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With this I want advertiz it, cited reader who is a book that does not have a classification nor for context nor for ideas or age; Simply if treating yes to subjects of which we are forbidden by condition Human being and existencial Value of Life and it brings a different boarding seen by diverse angles, not suggesting answers more giving the clarity on many optics to see and to review the life; It is the intention of each one with the treatment and the value of each one with its proper Life and the Life on all the things!

Corresponding to an attribute that if makes order, therefore many want to make such biographical auto book on its life. Harms do not have conditions for diverse reasons and reasons or when the same it does not have interest; To put what it is based here is that all will be identified in the natural passage of this literature and if they had made familiar to such subjects, pertinent the life and its always present day.

Therefore objective it is here leaves them cliente of my intention when not of my literary project; I am not a formed writer and nor have such objective, to put I pledged myself in making a book, singular why not to say only! I do not have great culture more I know that my work is very prosperous and capable not to seduce or to persuade more yes to raise and to take concepts to all that they need to have a better life it is an intention that if makes urgently, necessary, to see itself and to contribute above all for the life of each one and life of all as well as of the society and the World, constructing a better World with already said and emphasizes: He is effective and unequivocal!

Understand well do not make use of resources, financiers, no more search, perennially, people that share with me such ideals, formed here and displayed who it can interest? E believe I who to the World all, am universalizados and contemporanios values already of much devoid time? I do not say that it is a book of auto aid of philosophy of doctrine of dogmas of pedagogia of fiction, technician, instructive, conceptual, not?

Are you an author? Help us improve our Author Pages by updating your bibliography and submitting a new or current image and biography. Learn more at Author Central. Previous page. Kindle Edition. Next page. Unlimited One-Day Delivery and more. There's a problem loading this menu at the moment. Read it with attention An onomastic index facilitates consultation of the whole. Para subsanar lo que pudiera parecer como una deficiencia,.

Con todo, hay que recomendar la lectura de este libro a todos los estudiosos de la obra de Unamuno. Soldevila-Durante reviews existing lexical studies. Suffice it to say that valleinclanistas concerned with such an approach to the author will find the text worthwhile reading. La idea de Salper es original y, hasta cierto punto, correcta. University of Nebraska-Lincoln. This process is developed, in terms of specific sub-genres in the evolution of Lorca's drama. While keeping in mind the comparative focus of his study Lorca's immediate predecessors and contemporaries, and Lorca to indicate the innovations Lorca brought to the theatre, he does not fail to give each play the analytical and evaluative attention it deserves, as a unique work.

He is thus able to appreciate and elucidate Lorca's theatre from at least three angles of vision. An illustrative list of some of his observations would. The author makes effective and selective use of critical theory formalist, semantic, intertextual, absurdist in supporting his arguments. He engages principal Lorca critics in an interesting dialogue, in which his own voice is clearly articulated. His work is stimulating, and evinces a surprising originality.

The discussion from the perspective of performance and comparison of performance with text is also enlightening. He isolates and traces the difference and originality in Lorca's entire theatre, beginning as early as El maleficio de la mariposa , and points out the contribution of different sub-genres to each other: the puppet play to farce, farce to serious tragedy, and these to the surrealistic theatre.

It brings a fresh vision, heretofore lacking in Lorca scholarship. El amor a la cocina y al buen comer lo comparte sobre todo con Julio Camba. El sortilegio absoluto de un lenguaje que ensimisma al lector recuerda la prosa magistral de Cela. In Shifting Ground he offers not a theory of exile literature but rather a series of reflections, speculations, and readings as he explores how the experience of Spanish Civil War exile has been transmitted.

The displacement, temporal and spatial disunity, self-duplication and division that characterize exile experience, he argues, lead writers to reflect on the nature of writing and the problems attendant upon an attempt to record reality. Despite the variety of exile writing, it exhibits certain common features.

Among these is the propensity for testimony and autobiography as a defense against the experience of loss of identity and place of origin Related to the need to bear witness is an obsession with memory and oblivion, as the exile struggles to recollect and thus preserve people, places, objects, thoughts, and words.

The loss of temporal continuity explains the importance attached to time and the nostalgia for the past. Frequent in exilic literature is a defensive moral discourse, as well as a marked ambivalence about the truthfulness of the testimony given and the conversion of that testimony into fiction. The question of audience, important for all authors, is crucial for the exile, as are the problem of the textual representation of the self and the tension between real events and their re-creation. These last works illustrate Aub's concept of life as text and the inter weaving of fiction and reality that is so typical of exilic literature.

The case of Cernuda is somewhat different in that the poet welcomes separation and even before his departure from Spain regards himself as an exile, and yet he longs for integration and wholeness. Lastly, Ugarte examines the life and work of Juan Goytisolo, emblematic of the patterns of self-exile and the difficulty of stripping oneself of a former existence and signs of identity. However much he rebels against family, class, national origin, and his native language, Goytisolo is unable to ob literate them, and distance from his homeland does not cure his obsession with it.

As he criticizes stability and continuity and espouses constant movement and change, his own writing becomes an expression of nomadism, best seen in Makbara. This final section of Shifting Ground is perhaps the finest, and it complements Trilogy of Treason , Ugarte's book on Goytisolo. In conclusion, Ugarte reminds us that exile has to do with borderlines and the traversing of them, with physical and conceptual crossings, with liminality.

