees due to the introduction of technological, economic or restructuring changes [special child care leave] art. New in December art. The trade union must provide a statement with its opinion within 5 days. Art 94 3 LL provides for severance pay for workers suffering from disability see under severance pay.

When disciplinary sanctions are exhausted within the year, the employer may proceed with the dismissal of the employee. In this case, the dismissal is considered justified. The decision to dismiss must include the reasons justifying the employee's dismissal. Labour Act [LA], No. Remarks: sec. In addition constitute an unfair dismissal any dismissal based on: sex, race, colour, ethnic origin, religion, creed or social or economic status, political opinion and marital status sec. On maternity leave, see sec. The prohibition does not apply if the employer has offered the employee comparable alternative employment; and she has unreasonably refused to accept that offer.

Next to the UWV, the decision on the authorization of collective dismissals based on economic reasons can also be referred to a special committee, which has been established by a tripartite collective agreement, between the employer and worker representatives, approved by the competent administrative authority, Art. Furthermore, the DR lists several special circumstances under which an economic dismissal cannot be considered reasonable, see Art.

A refusal to grant authorization for the termination by both the UWV or the tripartite committee can be appealed to the district court Cantonal Court , Art. These are the worker's inability to perform his or her job, in case the employer has given the employee the opportunity to improve his or her work capacity; a serious refusal to follow instructions of the employer; any other serious misconduct of the employee OR any other comparable circumstances.

For a summary dismissal, important reasons are required. A non-exhaustive list of acts which amount to urgent cause is provided in Art. Such acts relate to the worker's conduct, i. Remarks: Race, sex; religion.. The latter will only be given when the employer can make a convincing case that the reason for termination is not related to the employee's duties for the works council. Remarks: An employer is prohibited from giving notice: 1 when an employee who is fit to perform the agreed work is pregnant, during her maternity leave or the six weeks following the end of that period Art.

Remarks: Any dismissed employee has the right to request a written statement indicating the reasons for the dismissal, within 60 days after the dismissal or within 60 days after the employee has become aware of the dismissal, whichever is the later. The employer shall provide such statement within 14 days after the request art. Remarks: The ERA provides for a remedy to any employee who has been "unjustifiably dismissed" see sec.

The statutory definition of involvement union activity includes trade union membership and also a number of grounds such as participation in a lawful strike, filing a complaint or participation in proceedings against an employer, submitting a personal grievance against an employer, taking an employment relations education leave; sec. Dismissal of employees is also prohibited during parental leave and during 26 weeks thereafter. The dismissal of a pregnant employee is permitted if her state of health is materially affected by causes which are not related to pregnancy sec.

Furthermore, Sec. Remarks: As already stated, dismissal is prohibited on grounds of pregnancy and of a woman's state of health during pregnancy, and on grounds that a male or female employee intends to take parental leave or to assume the care of a child with a view of adoption. However, the employer is allowed to dismiss an employee for a substantial reason which is not related to the above-mentioned grounds. There is a special protection against dismissal of a male or a female employee during parental leave and during 26 weeks thereafter: it is prohibited for the employer to dismiss them.

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Cyberbullies, commonly referred as trolls on the internet, basking in anonymity have the power of abusing and harassing a person without fear of any ramification of their actions. Politicians, actors, and sportspersons get cyberbullied routinely and report the distress it causes to them. Yet, there are no clear laws or regulatory guidelines to handle this complex issue. It is high time that the mental health fraternity comes forward to address the issue of cyberbullying with more focused research and help the lawmakers in formulating policies and regulatory laws that will help to identify as well as curb the menace.

Another important and effective broker in identifying and stopping cyberbullying is school, where the role of mental health professional becomes pivotal in formulating effective school-based anti-cyberbullying programs, which focus on individual psychotherapy as well as educate the students on cyber-ethics and the cyber laws. It is also imperative that mental health professionals use their critical expertise in formulating and implementing school- and community-wide approaches to cyberbullying prevention. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.

Bullying in the workplace

Journal List Indian J Psychiatry v. Indian J Psychiatry. Sathyanarayana Rao. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Address for correspondence: Dr. E-mail: moc. This is an open access journal, and articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4. Definitions of bullying and cyberbullying: How useful are the terms; pp. Psychological, physical, and academic correlates of cyberbullying and traditional bullying. J Adolesc Health. Patchin J. Cyberbullying Data — Cyberbullying Research Center.

Cyberbullying Research Center. Hinduja S, Patchin JW. Bullying, cyberbullying, and suicide. Arch Suicide Res. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 12 3 , — Crick, N. Superiority is in the eye of the beholder: A comment on Sutton, smith, and Swettenham. Social Development, 8 1 , — Experiencing depersonalized bullying: A study of Indian call Centre agents. Work Organization, Labour and Globalization, 3 1 , 26— The Qualitative Report, 15 3 , — The exit coping response to workplace bullying: The contribution of inclusivist and exclusivist HRM strategies.

