The late Shalamov is arguably more subjective than the mature Shalamov of his middle period, Urgent Embodiment. He survived, but many others did not. In many ways, the first cycles of Kolyma Tales are not about Shalamov, although they are undoubtedly based on his personal experiences and furthermore indebted to his survival. They could all be, but the objective lens and laconic style through which their fates are narrated show them to be collective and general rather than individual and specific. His late style is, in other words, personal. The transitory hero is a careful construction made to be against and essentially contradictory to a literary character or conventional hero.
It seems to me that late style is about more than proximity to death, exile, disability, or notions of greatness; late style also contributes to a new understanding and different representation of the self for the late artist. Shalamov and his works can serve as an example this: his late style is often retrospective but never nostalgic, often personal but never private, and often faithful to historical facts but never as faithful when it comes to the fictions of literary traditions.
Case in point, his late works sometimes contain what appear to be consciously incorrect intertextual allusions. Conditions in the Gulag are, indeed, seldom treated as grounds for personal grievance. Shalamov was a witness, a survivor, and a chronicler of the Gulag — an important role that he recognized and understood — yet what he wanted to become was a chronicler of his own soul50 and to be considered a professional writer above everything else.
This subjective perspective on his creative process contradicts much of what he wrote during his last period, yet such contradictions are what make up the fascinating and difficult basis of his late style. It is my hope that this dissertation will be of interest not only to Shalamov scholars, scholars of Russian literature, Soviet history, and concentration camp narratives, but also to those interested in questions of late style, exile, disability studies, subjectivity, and, more broadly, problems of representation in literature. Is it possible to prevent evil and so that it not happen again.
I do not believe in this and my short stories will not yield such use. This is my duty. Who dares call this short story a legend? It is in the context of this crisis, I will argue, that his late style begins to form. This discrepancy informed his trajectory as a writer and it seems that he recalled the defeat of the writers in the s again when he articulated his own understanding of literature in the s — not only what literature should be, but also how literature should be written and by whom.
The scientists were even more educated in literary questions, in issues of the psychology of creativity, than any of the writers. Veresaev directed his hearing horn also toward the mouths of the scientists and smiled with satisfaction after the speech of [Boris] Zavadovsky or [Pyotr] Lisitsyn. See, Veresaev, Vikentii. Moskva: Nedra, And with some special strain of the brain that was previously unknown to me, I guess the words and manage to select an answer and I feel more human.
And no one knows how much mental and nervous strength each conversation costs me. About the century-wolfhound. No, with my illness horn and glasses do not help. More than that — my own refusal to hear with the help of glasses serves to distinguish my illness, or, as the doctors say, it provides a tool for a differential diagnosis. Similarly, his disability is rarely addressed or directly represented in his late works — this autobiographical fragment, which was never included in any of his short story cycles, is a rare text in that it explicitly problematizes his deafness.
Rather than becoming the main focus of his late style, as it overwhelmed his private life at the same time, his disability is an unspoken dimension of these later texts that nevertheless shapes their emphasis on the intimate interconnectivity of experience and representation. Within it, we can trace his anxieties concerning his position as a marginal author in contemporary Soviet society and a tension not only between fact and fiction,60 but also between his ideas of what a Russian writer must be, what Russian literature may become, and his personal situation of disability and exile.
Much of what is common knowledge about his works positions them as marginal. His genre of choice, a hybrid short story form, is far from the novel at the top of the Russian literary hierarchy; until recently Kolyma Tales were not included in the canon of Russian literature; the camp theme, albeit emblematic of the twentieth-century, is a minor topic in mainstream literature; and the geographies of his works Kolyma, Vishera, Vologda are on the periphery of the Russian map. Voprosy teorii i praktiki. First, manifestos are written and acted out by marginal groups.
Paradoxically, the choice of marginal subject matters by peripheral research centers helps the latter improve their position in the global literary critical field. The purpose of providing both his manifesto and its statements with a literary and historical context is here first and foremost to neutralize his more radical claims and to relativize their consequences within the broader artistic and cultural continuum of the twentieth century. Shalamov not only inscribes himself into the Russian literary tradition through a self-made rupture, but also positions himself in an international context with his manifesto.
Konspekt poslelagernoi biografii Varlama Shalamov. Lichnoe izdanie: , Moskva: NLO, , Riggs, Thomas. Detroit: St. James Press, , xvi. See also Puchner, Martin. Princeton: Princeton University Press, , Shalamov had a rich tradition of manifesto writing to draw upon when he produced his own: not only from the European political and artistic manifestoes of the past, but also from the Russian avant-garde movements of the early twentieth century.