By analyzing a broad spectrum of exilic literature, he illuminates not only many of its tensions and contradictions but also fundamental existential and linguistic problems. Shifting Ground is rich in stimulating insights and provocative reflections. The most exciting work being done today in theory deals with narrative fiction. There is nothing comparable centering on drama, poetry or essay.

There is one modern method that has shown a remarkable ability to cut across generic boundaries, however, and that is structuralism -a method of inextricably linked to semiotics, the science of signs. In both volumes, there is a concerted and generally successful effort to pass from exposition of theory to its application. It must be said, though, that the application is rather mechanical.

Considerable demands are made upon the reader; although the text is in Spanish, there are, in both instances,. It is clear, for instance, that he favors Stanzel and others over Genette, and, while he nods occasionally in the direction of Wayne Booth, he has apparently not encountered Seymour Chatman, Susan Lanser, or the major U.

Part One gives the theoretical background, drawing oft en upon Booth and Iser. Part Three takes on a rather more difficult text, the Libro de Apolonio , offering fairly decisive proof of the universal applicability of the method. The longer and more substantial study discusses first-person narrative fiction. It is profusely illustrated with charts and diagrams that attempt to capture the essence of lengthy prose expositions, and do so quite well. Here, third-person is taken to be a sub-set of first-person.

Another fine study, similar in nature, is Michael J. The style is far from scintillating, but the rigor of both exposition and application is impeccable. University of Southern California. This collection focuses on the narrative fiction of Soledad Acosta de Samper, a prolific 19th-Century Colombian writer who covered a wide range of topics in several genres.

Also included in the volume are two contemporary critical analyses and a complete bibliography of her writings. She argues for this new reading of Acosta as important for understanding the way that a woman writer of conservative ideology represents the contradictions of her society and contributes to the creation of a Colombian literary identity. It is the story of a young woman in love who finds she cannot many because of an incurable hereditary illness. The narrator is the girl's cousin, a doctor powerless to cure her, who goes to Europe to study, and returns too late for her funeral.

The next two selections are costumbrista essays. The matter-of-fact presentation of these poor victims of political impunity and social injustice is reminiscent of Juan Rulfo. The common thread in all six stories is of women who marry to escape an intolerable situation, only to find that they have made their lives worse. While recognizing that most women of the time consider marriage to be the only course of action, the stories demonstrate that it does not produce happiness when entered into for the wrong reasons.

Un chistoso de aldea is a historical novel in which the protagonist is both witness to and participant in the events surrounding the struggle for independence.

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The story calls to mind the novels of. Cunningham traces the romantic vision of woman and argues that Acosta's works represent a subversion of the romantic ideal. Overall, this collection provides an interesting sample of Soledad Acosta de Samper's writing, situating her within the historical context of the 19th Century and at the same time offering some possibilities for a modern reinterpretation and reevaluation of her work. While her exclusion from the canon is perhaps justified, her work nevertheless provides an interesting look at 19th-Century Colombian popular culture.

Concordia College, Moorhead, Minnesota. This rather brief tome presents, for the fast time, significant and new information on the life and fictional writings of Clemente Palma The stated intention is to analyze the Peruvian's fiction within the context of his own essays on literary theory and criticism. The next chapter is devoted to the novels and the final chapter consists of three and one half pages of concluding remarks.

The study is followed by ample chapter notes and an excellent bibliography. Originally conceived as a doctoral dissertation, Breaking Tradition The result is the limited critical acumen and literary insight that often characterizes such efforts. Moreover, this reader's curiosity was curtailed too many times by Kason's dependence on others' critical expertise and historical overviews of literary movements. The impression is one of overly simplistic definitions of such concepts as the fantastic and of superficial commentary on the historical events that Kason deems significant to her analysis of Palma's fiction The result is a prose that seems to lack a luster of its own.

Kason's study is of merit despite its several critical and stylistic shortcomings. One strength is the essayist's particularly keen insight into the contradictions between Palma's negative personal and critical views on such subjects as spiritism, decadence, satanism and the appearance of the same in his fiction. Her long-range discussion on this matter is second only to her brief, but perceptive and well researched commentary on the relation between Clemente and his more illustrious father, Ricardo.

It is within the light of their individual creative careers, in fact, that the title of Kason's study takes on its real meaning -this study amply demonstrates why Clemente may well have favored the extremist views of the likes of the decadents or fantastic writers in order to avoid the comparison of his fiction with his father's more nationalistic and historical Tradiciones Peruanas. Breaking Traditions The book should be read, nonetheless, because Kason has brought fight to bear on an important writer with whom time and historians have dealt in a shortsighted fashion.

We would expect that this is only the first of Kason's efforts to unravel the mysteries that obscure the life and writings of Clemente Palma. Handelsman has arranged this book in three parts. After all, he was a vice-presidential candidate and the founder and President for many years of La Casa. Of course, Handelsman's edition of Cartas al Ecuador will be of use, especially to those interested in the turbulent political history of the country, and in the personality of one of its most polemical and controversial figures.