Employee Relations, 32 2 , — The limits to workplace friendship: Managerialist HRM and bystander behaviour in the context of workplace bullying. Employee Relations, 33 3 , — Clarifying my world: Identity work in the context of workplace bullying. The Qualitative Report, 17 8 , 1— Navigating the extended reach: Target experiences of cyberbullying at work. Information and Organization, 23 4 , — Ambivalence: Employee responses to depersonalized bullying at work. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 36 1 , — Daniels, K. Dollard, M. Frustration and aggression. New Haven: Yale University Press. Dooley, J.

Cyberbullying versus face-to-face bullying: A theoretical and conceptual review. Journal of Psychology, 4 , — Douglas, S. Exploring the role of individual differences in the prediction of workplace aggression. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86 4 , — Einarsen, S. The nature and causes of bullying at work. International Journal of Manpower, 20 1 , 16— Harassment at work and the victimization of men. Violence and Victims, 12 , — Bullying at work: Epidemiological findings in public and private organizations.

European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 5 2 , — Measuring exposure to bullying and harassment at work: Validity, factor structure and psychometric properties of the negative acts questionnaire-revised. Bullying and emotional abuse in the workplace: International perspectives in research and practice. The concept of bullying and harassment at work: The European tradition. Einarsen, H. Hoel, D. Cooper Eds. Emerson, R. Exchange theory. Part I: A psychological basis for social exchange.

Berger, M. Anderson Eds. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin. Individual- and group-level effects of social identification on workplace bullying. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 22 2 , — Finne, L. Workplace bullying and mental distress—A prospective study of Norwegian employees.

Folger, J. Working through conflict: A communication perspective. Glenview: Scott Foresman. Gardner, D. Predictors of workplace bullying and cyber-bullying in New Zealand. Giorgi, G. Exploring personal and organizational determinants of workplace bullying and its prevalence in a Japanese sample. Psychology of Violence, 3 2 , — Do targets of workplace bullying portray a general victim personality profile? Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 48 4 , — Interpersonal problems among perpetrators and targets of workplace bullying. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 39 6 , — Goodwin, S.

The psychological sting of stigma: The costs of attributing ostracism to racism. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46 4 , — Gradinger, P. Traditional bullying and cyberbullying: Identification of risk groups for adjustment problems. Greenier, K. Individual differences in reactivity to daily events: Examining the roles of stability and level of self-esteem. Journal of Personality, 67 1 , — Gregory, B. Abusive supervision and citizenship behaviors: Exploring boundary conditions.

Journal of Managerial Psychology, 28 6 , — Hansen, A. Bullying at work, health outcomes, and physiological stress response. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 60 1 , 63— Harlos, K. When organizational voice systems fail: More on the deaf ear syndrome. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 37 3 , — If you build a remedial voice mechanism, will they come?

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Determinants of voicing interpersonal mistreatment at work. Human Relations, 63 3 , — Harris, K. An investigation of abusive supervision, vicarious abusive supervision, and their joint impacts. The Journal of Social Psychology, 1 , 38— Hauge, L. Relationships between stressful work environments and bullying: Results of a large representative study. Individual and situational predictors of workplace bullying: Why do perpetrators engage in the bullying of others?

Henle, C. What have I done to deserve this? Effects of employee personality and emotion on abusive supervision. Journal of Business Ethics, 3 , — Hershcovis, M. Comparing victim attributions and outcomes for workplace aggression and sexual harassment. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 95 5 , — The relationship between workplace aggression and target deviant behaviour: The moderating roles of power and task interdependence. Hoel, H. Workplace bullying, psychological perspectives and industrial relations: Towards a contextualized and interdisciplinary approach.

British Journal of Industrial Relations, 44 2 , — Workplace bullying. Robertson Eds. Chichester: Wiley. Leadership styles as predictors of self-reported and observed workplace bullying. British Journal of Management, 21 2 , — Organisational effects of workplace bullying. Hogh, A. Individual consequences of workplace bullying. Ireland, J. Association between measures of aggression and bullying among juvenile young offenders.

Aggressive Behavior, 30 1 , 29— Characteristics of male and female prisoners involved in bullying behavior. Aggressive Behavior, 33 3 , — Jennifer, D. Perceptions and experience of workplace bullying in five different working populations. Aggressive Behavior, 29 6 , — Jordan, C. Types of high self-esteem and prejudice: How implicit self-esteem relates to ethnic discrimination among high explicit self-esteem individuals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31 , — Klaas, B. Managerial reactions to employee dissent: The impact of grievance activity on performance ratings.