The two generations of Russian symbolists had such texts akin to literary manifestoes. Shklovsky, and Yu. For many of them, [the term] was characterized by A. On this account a generalization immediately arises: the author of Kolyma Tales is an artistic child of the s; he was preserved for almost a quarter century with a short break in the camp captivity and arose with new force at a different time, when he turned out to be untimely.
Moskva: Molodaia gvardiia, , On the contrary, it now meant joining a long tradition: it meant pledging allegiance to the institution of leftist thought even as the origin of the tradition, the Communist Manifesto, receded into history. The artistic manifesto was going through a similar experience. Originally conceived as a means of declaring a new point of departure, a complete rupture with all preceding art, avant-garde manifestos now had to admit that they were part of a tradition — a tradition of manifesto writing.
See Caws, Mary. Manifesto: A Century of Isms. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, , Steiner, Peter. In the early twentieth century, political and artistic concerns in their respective manifestoes overlapped in the sense that both attempted to usher in radical change. In response to this tradition of manifesto writing from the past two centuries, attempts have been made to construct a genre of the manifesto from the discursive conventions displayed in the majority of them. Thesis M. The Romantic Manifesto: An Anthology. Manifestoes: Provocations of the Modern.
Is the destruction of human beings by the state really not the main issue of our time, of our morality, which has entered the psychology of each family? In addition to the five characteristics of the genre outlined above, the artistic manifesto often exhibits several conventions of style. One of these conventions has been traced back to the manifesto of Italian futurism. Scholars have commented upon how the rhetorical strategies in the futurist manifesto reproduce the aesthetic program it proclaims and how it can also be read as an example of a futurist artwork. Or it can be more than a document.
Landscape is not accepted at all. The reader has no time to think about the psychological significance of digressions about the landscape. If landscape is described, then very sparingly. Every detail of the landscape becomes a symbol, a sign, and only under this condition does it retain its value, viability, necessity. Such a theme can be death, death, murder, Calvary This should be told about calmly, without declamation. What it announces is itself. At its height, it is the deictic genre par excellence.
In his manifesto, Shalamov settles his scores with literature — foreign as well as Russian, of both the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
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Niels Bohr said this phrase in relation to scientists, but it accepted as true for artists as well. Art is deprived of the right to preach. Nobody can, nobody has the right to teach. More importantly, these authors were all professional writers, or at least considered writing one of their main vocations. What unites these authors is that they also had other vocations that informed their writing.
This group could be further divided into two: professionals and poets. The primacy of experience over imagination, of art as a secondary reflection upon the life already lived rather than a life imagined, seems to inform also his generic preferences. Both Shalamov the writer and Shalamov the reader rejected novels in favor of short stories in general and short story cycles in particular. Gauguin in Noa Noa wrote: if it seems to you that the tree is green — take the best green color and paint. You cannot go wrong. You have found it. You decided. It is about the purity of tones.
Niels Bohr said this phrase in relation to scientists, but would be fair to apply it to artists, too. Kolyma Tales shows an almost hyperbolic devotion to this kind of cyclization: first through the inclusion of a selection of short stories in a cycle and, second, through the inclusion of such a cycle in a constellation of other cycles. Cyclization is in a sense a compromise: the short story can exist, as its author intended, but the cycle is alluring to a reader used to more pages under one title as well as within one cover.
New York: Twayne Publishers, , xiii. For a more detailed discussion, see Introduction, ibid. Unable to find a place for himself or his works in any of the literary outlets of the late s and early s, he wrote a manifesto that articulates a space beyond the ideological limits and aesthetic conventions of both official and unofficial literature. This rejection begins in his manifesto, and can be traced through his thinking about his own works in his programmatic letters of , to Sirotinskaya, and of , to Aleksandr Kremenskoi.
Writing about his own writing, he moves from a denunciation of the Soviet interpretation, or mythologization, of nineteenth-century Russian literature, through references to the avant-garde legacy of Russian modernism and the politicization of both official Soviet literature and unofficial Russian literature, until he arrives at a forceful polemic with the most hegemonic of literary institutions: the Nobel Prize in literature. Shalamov wrote his manifesto when more Russian writers than ever became laureates of the Nobel Prize in literature.
Pasternak received, and was forced to reject, the award in ; at that time, Pasternak and Shalamov were estranged. To speak with him was not necessary It so happened that I had to find out about all the events before and after the Nobel Prize from the newspapers. Baura, N. Boris Pasternak i Nobelevskaia premiia. His manifesto mentions five Nobel Prize laureates — four in literature and one in physics, four past and one future: Bohr physics, , Faulkner literature, , Hemingway literature, , Pasternak literature , and Solzhenitsyn literature, These four authors have a unity, and that unity does not do honor to the Nobel Committee.