University of Minnesota, Morris. For more than two decades the poets of literatura de cordel -heirs to the medieval itinerant singer poets as well as to the Reformation authors of broadside sheets- have been on the wane as folk artists, largely superseded by electronic media. At present there is more cordel activity in cosmopolitan Rio de Janeiro than in the traditional venue of the Brazilian Northeast.

No longer a vital source of entertainment, news, propaganda and moral instruction for the Brazilian Nordestino, literatura de cordel has been taken up by folklorists, collectors, universities and museums, analyzed and classified by scholars within and outside of Brazil. Curran's thorough study links today's urban popular poet with a former epoch when the poetas de cordel were itinerant singers wandering the backlands of the Brazilian Nordeste.

Without him, literatura de cordel would be much less known and esteemed. But he was disliked because of his blatant commercialism and self-promotion and he was controversial in his politics, which were conservative, Catholic, very patriotic and vehemently anti-Communist. Ambitious, proud, stubborn, and didactic, even if he had never written a single pamphlet, his fife would still have been colorful and interesting. Curran recommends Eno T.

Wanke's biography of Cavalcante as complementary to the current study. Part II is an anthology of Cavalcante's own literatura de cordel , organized and analyzed by major themes, and includes more citations from the folhetos and good critical commentary. There are five sections:. He found the Sixties intolerable, with their rock music and Beatles imitators; many folhetos excoriate the cabeludos and the sexual revolution. Protestantism rendered by Cavalcante in the medieval form of the debate , and Spiritism.

This section includes occasional pieces and folhetos on economic and social questions, tragedies and public disasters. Noteworthy are the pamphlet on John F. John, and analyzed in depth by Curran. At the end of the volume is a fine bibliography that will be very useful to interested Brazilianists. Curran's extensive notes are also placed at the back, a format which this reviewer found cumbersome.

It is exhaustive and -except for the initiated- probably exhausting. This study is not an introduction to literatura de cordel nor is it readily accessible to many potentially interested folklorists and social historians because it is published in Portuguese. Even in Brazil, this study would have, unfortunately, a relatively narrow appeal, since it requires the reader to know more than a little about the subject. Curran's work, although it contains biographical content, is ultimately a fine, rigorous study of literatura de cordel , its history for the past forty years, its texts and the poetic process.

Of particular excellence is the discussion of the place of literatura de cordel , a hybrid of folk and popular poetry, in Brazilian literature. One hopes this study will help to allay a widely-held prejudice that literatura de cordel does not merit serious academic attention. Maria Augusta. University of Wisconsin-Madison. Sin embargo, al presentar las distintas variantes en el texto, incluso con el manuscrito, se le permite al lector hacer su cotejo y llegar a un juicio propio.

Paraguayan writers are but slightly represented in the traditional canon of Hispanic American literature. The exception of course is the towering figure of Augusto Roa Bastos, who almost by himself has given the literature of his country deserved recognition and undeniable value. The present volume, edited with unusual skin and good sense by Fernando Burgos, is a tribute both to the greatness of Roa Bastos as a writer and to Paraguayan letters as a very significant vehicle for the dissemination of its national heritage and culture.

The eighteen essays that comprise this volume were selected from the papers read at the First International Coloquium of Latin American Literature sponsored by the journal Discurso Literario and held at Oklahoma State University in April of The essays cover the entire range of Roa Bastos's writings and are examined from a wide variety of critical perspectives. This diversity of approach is particularly necessary because of the complexity of his works and the profundity of their underlying meaning in the context of Paraguayan civilization. Fernando Burgos contributes an excellent introductory essay in which he discusses Roa Bastos's position in Paraguayan letters and highlights the content of each essay in the volume.

David W. Foster, as the conference guest of honor, writes an outstanding article on Roa Bastos's essays, a genre that seems to have passed by most critics but that serves as an important point of departure for understanding the writer's narrative fiction. Ten essays deal with the novel Yo el Supremo and all make fine contributions to the study of this work. Among the other contributors to this section on Yo el Supremo are Francisco E.

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The third section of the volume covers the short story, poetry, and Hijo de hombre. Carlos Pacheco, in a most valuable essay, understands Roa Bastos's use of binary structures as a fundamental aesthetic principle in his stories. Mercedes Gracia Calvo deals with point of view and perspective in Roa Bastos's stories. Tracy K. Debra A. This is the best collection of critical essays on Roa Bastos to have appeared in Spanish or English, and Burgos is to be congratulated for bringing them together under one roof.

The contributions are uniformly of high quality. Although no general theme was announced to orient the contributors in some direction, a common thread running through most pieces is that the writings of Roa Bastos have wide and deep implications for a more realistic understanding of Paraguayan culture and a more sensitive acceptance of its mores and traditions as an integral part of that culture. I recommend this book most enthusiastically. Both the quantity and the quality of the Valenzuela's production point to the need for a monographic critical study, one that explains for the bilingual English-Spanish reader Valenzuela's difficult intertextual games and intellectually challenging Postmodernist themes.

It is important for there to be a book that treats all of Valenzuela's works, translated and untranslated alike, since a few of them have tended to monopolize critical interest, whereas others including the ones available in English have received only reviews and casual mention. Additionally, Valenzuela's concerns are often organized by book as Sharon Magnarelli shows , so that familiarity with certain volumes and not others can lead to misleading conclusions about Valenzuela's oeuvre in general.

