His theories addressed the relationship between power and knowledge, and how they are used as a form of social control through societal institutions. Though often cited as a post-structuralist and postmodernist, Foucault ultimately rejected these labels, preferring to classify his thought as a critical history of modernity. For books containing interviews along with essays see selected works. Collection of writings on Foucault on Aaaaarg. Jump to: navigation , search.
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Demonstration in support of immigrant workers. Michel Foucault in the foreground. Paris, His efforts for the medium gained Moliterni no less than three French civilian knighthoods. Franco-Belgian comics have been translated in most European languages, with some of them enjoying a worldwide success. Some magazines, aside from the Dutch-language editions, have been translated in Greek, Portuguese, Italian and Spanish, while in other cases foreign magazines were filled with the best of the Franco-Belgian comics. In France and Belgium, most magazines have since then disappeared or have a largely reduced circulation for socio-economic reasons but mostly because modern readership no longer possesses the patience to read their comics in weekly or monthly installments, instead preferring to have a story presented to them wholesale in album format , but the number of published and sold albums stays relatively high — the majority of new titles being currently directly published as albums without prior magazine serialization — with the biggest successes still on the juvenile and adolescent markets.
This state of affairs has been mirrored in the other European countries as well. As a format, the Franco-Belgian comic has been near-universally adopted by native comic artists all over Europe, especially in the neighboring countries of Belgium and France and including Italy, despite that country having had a rich and thriving comics culture of its own , solidifying the position of the Franco-Belgian comic as the preeminent force on the European comics scene, Great Britain excepted. The greatest and most enduring success however was mainly for some series started in the s, s and s including Lucky Luke , The Smurfs , and Asterix , and the even older Adventures of Tintin , while many more recent series have not made a significant commercial impact outside mainland Europe and those overseas territories historically beholden to France, despite the critical acclaim for authors like Moebius.
While hundreds of comic series have been produced in the Franco-Belgian group, some are more notable than others. Most of those listed are aimed at the juvenile or adolescent markets:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. The readable prose size is 82 kilobytes. Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding subheadings. April Speech balloon. Marcel Gotlib and Nikita Mandryka on the right, members of an early generation of French artists who created modern comics without Belgian tutelage.
France portal Belgium portal Comics portal. Retrieved Jud, Lucerne,. Het Belgisch Centrum van het Beeldverhaal in Dutch. The Routledge Companion to Comics. Pinchon - page d'accueil". Liverpool University Press. The Language of Comics: Word and Image. Press of Mississippi. Visible Writings: Cultures, Forms, Readings.
Rutgers University Press. Comics Kingdom. Fall Retrieved Jun 19, U of Nebraska Press. JHU Press. Deutsche Welle. Marcinelle : Dupuis.
Avions sans pilotes editorial, p. Crowell-Collier Publishing Company. Masters of Spanish Comic Book Art. Dynamite Entertainment. Keith Encyclopedia of Comic Books and Graphic Novels. Archived from the original on May 9, Retrieved May 27, Huffington Post France in French. Retrieved 1 March Retrieved 4 July Paris : Dargaud. December Archived from the original on January 14, Retrieved 6 January Manga Sanctuary in French. October 17, Retrieved December 14, Le Figaro in French. Retrieved 30 January Glossary of comics terminology.
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This relation between subject and spectacle carries out the genetic process of various structural relations, where opposition and absence are determinant. The theoretical model proposed by Baudry is partially able to explain the subjectivation process taking place in a cinema that favours an aesthetic of transparency. However, as Gilles Deleuze has demonstrated, cinema can convey numerous types of images movement-image, time-image and their numerous varieties: perception-image, action-image, affection-image, dream-image, crystal-image, etc.
For them, the effect produced by the dispositif on the social body is already inscribed in words, images, bodies, thoughts and affections. A dispositif thus appears when the relation between heterogeneous elements enunciative, architectonic, technological, institutional, etc. According to Foucault, a dispositif possesses three different levels or layers. In the first, the dispositif is but a heterogeneous set of discourses, architectonic forms, propositions and strategies of knowledge and power, subjective dispositions and cultural inclinations.