Doctor Zhivago is an attempt by a modernist to create a realist novel — not to return to the precepts of Pushkin, not to the tradition of Andrei Bely and Blok, but to the stylistic and moral tradition of Tolstoy. It is striking that none of the four is even close to Dostoevsky — the only Russian writer that stepped into the twentieth century and foretold its problems. In the committee, they obviously do not believe in Dostoevsky.
The awards during 50 years were anti-Dostoevsky in principle. The wife of some White Guard officer killed during the Civil War, issued a letter accusing Sholokhov of plagiarism. The manuscript of the novel supposedly belongs to her husband. These allegations were checked. The use of such materials is the right of every writer. Dostoevsky was a genius. No doping, no Nobel Prize can return realism. For an unpublished author, the Nobel Prize was about more than official and international recognition — it was also about money and symbolic power.
Yet being unpublished, and thus relatively unknown, granted Shalamov the freedom to criticize the Nobel Prize in literature as forcefully as he wished. He had nothing to lose — quite literally. Instead of resigning himself to a marginal space of cultural neglect and literary insignificance, he supersedes with his own literary institution the institutions into which he was not allowed. In this subversive move, Shalamov becomes the leading writer, if not the only writer. This idea of self-made recognition appears straightforward and simple enough within the texts that restate and reproduce its central claims, i.
Beyond these texts, this idea becomes problematic at best. However, both its prevalence in the manifesto and the fact that Shalamov did not use the phrase in the earlier short stories included in Kolyma Tales indicates its importance for his thinking about literature at the beginning of his late style. The choice unleashed a storm of protest, with 42 Swedish writers and artists sending a letter to Tolstoy, more or less apologizing for the omission. Stockholm: Swedish Academy, , The dedication of the cycle to Sirotinskaya, whom Shalamov did not meet until March , suggests that he finalized The Left Bank no earlier than that year.
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Even the method dictates this. As the authors of memoirs, the writers of new prose must not place themselves higher, see themselves as smarter than everyone else, to claim the role of a judge. Yet such model situations appear few and far between in his late works. His answers to the second set of questions shifted during his late style. However, this imperative begins to unravel as Shalamov becomes confronted with anxieties concerning the significance of his own life.
In , he made the following observation in his notebook: And I saw that the life of the second person is infinitely more significant than mine. The first person [Solzhenitsyn] left me only with contempt, while the second [Nadezhda Mandelstam] with infinite admiration and devotion. The literary independence Shalamov proclaims in it suggests his anxiety as a marginal author and his loneliness as an exiled person who also suffered from disability. Yet his practice of his own theory was not concerned only with his life and memory, but also with the recuperation of the lives and memories of others, many of whom perished in the camps and who could therefore not tell their own stories.
This tension came to the forefront in his manifesto and subsequently informed his late style. Not only because in this manuscript the reader will find an answer to a number of questions that concern Russian society, not only because memoirs are the fate of the Russian intelligentsia. Not only because it deals with questions of the psychology of creativity in a brilliant form. Not only because it presents the covenants O. It is clear that any aspect of the memoir will generate a huge interest all over the world, for all of reading Russia.
But N. This is a new form of a memoir: very comprehensive, very convenient. The real, personal, and essentially unrepresentable experience that is, or rather was, the wound dissolves with the inescapable passage of time and is eventually replaced by healed yet disfiguring skin. The scar cannot represent the pain, the depth, or more importantly, the circumstance of the wound; yet it implies the presence of the wound and simultaneously highlights its absence. The Gulag experience is a wound that cannot be known; or, as Shalamov put it, the camps are a segment of society that should not be known.
Yaroslavla Mudrogo, 44 : If there is no immortality, then life is the greatest absurdity; for him this is an axiom, and there is no point to even argue. Sobranie sochinenii v 5-i tt. Moskva: Pravda, The miraculous and powerful force of life is not afraid of any suffering, it goes with joy and determination to meet suffering, triumphs in it, and enjoys it, and loves it, and suffering itself transforms into a bright, exultant joy. A person becomes neither better nor stronger after the camp. This haunting desire acquires the character of a volitional endeavor.
And you do not think about anything else. If immediate access to the primary event as well as intimate participation in its secondary representation is crucial to the creation of his text, we may conclude that Shalamov, in one way or another, was always trying to write about himself — around himself, from himself, to himself, perhaps even for himself.
He did not finish About Kolyma; neither did he finish the antinovel Vishera about his first camp sentence in the northern Urals Moreover, his childhood narrative The Fourth Vologda seems to be more about his father than himself. The use of both authentic and false names, a transitory hero — all these are means serving one purpose. About death of as the compositional basis of the work. About the aesthetics of decay, decomposition, dismemberment The fact of death precedes the beginning of the plot. The line between life and death has been passed for all characters before the moment when we open the book and, having opened it, we start the clock counting down the artistic time artistic.