Through published articles and unpublished conference papers, Sharon Magnarelli has shown an enduring interest in and knowledge about Valenzuela over the years. By tracing the writer's growth in literary maturity and her consistency in themes and intellectual interests, Magnarelli's new book enhances greatly our understanding of Valenzuela. A peripheral result of Magnarelli's study is the evidence it brings to bear for the need to retranslate several of Valenzuela's collections, which often were not translated completely, with sufficient care to the organization of material by volume, or with appropriate attention to literalness and metaphoricity.

Occasionally there are repetitions of ideas, although not of exact wordings, because some chapters appeared previously as articles and were only slightly revised for inclusion. There are quite a few typographical errors also. I hope I have made clear that, in this new book, the pluses are greater than the minuses, for every one interested in Valenzuela's narrative. Both of these Chicano first novels are set in their authors' native state of Texas. The two novels also have the depth and texture of three generations in their narrative development.

Both volumes are in English, essentially, although they mean to convey a Spanish-language reality. The two works also have a strong specific Chicano content in character and setting, with an importance attached to the grandfather as a figure of nobility and dignity. The novel is ambitiously literary without being artificially avant-garde. The novel, with some early temporal dislocations, covers three generations of a South Texas Chicano family and its interactions with Mexican-American.

The narrative focuses on a central figure, Heraclio Cavazos, and recounts the subsequent two generations. In the 30's Heraclio crosses a Rio Grande swollen by hurricane rain. Heraclio goes on to five in a boarding house with other migrants with names such as the Elephant, the Love Bandit, and El Bruto. After his marriage to Chacha Graciela produces two children, Heraclio is widowed and the generations continue, culminating with grandchildren including a living Vietnam War victim-veteran and the acceptance of mall culture and assimilation which signifies the rejection of the Mexican heritage.

Besides a central figure, Rainbow's End also depicts a whole collective protagonist of South Texas border people, undocumented migrants, fellow laborers, and family members that come to constitute a vibrant world of human and drug smuggling, prostitution, curanderismo , exploitation, triumphs, defeats, abortion, cross-cultural confusion, and alienation. It is notable that Rainbow's End concludes with a chapter in which Don Heraclio's sister-in -law, Fela, a secondary character who appears intermittently throughout the novel, and who is a curandera , passes on her trade and knowledge to a young apprentice.

Presumably, this Chicano tradition, as well as others, persists and thrives. The echoes of multiple perspectives offer an all-encompassing vision that transcends the mere decrepitude and degradation of Chicano culture. Rainbow's End brims over with vitality, in a well-structured narrative. Some characters are too diffuse and sketchy, unfocused portraits. At times, the pace is uneven. A border novel with strong touches of magical realism, Rainbow's End is notable. Schoolland is another worthy Chicano novel. Told by a youngster coming of age in as his grandfather is approaching the end of his life, the basic nucleus of the novel effectively conveys the contrasts and ironies of Chicano life, or life in general.

The unnamed narrator, the seventh of nine children, details the life of a large family, including the drought they survive, first love, the working of the land, a shotgun wedding, the presence of undocumented workers, and a sister's failed marriage. It all flows not like melodramatic novelistic action, but with the depth and texture of life itself.

Schoolland , a bildungsroman like so many other important Chicano novels, recounts a somewhat different story and reality, that of central Texas farmers in , viewed sensitively, with a telling eye for detail and the meaningful anecdote. The language has precision and clarity. We were Mexicans, too, of course. But Marcos de la Fuente was from Mexico. Both novels, then, are artistically successful and effective in capturing and conveying the Chicano experience in this century in Texas. Al though both novels are culturally specific, they capture life in universal terms through literature.

These two books, based on the personal memories of the authors, present different stages of the Chicano experience. This story is constructed with elements that are present throughout the whole collection. Their struggle highlights the antagonism of one group towards the other. Although on the surface Mexican culture seems to prevail, the deeper structure shows a longing for acceptability.

The ideology that indoctrinates minority children to do physical work while non-minority children are expected to go on to college is already at work here. Though the stories are enjoyable, the usage of Spanish is annoying. Por favor , give me a job, you won't be sorry. Soy muy trabajador , I'm a good worker The narrators put the story on hold each time they provide a translation. Contemporary Latin American literature has frequently dealt with the problem of presenting two languages, but writers have opted to assume that the reader has at least a reading knowledge of the foreign language.

Lesser Evils is different from The Last Laugh. This collection of stories appears to be a sequel to Living up the Street -winner of the American Book Award- especially those stories narrated from the point of view of a child. Some of the same anecdotes, settings, and even characters reappear in this collection. In Lesser Evils 74 the narrator makes reference to the time when his mother chased his brother Rick with a heated fork, an episode from Living up the Street The short essays, sometimes no more than two pages long, deal mainly with family life, profession and friends.

The collection also includes two movie and one book review. These reviews intertwine the narrator's own impressions with the critiques themselves, thus the subjects under review are less important than the feelings of the narrator. Some of the better stories of the collection take place in the narrator's mind as he watches people and imagines what they do, where they work, whom they see.

This technique makes his stories enjoyable and erases the barrier between prose and fiction. Both texts abound in repetitions which, like musical themes, tie one story to another, although they make the collections appear to have been put together in haste.

