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Professor John Morrill. Email : jsm cam. Download as vCard. Departments and Institutes Selwyn College :. Research Interests John Morrill has research interests across the period , and in many aspects of the period — religious, political, social and cultural. Both before and after marriage he had the reputation of being as great a libertine as his brother. James, in fact, was always more favourable to the Anglican church than was his Protestant brother. James resigned all of his offices in rather than take an anti-Catholic oath imposed by the so-called Test Act and thus made his position known publicly.

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Later that year, his first wife having died, he gave further offense by marrying a Roman Catholic princess, Mary of Modena. From to three successive Parliaments strove to exclude James from the succession by statute. During this crisis James spent long periods in exile at Brussels and Edinburgh. But owing largely to his own tenacious defense of his rights, the exclusionists were defeated.

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The new royalist Parliament that assembled in May voted James a large income, and there seemed to be no reason why he should not in time secure adequate toleration for his coreligionists. But unsuccessful rebellions led by the duke of Monmouth in England and the duke of Argyll in Scotland, in the summer of , marked a turning point in his attitude.

The rebellions were put down with great ferocity, the army was considerably increased, and the new regiments were granted to Roman Catholic officers who had had military experience abroad and whose loyalty was undoubted.

This last act of policy provoked a quarrel between king and Parliament, which was prorogued in November , never to meet again. In the division between the king and his former allies, the Anglican Tories, deepened.

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In James intensified his Roman Catholic policy and dismissed his Anglican brothers-in-law the earl of Clarendon and the earl of Rochester. Magdalen College, Oxford , was given over for the use of Roman Catholics, and a papal nuncio was officially accredited to St. In April James issued the so-called Declaration of Indulgence , suspending the laws against Roman Catholics and Protestant dissenters alike; in July he dissolved Parliament, and in September he launched an intensive campaign to win over the Protestant dissenters and with their aid secure a new Parliament more amenable to his wishes.

1D Stuart Britain and the Crisis of Monarchy, 1603–1702

What those wishes were is still not clear: some of his utterances suggest a genuine belief in religious toleration as a matter of principle; others point to the establishment of Roman Catholicism as the dominant if not the exclusive religion of the state. Ever since the spring of many English leaders had been in touch with William of Orange , the husband of the heiress presumptive Mary and the champion of Protestant Europe against Louis XIV of France.

The spark was touched off by James himself, when he reissued his Declaration of Indulgence on April 27, , and on May 4 ordered it to be read in the churches. The archbishop of Canterbury and six of his bishops petitioned James to withdraw the order. Their petition was subsequently published, and James made the mistake of prosecuting its authors for seditious libel.

Meanwhile, on June 10, in slightly mysterious circumstances, the queen gave birth to a son.

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On June 30 the seven bishops were acquitted—a tremendous defeat for the government—and that same day seven leading Englishmen sent a letter inviting William of Orange to lead an army to England and call a free Parliament to arbitrate on the legitimacy of the prince of Wales. William sailed under cover of the general war that had by then broken out in Europe, evaded the English fleet, and landed at Brixham on Tor Bay on November 5 November 15, New Style , This, together with the defection of his daughter Anne, finally shattered his nerve.

He attempted to flee to France but was intercepted in Kent; 12 days later, on December 23, he was allowed to escape. On February 12, , the Convention Parliament declared that James had abdicated and the next day offered the crown to William and Mary. The Scots Parliament followed suit in May. In Ireland James had shown none of his former military ability, and he now aged rapidly, falling increasingly under the influence of his pietistic wife.

He became daily more absorbed in his devotions, and his more aggressive supporters soon came to regard him as something of a liability. The Treaty of Rijswijk between England and France removed his last hopes of restoration. For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs , and if you can''t find the answer there, please contact us.

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