The transitory hero is both a response and a challenge to the conventional understanding and function of characters in Russian literature of the past and in Soviet literature of the present. Does their present look like that of an animal, or is it the present of a human being? Within this collective of non-heroes in the camps, the coherent vantage point of someone still guides the reader through the human fates contained within in them. In the first cycles of Kolyma Tales, he resembles Shalamov but does not yet share his name.
This is the beginning of the transitory hero before he converges with the identity of his writer, subsumes his status as witness, and merges with the voice of the narrator in his late style. When the writer becomes witness, because the witness strives to become writer, and the narrator appears as the hero, the joint figure they create is capable of functioning as a mediator between the living and the dead as well as between life and art.
The modern reader understands after two words what is at stake and needs no detailed external portrait, he does not need a classic plot development, and so on. The original meaning of the lyric hero was linked with the image of the poet as a person in contemporary society — a background which subsequent Soviet scholarship on poetry largely ignored when the term became a standard way of referring to human subjects in poems without necessarily conflating them with their author.
This theme attracts like the theme of a novel that is still of a new, unborn or unconscious formation. It is about this lyric hero that they speak right now. This situation is not unique to Blok, but fits many occasions when the work of a writer seems inseparable from his life. The case of Shalamov and the perception of him by his readers in samizdat provide another example of this. Vologograd: izd. Volgogradskogo universiteta, , Ginzburg, Lidiia.
O Lirike. Moskva: Intrada, , Arhaisty i Novatory. Ann Arbor, Mich: Ardis, , Writing his manifesto, he knew that his readership was limited; however, the fact of the manifesto suggests that his marginal position was not as important as the centrality he could claim through the act of writing it. Besides, almost all of what we know about Shalamov is what he wrote. Everyone asked: Who is this?
Who is this? What a familiar face. I: Tell them that I am the face of time and therefore familiar to all. The characters of nineteenth-century Russian literature were to be replications of types found in society rather than only fictional creations. For example, the superfluous man of the nineteenth-century novel was considered symptomatic of the cultural climate at the time. Instead, their common point of departure appears to be the positive hero of socialist realism.
The transitory hero and the piecemeal trajectory of his life together with his fragmentary interiority defy incorporation into any kind of grand narrative preferred by socialist realism. This difference might not be merely one of genre, in that the positive hero lives in novels whereas the transitory hero inhabits short stories and cycles, but rather one of difference in the literary representation of human experience. In socialist realism, human complexities were sacrificed in favor of a simplified construction of a de-personalized positive hero who is both a symbol and the embodiment of the myth of the historical progress toward a Communist utopia.
He often dissolves what incomplete and coincidental individual integrity he has to become one among the many other prisoners in the camps.
What it has instead is a submerged population group — a bad phrase which I have had to use for want of a better. That submerged population changes its character from writer to writer, from generation to generation. Always in the short story there is this sense of outlawed figures wandering about the fringes of society, superimposed sometimes on symbolic figures whom they caricature and echo — Christ, Socrates, Moses.
Bloomington: Indiana University Press, May, Charles E. Athens: Ohio University Press, , The short story hero is not represented in an act of becoming but seen as if caught in a moment, or a succession of moments, whose effects are sudden and illuminating rather than cumulative and monumental.
In every short story, and in each short story cycle, the quest begins again. The construction of one coherent biography through the disparate threads of these quests, that of Shalamov as current writer and former prisoner, appears to be not a product of the text itself but rather of its readers.
What is the relationship between what he wanted to write and what he wrote: Is his reading of himself a reliable map to his works? Are there any gaps or omissions in the unwritten space that arises in the translation of experience into text? The structure of this short story is curious: whereas the reader might expect it to end, like an anecdote, with a punch line as many of the short stories in the first cycles of Kolyma Tales , its culmination is incomplete and suggests that something has been removed from it. Its grotesque imagery reflects this process of removal since it depicts a scene in which six disabled inmates are made to surrender the aids that replace their impaired body parts.
They undress and each in turn dislocate the aid from their bodies: the first, who is on crutches, hands over a steel corset and is carried by the guards back to his punishment cell. The second surrenders a hand made of iron and can no longer sign the document stating that he has submitted his hand. The third, a deaf old doctor, yields his hearing horn. He is followed by the fourth who dislocates a prosthetic leg before jumping away on the one functional leg he has left.
The fifth, to the surprise of the transitory hero who did not notice his disability, removes a porcelain eye from his right socket. The transitory hero, being sixth and last in the group, is left naked and alone. And how about you? He carefully looked at me naked. Will you give Parts, Lyudmila. Parts, Lyudmila. Brighton, Mass: Academic Studies Press, , xvii. His answer implies an unwillingness to submit to authority and highlights a different interpretation of his soul — it is not a prosthesis and cannot be detached from his body.