For example, Soto's narrator talks about liking girls with an overbite in several stories. The reader's impression is that the stories should have been the first draft of a novel in which descriptions, characteristics, and anecdotes are related only once. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. The Cuban exile colony in the United States, now thirty years old, has accumulated a corpus of writing of sufficient size to warrant a need for reference books. Four such works, published between and , profile exile literature.

Le Riverend, like Montes Huidobro, concentrates on the single genre of poetry and provides biobibliographical information on poets, many previously unrecognized in other reference books until Entries, varying in length from 1, words for Heberto Padilla to about words for lesser-known poets, incorporate only descriptive data: date and place of birth, citizenship, education, literary prizes, memberships, anthologies in which poetry appears, titles of monograph-length publications, a personal definition of poetry, other literary activities, and information of a miscellaneous nature.

The alphabetical arrangement by author suffices as the only access with no accompanying indexes that might facilitate use. Although Le Riverend's book is surely welcome especially for the number of poets briefly biographized and the accumulated data that might otherwise be lost, several problems beset this effort. A passion this keenly felt could be an impediment in judging another's poetic work. Furthermore, Le Riverend offers no guidelines for inclusion since he does not grapple with the question of what constitutes a poet and the quantity or quality of publication that permits recognition.

Many poets of stature appear; others are newcomers. A cognate problem is his apparent ignorance of the three reference books already mentioned. Awareness of these might have enabled the compiler to treat only those poets excluded from previous works. In the absence of guidelines, one can only guess as to what network, formal or informal, the compiler availed himself in gathering the data.

Furthermore, much of the information, formulaic in nature, might have been entered with abbreviations to allow space for analytical comments. The work in general lacks the guiding hand of an experi- As such, it adds to the growing number of books relating to Cuban exiles. The greatest virtue of this highly theoretical work is its presentation of some of the possibilities open to the critic who is committed to the study of Hispanic theater in the context of the specific cultural and historical forces that have shaped it.

Villegas's study consists of an Introduction, nine chapters and the aforementioned postscript. Several chapters have been published previously in the journal Gestos , and the Introduction was presented at a literary symposium. The tendency toward repetition throughout the work is probably due to that circumstance. Certain ideas emerge quite strongly, partly as a result of their recurrence and partly because of the author's persuasive analysis. Villegas also convincingly establishes that the majority of studies devoted to Hispanic theater adopt an European perspective and overlook the Hispanic dimension that is integral to a complete understanding of the work.

Villegas's tendency toward repetition and abstraction does prove to be a liability at times. His study assumes a thorough familiarity with a diverse range of critical approaches and eschews the application of theory to specific plays, preferring to create general models and apply them to categories of works. By limiting his analysis of specific dramas to such an extent, Villegas does little to demonstrate the efficacy of his approach. And his repeated laments about the unjustly low status held by all of Hispanic literature in North American universities seems pointless in.

In conclusion, Villegas has produced a rather, abstract and somewhat repetitious volume which raises a number of important issues concerning the relationship between ideology and theater. The book is largely free of errors, with the exception of footnotes 16 to 24 which were omitted at the end of the first chapter.

Portuguese Speaking Test is a semi-direct testing instrument for a language for which there are few trained proficiency interviewers. The package includes a thirty-page Official Test Manual the only item bearing the names of all the authors , an eleven-page Examinee Handbook to be read prior to taking the test, and three alternate versions of a seven-page examinee booklet, entitled Form A, Form B, and Form C , each of which is accompanied by two alternate cassette tapes, one subtitled Brazilian , the other Lusitanian.

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The Forms follow the same format and include 1 an audio-oral test, 2 oral tasks cued by pictures, 3 talking about specific topics, and 4 speaking in response to cues describing real-life situations. I will comment on each of these sections briefly. The audio-oral test, of which alternate versions in Brazilian and Continental Portuguese are provided, is the only section in which the examinee hears Portuguese on the tape.

It consists of a make-believe conversation with a native speaker of either variety of the language, designed as a series of personal questions, with timed pauses for recording the answers. The idea of providing the two alternate versions is particularly sound, as the differences between the two standard dialects of Portuguese may easily compromise the evaluation if a learner trained in one is asked to respond to questions uttered in the unfamiliar accent of the other.

If one of the undeniable advantages of semidirect tests is that they make evaluation possible in the absence of local examiners, the flip side of the coin is that recorded questions not only cannot re-create the spontaneity of an actual conversation, but also lack in paralinguistic elements, such as gestures and eye contact, that are an integral part of real oral communication. Such question-and answer testing instruments can easily resemble a telephone interrogation by a taciturn and unhelpful questioner, and Portuguese Speaking Tests deserves credit for incorporating items that can over come that inherent awkwardness.

In listening to the questions on all tapes, I ran across only one or two small details that struck me as a bit less than fully natural, and even those might be influenced by my idiolectal preferences. Although an occasional item appears to require cultural information that is independent from language knowledge, on the whole the questions seem appropriate to elicit answers likely to yield reliable material for evaluating proficiency in both aural comprehension and ability to respond to questions. The second section calls for speaking freely on a sequence of five topics, with recorded instructions given in English and reinforced by drawings as visual clues.