In the second, the nature of the connection that brings these heterogeneous elements together reveals itself. From this perspective, we may argue that the dispositif of institutional cinema—roughly, a dark room where a story is projected that makes us believe we are in the face of real facts—contains three dimensions: architectonic, technological and discursive.
Internalization of the dominant cinematic dispositif is, on the one hand, the result of a subjectivity produced by the dispositif itself, but it is also, on the other hand, what allows the emergence of practices that deviate from this same dispositif in what we call cinema of exhibition for example.
Foucault stresses the idea that the dispositif , although invisible, manifests itself in all discourses, institutions and societies, thus making it possible to define its characteristics. For this reason, knowledge, power and subjectivity cannot be clearly defined.
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Indeed, the subjectivation process which forms along those lines can escape from the spheres of knowledge and power and thus take a different shape. Instead of the universal subject, Deleuze defines new, multiple, nomadic and constructed subjectivities, in what is probably one of the more radical criticisms of conventional understanding of the subject. While Foucault is concerned with how subjectivity is produced and shaped according to the forces acting in each historical formation, Deleuze focuses his analysis on the resistance occurring in the subjectivation process, on the inner forces able to target new modes of existence.
A line of subjectivation is a process, a subjectivity in a dispositif Deleuze , p. Along those lines, the dispositif conjugates heterogeneous elements in a rhizomatic, non-centred, non-hierarchical organization that can provoke grooves and fissures in any totalizing mode of power. Deleuze dedicated himself to the study of cinema because, according to him, cinema is the sole dispositif able to give us a direct perception of time.
When post-war filmmakers began to produce what Deleuze called the time-image, an indiscernible short-circuit was created between the real and the virtual. The virtual is not opposed to the real, but to the ideals of truth which are the purest fiction.
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In philosophy, as in science and art, time is the operator that throws truth, meaning and communication into crisis. His work calls our attention to the fact that cinema is a producer of multiple subjectivities free from dominant discursive formations. It is important to stress that we believe a dispositif is, as Foucault points out, a heterogeneous set of elements, forces and discourses which produce dominant forms and subjectivities at specific moments in history.
However, we agree with Deleuze that every dispositif has its own fracture lines and lines of flight that can cause the dispositif to turn into another form. Once cinema is seen as a dispositif , and therefore that it varies in time, it is crucial to take into account the instances that stray from its dominant form.
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Although his argument follows completely different paths than those described by Deleuze, the dispositif is always, according to Lyotard, what has to be subverted and differentiated to ensure the production of new standards of subjectivity. For him, the modalities of deviation are more important than the processes leading to the production of a subjectivity model.
It admits the importance of aberrant movement such as the immobility of tableaux vivants or, inversely, the excess of mobility such as accelerations, duplications and alternations. By breaking narrative flow, each of these aberrant movements fails to acknowledge the reality-effect of conventional cinema. There are two reasons why so many theoreticians of contemporary cinema—largely inspired by Deleuze, Foucault and Lyotard—have problematized the issue of dispositif.
First, to show that cinema can produce an image that eludes traditional representation, the schematization of figure and discourse, language and its significant chains and signification as a process of reification. Second, by analyzing the alliances cinema establishes with other dispositifs and means of image production, each of these authors can, in his own way, sketch the displacement process cinema operates with respect to its dominant forms.
Serge Daney , p. Jacques Aumont , p.
Studying objects ranging from Tavoletta to current dispositifs of virtual reality, these authors and many others, such as Anne-Marie Duguet and Jean-Paul Fargier share the common idea that video making is the art par excellence which promotes the de-territorialization of Cinema Form and leads to new ways of thinking about the status of the image Duguet , p. The issue of the cinematic dispositif has been raised in various theories since the s, mainly in works promoting a more active observer in the cinema experience. Smith are examples of these efforts. The idea of a passive spectator echoes the whole question of cinema in media theory.
Media theory is mostly monopolized by a moralizing view that dichotomizes communication systems on one side and society and its spectators on the other, the latter being seen as victims of transmitted messages.