Yet the request by the guard indicates that his soul has potentially been damaged by the camps and could thus be removed as easily to reveal a disability in its place. By retaining his soul, the status of which is ambiguous in the short story, he shows his preference for saving an authentic yet perhaps defunct part of his body.
The integrity of his person is preserved but the question lingers as to why he was asked for it and what the implications of maintaining it might be. Each word came with difficulty, each appeared suddenly and separately. Thoughts and words did not come back in one flow. Each returned alone, without an escort of other familiar words, and appeared first on the tongue and later in the brain.
I would give a lot to meet up with you somewhere in Minsk or Moscow. I am a prophet. I foresee, I foresee your release! Three months later I was in Moscow. The incomplete structure of this short story — its missing ending — suggests that the narrative itself has been stripped of what could have been a conventional conclusion, but perhaps also that this would have been nothing but a prosthesis. By keeping his soul and rejecting a kind of literary aid for this narrative, the transitory hero can both compose and conclude the cycle.
Not only does the transitory hero here not suffer the same disability as his author, but also the emphasis on an internal rather than external damaged body part without a visible prosthesis further removes him from the disabled inmates. Suffering from progressive deafness himself, the late Shalamov depicts three different ways in which a deaf person can interact with his surroundings — through a hearing horn Veresaev , written notes Burdenko , and silence Tomsky — but retains his initial rejection of external aids to his impairment.
The eyes have the power of the ears, they help the ears, rush to their rescue. But Burdenko was deaf. As a polemic, Tomsky was brilliant, but what sort of polemics is there for the deaf! Tomsky understood more clearly and earlier than others, what was happening. It is important to resurrect emotion. Emotion should return and defeat the control of the time, the change in the evaluations.
Only under this condition is it possible to resurrect life. The manifesto itself appears to be an emotional, although simultaneously highly professional, response to his marginalization as a writer that is in a sense timeless: it can be read both as a clarification of his previous works and as a foreshadowing of his future texts not yet written. However, it seems that this combination of emotion and professionalism is especially relevant in relation to his late texts: on the level of form and content, as well as on the level of organization of narratives into larger cycles.
A repeated revival rather than one definite resurrection i. The first work of his late style, the fifth cycle The Revival of the Larch, bears the device of his structural principle in its title which signals its heightened significance for his late period. There are no reminiscences in Kolyma Tales. Neither do I write short stories — rather, I try to write not a short story but something that would not be literature. In Christian theology, the first resurrection of one becomes the foundation for the subsequent resurrection of all; in other words, the teleology of the life — and death — of Christ promises a similar teleological purpose for each human being.
The worldview offered by Shalamov through the cyclical revival of his transitory hero could be seen as both different and more complex. In his works, cyclicity seems to explicitly pose the problem of death both in a totalitarian regime and by a totalitarian regime while implicitly gesturing to what literature can do for life but life cannot do for literature.
Death, as well as life, in the camps was de-personalized and constructed to be devoid of emotion, but there as elsewhere death was final; in literature, there can be no death. The difference between life and death in the literary text is a difference as to which way we read: forward or backward, or even circulating. Cycles construct and aid a type of reading which appears to go against human mortality while the standard understanding of biography limits the life of each of us to one, cyclicity of both literary texts and their heroes violate this part of the human condition.
However, the transitory hero and his inability to die become troubling aspects of the cyclical text for Shalamov as both writer and witness in his late style. In this negative evaluation of the life bestowed upon a survivor of the camps by accident rather than by intention, as Shalamov himself stated, we can detect echoes of disability, exile, and emotion. When this last cycle was written in the early s, Shalamov had neither the same access to life nor the same perception of it as he had during his middle period.
Before the fifth century, it occurred only twice. Sturm-Maddox, Sara, and Donald Maddox. The camp theme in its broadest interpretation, in its fundamental understanding is the primary, the main issue of our days. Perhaps it was the experience of living with a disability, progressing and eventually unstoppable, that caused him to become cynical as a resurrection in his life became increasingly unattainable.
Instead, the late Shalamov returned to different versions of the early Shalamov to rewrite himself in Vologda, Vishera, and Kolyma as well as to inscribe the fates of others in these places. If the transitory hero in these late works function to emphasize as well as to conceptualize the distance between the time of living and the time of writing, the transitory hero as a term for the specific problematic of his late style serves a similar purpose of separation: to detach the autobiography of the writer from his autobiographical text.
In the wake of the death of the novel — and with it, all that is fictionalized — that his manifesto proclaims, we can trace not only the birth of a new literary form, but also the birth of a new visceral and above all emotional narrative strategy. Although personal experience would not always be the basis for what he wrote next, the following texts are undoubtedly permeated by personal emotion. The Revival of the Larch: Return of the Writer 1. Introduction Shalamov began The Revival of the Larch , the fifth cycle of Kolyma Tales, shortly after composing his literary manifesto.