The items involve giving directions, describing a picture, and narrating events in which context provides opportunities for using past, present, and future tenses. The drawings describe in detail an assortment of environments and situations about which most learners of Portuguese at U. Although I detected no culturally based details that might interfere with an examinee's performance, I suspect higher quality draftsmanship would likely enhance the visual appeal of the test. The third section asks the examinee to talk about a series of five topics given in English, both orally and in writing.

Some items call for a descriptive answer, while others require examinees to justify their opinion, and still others refer to hypothetical situations that provide an opportunity for. The final section includes five imaginary situations to which examinees are expected to respond verbally. Although instructions are very clear, in one or two cases they reflect behavior which, while possibly appropriate in the United States, might be considered bumbling, tactless, or even provocative in a Portuguese-speaking country.

Since tests are intended as indicators of how well learners would perform in the target culture, it is preferable that instructions be worded so as not to elicit verbal responses that might be considered undesirable behavior according to criteria of the target culture s. Finally, the Official Test Manual includes an overview of the entire program; technical information on the test; detailed explanations on procedures for obtaining the test, administering it, and returning them to the Center for Applied Linguistics for evaluation; information on the interpretation of the results according to the ACTFL Generic Speaking Proficiency Guidelines; and references on proficiency testing and related matters.

Such abundance of information makes this brochure a valuable and practical introduction to proficiency testing for teachers and administrators alike. A few minor imperfections notwithstanding, Portuguese Speaking Test evinces an impressive amount of careful, painstaking work, and it does the profession a timely service by providing a much needed testing instrument. University of California, Berkeley.

Elogio do anacronismo: para os andróginos de Ismael Nery

This book is a detailed introduction to American Spanish dialectology, in the broadest sense of the term. It covers segmental and suprasegmental phonology, morphosyntax, lexicon, sociolinguistics, and historical development of the range of New World Spanish dialects, region by region, reaching from the southwestern United States to Chile. The first two chapters discuss, for the beginner, the nature of dialects and field work generally and the general linguistic description of Spanish.

Chapter 3 describes the four languages including Basque and eight of the dialects of the Iberian Peninsula -as well as Sephardic Spanish. Chapters 4 and 5 review the history of Spanish in Spain, with special reference to the changes that were under way around the time of the discovery of the New World.

And finally, Chapter 19 considers the future of Spanish as a world language. The appendices show dialect questionnaires used in field work, a glossary of linguistic terms, a table of phonetic symbols, word lists demonstrating sounds as pronounced on the accompanying audiotape, additional tape transcriptions not included in the text, and organized lists of Mexican-American Chicano lexical items. The volume ends with a reference list of some items and a subject index The text is supplemented by tables, figures, and maps.

Although the book is ostensibly for beginners, the complexity of the situation of multiple dialects vying and leveling in the New World is treated both fully and clearly. Transplanted Spanish is compared with numerous examples from other colonial languages: English, French, Portuguese, and Dutch Afrikaans. The various dialects and substratum languages are illustrated by sample prose texts, poetry, dialogue, and vocabulary lists.

Topics such as the morphology of Basque and Mapuche are treated in greater detail than one might expect from the book's title. Neologisms from Argentina and those from the southwestern U. While the book is highly informative, clearly written, and richly documented, it is not free of inaccuracies.

The book occasionally seems old-fashioned, in both content and style. The figure for Spain's population of Basque-speakers is based on a source References to sources published in the s and 50s are frequent, while recent investigators such as M. Fontanella de Weinberg, J. Lipski, M. Resnick, and T. Terrell are absent from the bibliography, and H.

The few lapses and the antiquated flavor aside, the book offers a wealth of information, presented in a vivid, engaging style. Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. Although it is also a grammar with the usual drills and paradigms designed for a two-semester sequence of introductory Spanish, the uniqueness of the book consists in the thoroughness of its message to prospective service-oriented professionals that Hispanic clients behave differently from the Anglo norm because of deep-rooted cultural determinants.

Nonverbal communication with the hands is analyzed in an early lesson, as is the less rigid Hispanic manner of walking and holding the body. Proverbs are often used to introduce a particular facet of Hispanic reality, and Lotito is not reluctant to write frankly about qualities peculiar to the Anglo majority as well e. The individual operating from the nirvana state brings a synergistic quality to his communication and alienating differences disappear. The individual in the functional state, on the other hand, is prone to categorize and compare, while the neurotic state is characterized by a total blockage of energy and a rejection of anyone who is different.

The cartoon dialogues are striking and original. Another involves the diagnosis of diabetes in an elderly, proverb-quoting woman who refuses to forego an occasional caramelo in the interest of her health. Still another demonstrates the confusion of a Hispanic client when an Anglo employee reprimands him for not being punctual. The text is followed by a Spanish-English glossary, a bibliography and an adequate, though not exhaustive, index. The glossary is also adequate, but lacks more difficult words from the newspaper and magazine advertisements reproduced in the text e.

The bibliography includes specialized headings for books on Puerto Ricans, Mexicans and Cubans in the United States, as well as on Spanish linguistics, dialectology and bilingual education. The book has a frankness and personalized tone that inspire confidence. Consecuentemente, la urgencia de libros de texto sobre esa materia era exigua. De una reducida lista de. No cabe duda que sus autores conocen vastamente la lengua, el mundo de los negocios y las comunicaciones del mundo hispano parlante.