Academy of Management Journal, 32 4 , — Kressel, K. Coleman Eds. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Lee, R. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 15 3 , — Coping with workplace aggression. Hershcovis Eds. Leiter, M. The impact of civility interventions on employee social behavior, distress, and attitudes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96 6 , — Leon-Perez, J. Identifying victims of workplace bullying by integrating traditional estimation approaches into a latent class cluster model. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 29 7 , — Lewin, D. Dispute resolution in the nonunion firm: A theoretical and empirical analysis.

Journal of Conflict Resolution, 31 3 , — Lewis, D. Voices in the social construction of bullying at work: Exploring multiple realities in further and higher education. International Journal of Management and Decision-Making, 4 1 , 65— Workplace bullying in the public sector: Understanding the racial dimension. Public Administration, 85 3 , — Leymann, H. The content and development of mobbing at work. Mobbing at work and the development of posttraumatic stress disorders. Lian, H. Abusive supervision and retaliation: A self-control framework.

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Academy of Management Journal, 57 1 , — Liang, L. Why are abusive supervisors abusive? A dual-system self-control model. Academy of Management Journal, 59 4 , — Liefooghe, A. Accounts of workplace bullying: The role of the organization. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 10 4 , — Linton, D. The personality traits of workplace bullies are often shared by their victims: Is there a dark side to victims?

Personality and Individual Differences, 54 6 , — Lippel, K. The law of workplace bullying: An international overview. Comparative Labor Law and Policy Journal, 32 1 , 1— Lipsky, D. Emerging systems for managing workplace conflict: Lessons from American corporations for managers and dispute resolution professionals. Liu, J. Abusive supervision and subordinate supervisor-directed deviance: The moderating role of traditional values and the mediating role of revenge cognitions.

Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83 4 , — Liu, D. The dark side of leadership: A three-level investigation of the cascading effect of abusive supervision on employee creativity. Academy of Management Journal, 55 5 , — Lutgen-Sandvik, P. Intensive remedial identity work: Responses to workplace bullying trauma and stigmatization. Organization, 15 1 , 97— Making sense of supervisory bullying: Perceived powerlessness, empowered possibilities. Southern Communication Journal, 76 4 , — Malamut, A.

Coping with sexual harassment: Personal, environmental, and cognitive determinants. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86 6 , — Martinko, M. Learned helplessness: An alternative explanation for performance deficits. Academy of Management Review, 7 2 , — Toward an integrative theory of counterproductive workplace behavior: A causal reasoning perspective. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 10 1—2 , 36— Maslach, C. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press. Matthiesen, S.

Journalism Certificate

MMPI-2 configurations among victims of bullying at work. Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 10 4 , — Psychiatric distress and symptoms of PTSD among victims of bullying at work. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 32 3 , — Perpetrators and targets of bullying at work: Role stress and individual differences. Violence and Victims, 22 6 , — Mawritz, M. A trickle-down model of abusive supervision. Personnel Psychology, 65 2 , — McCluney, C. Identity matters: Contextualizing workplace aggression within a social structural framework.

Meier, L. Episodes of incivility between subordinates and supervisors: Examining the role of self-control and time with an interaction-record diary study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 36 8 , — Michalak, R. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Queensland, Brisbane. Mikkelsen, E. Basic assumptions and post-traumatic stress among victims of workplace bullying.

European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 11 1 , 87— Milam, A. Investigating individual differences among targets of workplace incivility. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 14 1 , 58— Miller, D. Disrespect and the experience of injustice. Annual Review of Psychology, 52 , — Mulder, R. The Journal of Social Psychology, 1 , 16— Naseer, S. Effect of perceived politics and perceived support on bullying and emotional exhaustion: The moderating role of type a personality.

The Journal of Psychology, 5 , — Neuman, J. Workplace violence and workplace aggression: Evidence concerning specific forms, potential causes, and preferred targets. Journal of Management, 24 3 , — Nielsen, M. Methodological issues in research on workplace bullying. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Bergen, Bergen. Outcomes of exposure to workplace bullying: A meta-analytic review. Is workplace bullying related to the personality traits of victims? A two-year prospective study. Prevalence of workplace bullying in Norway: Comparisons across time and estimation methods.

European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 18 1 , 81— Measuring exposure to workplace bullying. Developments in theory, research and practice pp. Notelaers, G. The world turns at 33 and Defining simple cutoff scores for the Negative Acts Questionnaire—Revised in a representative sample. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 22 6 , — Measuring exposure to bullying at work: The validity and advantages of the latent class cluster approach.

Cyberbullying: A virtual offense with real consequences

A meta-analysis of the dark triad and work behavior: A social exchange perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97 3 , — Self-esteem and its relationship to bullying behaviour. Aggressive Behavior, 27 4 , — Oh, J. An emotional process theory of how subordinates appraise, experience, and respond to abusive supervision over time.

Academy of Management Review, 42 2 , — Coping with bullying in the workplace: The effect of gender, age and type of bullying.

Olson-Buchanan, J.