Consequently, it seems logical to expect this cycle to be, if not the practical realization of his aesthetic theory, then at least a creative response to the program he himself proclaimed. Contrary to what Shalamov thought while writing The Revival of the Larch, it was not an end but a beginning. The bifunctionality that epitomizes the earlier cycles, in that they can be read as both testimony and works of art, is complicated and to some extent compromised in the last two cycles.
Yet the voice that emerges in them is no longer solely that of a witness — but of a writer. What the testimony does not offer is, however, a completed statement, a totalized account of those events. In the testimony, language is in process and in trial, it does not possess itself as a conclusion, as the constatation of a verdict or the self- transparency of knowledge. London: Routledge, , 5. However, misrepresented facts in a testimony to some extent remain unimportant.
A witness is allowed to err, but the writer may not pretend to be a witness. Singapore: World Scientific, , 7. In the fall of , while Shalamov was engaged in an intensive period of creativity and wrote The Revival of the Larch faster than any cycle before it he completed it already in , he contemplated the point of producing such challenging literary works: I do not write so that what is described will not be repeated.
That does not happen and nobody needs our experience. I write to let people know that such short stories are written and that they themselves decide to do some worthy action — not in the sense of a short story, but in any way, to contribute to some kind of small plus. Yet it is difficult to correlate this humble approach with his simultaneous writing of the fifth cycle of Kolyma Tales, which might be considered the most successful from an artistic point of view. Did he not understand what he was writing — or was this not what he wanted to have written?
She is the author of this book together with me. Without her, this book would not exist. Because of resurrection? Because of the transfer of the ashes? But instructions are instructions. I had to revive, to resurrect the words that have left my life, as I thought, forever. Compared with the earlier cycles, there are fewer scenes of death in The Revival of the Larch — an affirmation of life, albeit tainted by the death it has encountered or overcome, eclipses the commemoration of the deaths of others.
However, death still finds its way into some of the short stories, but the representation of it does not confront the readers directly, as it did previously, but attains its complete and harrowing image within the dialogue constructed within the cycle. I saw how the weasel crawled after Makhmutov, I saw audacity, anger, revenge, despair in her eyes.
I saw that in them there was no fear. They died. That is your happiness, Nina. Piulev approached, bent over the dead little animal and said: — She had brave eyes. Did he understand something? Or not. I do not know. Did you find the book back then? Volodya asked for something to read. The two deaths that connect these succeeding short stories — and the difference between what was witnessed and what was never seen — suggests a new dimension in the fifth cycle: representation is no longer limited to his own experiences and his status as a witness thus becomes ambiguous.
This dialogue between separate short stories, where an event in one resonates in another, happens not only sequentially in The Revival of the Larch. From then on poems could no longer be written on this path. And I tried many times to write a poem about this path but was never able to. However, exit does not equal release — both the transitory hero and The Revival of the Larch will be pulled back into the camps.
The destruction of the path after someone else finds it anticipates the complex relationship between his own creative work as a writer and the stories of others in some of the narratives that follow. Shalamov never excluded the figures of real people in his earlier Kolyma Tales, but after The Revival of the Larch he received an unprecedented critique for this practice from his contemporary readers. Some of the readers who found themselves, or a relative, in its short stories were neither satisfied with nor grateful for his literary representation. Their argument about literature almost ended with a physical fight.
It was in the s, in the midst of their polemics. I sat in the corner, and they were talking and arguing for two hours. Therefore, there is no need to smear snot on the page — people need facts.
Who cares who loved or who did not love somebody, all these emotions — all of this is secondary and not needed by anybody. As much as possible: facts, facts, facts, facts. As much as you can, just write about these facts. As for the rest — nobody needs it. Shalamov appears to enter this contested territory knowingly and willingly in The Revival of the Larch. Ryabokon was in a hurry to tell, he was in a hurry to tell, and I was in a hurry to remember. We were both experts of death as well as of life. We knew the law of memoirists, their constitutional, their basic law: he is right who writes later, who survives, who swims across a stream of witnesses and delivers his verdict against each other like two bulls, with their hands on the table, both red — I thought they were going to fight.
I sat in the corner, afraid to move. This was a terrible, impossible penal servitude. There were few who survived the forced labor, but still — people lived there. These people loved, they were friends… And I cannot not write about that. Urbana: UP Illinois, , Paradoxically, this experience must be defined by being devoid of both privilege and authority in its lived reality. In the s, they both became writers of short stories called Kolyma Tales. No entrance for talents. This short story, together with their disagreement about literature, ended their friendship already in In real life, Demidov was a physicist and he lived in Ukhta when they reconnected and began a correspondence via mail.