En el segundo, sobre abreviaturas y siglas, faltan algunas muy usuales CSF, Dll. En el tercero se ignora a Cuba y su unidad monetaria. Teachers of Latin American culture and civilization have long agreed on one thing: the difficulty of finding a suitable text for classroom use.

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Such a text should be geared to the third year college student of Spanish, who is rapidly approaching fluency and plans to major or minor in the language, but who still needs guidance in the form of vocabulary aids, comprehension exercises, background material and bibliography. Anthologies of literary selections abound, as do topical collections of news paper articles or journal interviews; however if the first reveal an exclusivist bias, omitting all but the most canonical authors and countries, the second are marred by a worse flaw: the inclusion of material that is superficial, mediocre or trendy, intended to pander to the supposed tastes of today's students.

There are excellent history texts, but they have a built-in limitation: the demands of chronology make it impossible to cover adequately, if at all, events of the recent decade, perhaps the only ones with which the contemporary North American student is familiar. The ideal text, then, would rectify all of these deficiencies: it would be interdisciplinary in nature, including the widest possible range of perspectives, and universalist in scope, embracing all of the nations which constitute that complex entity known as Latin America. Even more importantly, such a text would be truly representative, reflecting in dynamic fashion the heterogeneity of contemporary Latin America and the authentic concerns of all of its citizens.

Beginning with the book's format, the first problem the authors confront and successfully resolve is that of chronology versus thematics, opting for a workable compromise. It also presents basic geographical and demographic information. Since its purpose is to contextualize the contemporary materials that make up the bulk of the work, it contains no reading selections. The list of authors and interview subjects is even more diversified: they come from every level of Latin American society, every nation, every profession, both genders, and diverse races.

No country is neglected; geographical areas which have historically been ignored, such as Central America, the Caribbean and Brazil, are amply represented, and numerous voices which have traditionally been silenced or submerged are allowed free expressive rein. Or the conversation with Elsa Tamez, a Costa Rican university professor of theology who is active in the popular church, not the Roman Catholic one, however, but the Protestant.

True to its title, not all is innovation in this book, and that is one of its major strengths. The reader cannot help but be impressed by Heyck's evident desire to compile an accurate and fair text, correcting by its example the partial view of Latin American culture so prevalent in earlier readers. The pedagogical features of the book are also well-conceived. This is not only an immensely readable book, but an easy one to teach. Each chapter begins with an introduction which sets the thematic stage for the readings.

Each reading is preceded by a brief biographical sketch and followed by diverse exercises designed either to check reading comprehension, stimulate discussion or invite the student to confront conflicting or complementary views from earlier selections. An excellent vocabulary, presented actively in the text proper rather than at the end of the book, allows for continuity in reading, and the extensive bibliographies which conclude the chapters provide materials for supplementary work.

I have no doubt that it will enjoy an enthusiastic reception from professors and students. Loyola University of Chicago. Each genre has certain difficulties inherent to it and certain master writers pose greater problems with their obscure or deep thoughts, images, words and philosophies. One of the most complex Spanish authors is Francisco de Quevedo, and any effort to translate his writings has proven a monumental, but rewarding task.

Britton prefaces his translation with a lengthy introduction on Quevedo and his times and at tempts to situate the Dreams within the framework of Spanish literature, culture and the Inquisition. The introduction and notes thus serve as an important key to the appreciation and understanding of Quevedo's thoughts.

Britton includes the original Spanish with the corresponding English on a facing page, which aids in a quick comparison of the two versions. By and large, the finished product is more than adequate, although no translation can please everyone. The present work, however, does contain some deficiencies of note that prevent it from being an outstanding translation. Following a trend set by modern editors and publishers, Dreams has neither an index nor a bibliography, both useful tools for future scholarship.

Britton acknowledges a debt to Sir Roger l'Estrange's translation without any bibliographical detail nor with any justification for improvement on l'Estrange's work. In the introduction, Britton quotes Quevedo inconsistently, at times in Spanish, at others in English without citation of works or translations i. While he provides notes to some of Quevedo's Latin quotes, the translator fails to supply renditions of others of equal difficulty or obscurity. Some inconsistencies of style exist, as in all translations, but the introduction at times contradicts the notes.

On page 4, the introduction of the Inquisition to Castile took place in , while on page , it began in Occasional proofreading errors subsist in the text and hence we find Villena and Villalena 33 as forms referring to the same individual. A reference to Henry Kamen's study of the Inquisition is indicated as page 18 rather than page 19, where it actually appears.

Britton mistakenly identifies Ana de Austria as the third rather than as the fourth wife of Philip II.

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  • Il cantiere (SUR) (Italian Edition).
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The arbitrary date of is assigned as that of the date of Spanish unification, although no explanation or justification is furnished for its selection. Some of the longer Spanish paragraphs are illogically divided into short, choppy English paragraphs with no note or explanation for the translator's having done so. In a few instances, the style and language seem awkward e. Despite the drawbacks cited above, R. Britton's translation is a useful and necessary tool for the non-Spanish speaker who wishes to learn more about Quevedo and the siglo de oro.