Philadelphia: Chelsea House, , Or, rather, they never did unbend. And my broken spine hurts in old age. But listen to me, you must write simply. I would have stopped correspondence with anyone who can use such an expression for what we have seen. You are forgiven for the first time for three reasons: 1 our acquaintance, 2 your biography, and 3 the fact that you were not in the Kolyma gold mines.
You came toward the end of , an exceptional year, and indeed without the gold mines one cannot understand Kolyma, cannot feel it. Your uncomfortable, inappropriate expression can only be attributed to this difference in experience. I do not write reminiscences and neither do I write short stories. Or rather, I try to write not a short story but something that would be not literature. But dad knew that Shalamov in Moscow, but he did not seek contact with anyone. Chudnaia Planeta. Vospominaia ob ottse.
Moskva: Vozvrashchenie, Taking into account the actual circumstances of the Kolyma case of G. Kolymskie rasskazy. Sankt Peterburg: Vita Nova, The invention is a success. They have another reward in mind, which situates the event during World War II — a pair of leather boots and a suit — which were gifts to the Soviet Union from the United States of America. Then again, what is the article for refusing American gifts?
Not only that, not only that. Whereas Shalamov and Demidov met in , the beginning of a friendship between Kipreev and the narrator is set in Shalamov was also sentenced a second time in for another ten years, although his first five-year sentence ended in The flow of contemptuous telegrams. For the Western intellectual, the decision to drop the atomic bomb is very problematic, very difficult. Psychological depression, madness, suicide is the price the Western intellectual must pay for such decisions.
Our Forrestal would not go mad. How many good people have you met in your life? Real people, who you would like to emulate, to serve? That sounds like a condiment, but with what is it eaten? That was the destruction of the enemies of the people. We may sign the Convention. We cannot remain silent. Slaves we are not. To live, to survive — that is the task. And not to fall apart… Life is more serious than you think.
However, its mixture of historical, cultural, and personal references indicates that such an interpretation might be unsatisfactory. The fragmented structure and various topics suggest that this dialogue is a conflation of multiple conversations, similar to how the short story conflates historical events. The atomic bombing of Hiroshima took place in , whereas the suicide of James Forrestal happened in The biographies of Demidov and Shalamov are necessary for this disambiguation.
The first line refers to work on the atomic bomb in Kharkov and thus belongs to Kipreev Demidov was a disciple of the Soviet physicist Lev Landau in the s. I thought that a person can only consider himself a person when he at any moment with his whole body feels ready to commit suicide, ready to intervene himself in his own life. It is this consciousness that gives the will to life. I checked myself several times and, feeling the force of death, remained alive.
The story of the engineer Kipreev convinced me of this. Viktor Petrovich himself suffered terribly because of his betrayal. The prisoner Kipreev endures — violence, slave labor, hunger, and cold — but, more importantly, the good person Kipreev endures. In the ending, the narrator is unable to change Kipreev in the same fundamental way that Kipreev changed his perception of life and death. Nonetheless, reconciliation between the former friends appears unattainable: I met up with the engineer Kipreev.
Just a regular engineer. I find it easier to breathe in the north. His correction of the narrator shows that, as in the beginning, Kipreev holds an elusive yet pervasive power to embody difference. I went through all my investigations in the most successful manner: no beating, no method number three. All that is to be gained from endurance is further suffering.
But the investigators easily attained the necessary signatures from Kipreev: they threatened him with the arrest of his wife and Kipreev signed. And this terrible moral blow Kipreev carried with him through his whole life. Everything began again from the beginning. They threatened him with the arrest of his wife. Beside him on the bunks laid those who had also signed and slandered others. They laid there without dying. In Kolyma, his unshakable dedication to remain himself, as an individual and as an engineer, shape the actions he takes even though they do not bring the results he hopes for.
Kipreev instigates and oversees the reconstruction of burned out light bulbs with the hope of freedom; instead, his moral objection to the unanticipated and humiliating reward for it brings him a second sentence. With another eight years looming large over his future, Kipreev takes another action and performs his own death: Kipreev met this second sentence calmly. He knew what he was in for when he refused the American gifts. But he did take some precautions concerning his private safety.
These were the precautions: Kipreev asked an aquentiance to write a letter to his wife on the mainland and tell her that he, Kipreev, had died. And he himself stopped writing letters. He faces physical challenges during excruciating forced labor and is eventually brought to the camp hospital. There he is placed in charge of the x-ray machine, which requires constant observation and technical support, yet knows that this moment of reprieve is temporary. He taught Rogov without thinking about himself. Yet he refuses to hope again as he did before. He is almost executed, but receives a second chance at life because of the intervention of friends in the camp hospital.
In this last hopelessness Kipreev stayed true to himself. When the head of the department ordered for the patient who had been operated for mastoiditis, a serious operation, a special order, that is, an improved, nutritional diet, Kipreev refused and said that in this department with three hundred patients there are those who are sicker than him and are more entitled to a special order. And Kipreev was taken away.
The actions of Kipreev are not simply selfless; they are the conscious acts of a good person. He has kept something else from Kipreev as well: the mirror that Kipreev made for him as a part of his many scientific experiments and innovations in the camp hospital where they knew each other. This is not an amulet. As the story of Kipreev captivates the narrator, so the narrator is a captive of the mirror. Yet the mirror cannot tell what it has seen and is thus unable to witness the past; additionally, in it, he can only see a reflection of himself.
This mirror can only face one way. Yet the literary text, unlike a mirror, can keep memories. A literary text also has the ability to refracture reality and reorganize a human life. Kipreev, unlike Demidov, is not a writer although several powerful statements worthy of a writer are attributed to him. The narrator fears that Kipreev will be forgotten if he does not write about him; in the end, the narrator is the only writer in the short story.
His narrative appears to be bifunctional — being both testimony and art — in the way it utilizes the idealizing dimension in hagiography and echoes the martyr through a witness to the camps. As a text, this short story bears witness to a crisis within both these modes of inscription for Shalamov. Yet this story has repercussions not only for the narrator, whom he profoundly impacted through his moral tenacity, but also for the next short story. Like many biographers before him and many hagiographers after him, Athanasios is ready to sacrifice historical accuracy in order to promote the higher truth that is his real message.
He embodies his own ideal of the ascetical life in the figure of Anthony, as Plato had embodied his own philosophical ideal in the figure of Socrates. What the historical Anthony was really like, we shall never know. Efthymiades, Stephanos. The criminal is eventually executed and Shelgunov informs the wife of this death. Just not where Anna Karenina did it, but in Rastorguevo. She put her head under the wheels. Her head was cut of smooth, clean. There is also a third reflection of the same events, of the same scene, reflected in the concave mirror of the underworld.
The plot is unimaginable and yet it is real, it truly exists and lives next to us. She escaped in and lived the rest of her life in exile before her death in Paris. Born in emigration, Stolyarova returned to the Soviet Union in , the same year she graduated from the Sorbonne; she was arrested in and spent eight years in the camps. She later became the secretary of Ilya Ehrenburg whom she knew as a child in Paris and was active in dissident circles in Moscow.
The story of our fathers — and not because this is not close to home for me. On the contrary, not only has the theme been close to me from my youth, from my early childhood, but also the physical hero, the physical connections are the same — for you and for me? The main part 22 pages of it is devoted to Klimova, but the ending belongs to Stolyarova 8 pages. The short story is connected through the object indicated in its title: the golden medal.
Lichnoe izdanie, PDF; izdanie chetvertoe , Moskovskii rasskaz. Zhisneopisanie Varlama Shalamova, gody. Lichnoe izdanie, PDF , He rewrote it several times, thus no longer relying on the aesthetically superior effect of a first version. Shalamov could perhaps claim proximity to the fate and personality of Klimova because of how other representations of her in Russian literature had inspired him since his youth.
He cites from her other letters, which Stolyarova lent him and which he reread many times. The drafts show how Shalamov literally tastes the words, crosses out some, while at the same time phrases appear that are later found in the letters, in the short stories. Moskva: Litera, , That is how all my best short stories were written.
I know all the paragraphs that were for some reason important to me, I remember whole chunks. This book is not a literary masterpiece. There are clearly more ellipses than in normal written Russian. The handwriting becomes less certain. Points and commas still stand in their places, but the ellipses have disappeared altogether. Everything is clear even without ellipses. Calculations of the rate of the Franc do not require ellipses. The first intended recipient was Stolyarova, but it can also be read as a letter to a future reader of Russian literature.
Obviously, the idea was very important for Shalamov and constantly occupied his thoughts in and I asked not to characterize a person who is completely unknown to you, my father. Novikova, The most important thing. I strongly disagree with the last page and I regret that I told you so remarkably inaccurately about this event. This is defamation of both my childhood friend, who reluctantly, only for the sake of N. In general, from the short story it appears that I went to beg for help from a stranger.
Would you have been capable of that? Yet he retained the original ending to his short story — in which Stolyarova sells the golden medal that Klimova received in school — even though he altered the scene significantly and, it should be noted, for the better. The Senate removed the language that was meant to cause this shut down twice and sent it back to the House, where the Republicans once again added more barriers to an agreement. It takes both sides to compromise. Simply buckling to Republican Tea Party Demands is not compromise, it is paying blackmail.
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