Anyone planning to teach a course on Spanish literature in translation should consider this work as either a text or a reference work. Kutztown University of Pennsylvania. These three works of fiction have one thing in common: they were all written by living Latin American women. Beyond that, they vary greatly with respect to style, subject and even origin. Valdivieso is Chilean though now an occasional resident of the U.

La brecha first appeared in Chile in , and went through several editions. Narrated in a direct, first-person style, the novel depicts the narrator's imprisonment within a marriage hardly of her own making, but dictated by the pressures of Chilean society:. I got married like everyone else. That world of the lunch hour, of the finger held up, the guardian of the chastity of young girls. Before my twenty-fifth birthday I had to acquire a man - sine qua non - a man who would watch over me, clothe me, be ambitious, and who would be expected, after a certain time, to become one of the affluent.

The narrator discovers early on that she doesn't love her husband, and his excessive possessiveness mine, mine! Breakthrough is a story of a woman's discovery of freedom and of her own individuality and personal worth. It is a moving tale of struggle and triumph. The reader may feel, however, that this form of escape is open only to the wealthy middle class.

The translation by Daichman is scrupulous and correct; however, some of the flavor is lost, idioms and allusions which simply cannot be transferred to another language. Cartucho is a series of rapid vignettes of violence and execution between Villistas and Carrancistas, from a little girl's eye-view. Living in a northern town, the little girl was eyewitness to these events, which are re-created by the mature writer. Little Nellie is, of course, on the side of the Dorados, whom she describes with loving memory, even as the reader knows they will succumb soon in pain and blood. The writer, Campobello, manages to capture faithfully the little girl's point of view, in a style that is both primitive and sophisticated.

At times the lugubrious descriptions achieve a poignant lyricism:. The wounded were dying from hunger and lack of medications. It was practically forbidden to give them water. Every night a group of men with a little lantern would go by the house carrying a dead man all the way down the street. The lantern swung in rhythm with their steps. Silence, grime and hunger.

A wounded Villista, who passed by swaying in the fight of a lantern that gradually dimmed and disappeared. The men who carried them there left them lying outside the cemetery. The book's value as testimony of a violent period is undisputed, as is its unique point of view, that of woman-young girl combined. The narrative is detached, almost cold in its objectivity.

Its value as social criticism is vitiated by the almost gleeful attitude of Nellie, who goes out each morning to count and examine the dead. For her it's a game in which she is the observer. My Mother's Hands is a powerful, poetic homage to the author's mother, left alone to cope with small children after her husband joined the Revolution and never came back.

It is a more satisfying piece of writing than Cartucho , with its numbing staccato murders and executions. In this case, I should have liked to compare the English with the original, since the prose frequently approaches poetry, although I was unable to locate it. The little family moved from Parral to Chihuahua to Parral again in its struggle to survive. The heroic woman is capable of any sacrifice, including lying, in order to provide for her children, yet she tends the wounded men on both sides, and at times dances as gaily as a little girl.

It is an unforgettable and moving portrait of a woman and mother caught up in war:. Graceful as the mountain flowers when they dance swayed by the wind. Her perfume permeates the air around the virgin. She was like the uncut wild cornflowers at the very instant they are kissed by the sun. She was altogether a hymn, a sunrise. Her eyes reflected the corn sheaves as her busy hands crushed the golden spikes and made clusters that would become tortillas She is a child of that generation of Spaniards who fled the Civil War and found refuge in Mexico, and who have left us a remarkable and thoughtful body of work.

But this writer goes beyond her own national and ethnic roots, and aspires to a universality that places her in the company of Borges. She is deeply immersed in literature and philosophy, and her work, like that of the Argentine master, knows no limit in its search for the perfect parable, the ironic twist applied to a well-explored myth. From the epilogue by Elena Poniatowska:. Isolated in her tower in the part of Mexico City called Mixcoac, Angelina writes. She reads and writes -the two cardinal points of the work which she practises like an artisan slowly setting stained glass in a window.

On reading Angelina as Elena calls her , one feels that he or she already knows her, and would like to share with her those afternoons in the park, in the enclosed gardens of the still-beautiful Aztec capital.

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  2. Benjamin Franklin.
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  4. University of California, Irvine. Zapata Olivella is the author of eight novels and is, along with Arnoldo Palacios, one of the two major living black Colombian novelists. From his first work, Tierra mojada , he has been one of Colombia's most virulent social critics. It is a testimonial to the government's repression of the poor and the black. Zapata Olivella dramatically portrays the miserable lives of the slum dwellers, some of whom suffer violent attacks by soldiers; others are recruited into the Colombia battalions sent to the Korean War.

    Jonathan Tittler's admirable translation renders the story in an English that compares well to both the literary and the colloquial Spanish of the original. North American readers will finally have access to one of the major writers of Colombia and Latin America, who has already been translated into numerous other languages. University of Colorado at Boulder. Inversiones y Negocios Spanish Business Text. Miami: Laurenty Publishing, Inc. Estructuras de la novela actual. Madrid: Castalia, Los miedos.

    Barcelona: Destino, Madrid: Taurus, Conquest of the Sierra. Spaniards and Indians in Colonial Oaxaca. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, Latin American Politics.