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It rises south of the Equator and flows northward through northeastern Africa to drain into the Mediterranean Sea. It has a length of about 4, miles 6, kilometres and drains an area estimated at 1,, square miles 3,, square kilometres. Its most distant source is the Kagera River in Burundi. The White Nile, which is the longer of the two, begins at Lake Victoria in Tanzania and flows north until it reaches Khartoum , Sudan, where it converges with the Blue Nile.

The Nile River was extremely important to settlement patterns in Egypt.

The soil surrounding the Nile is very fertile, unlike the arid landscape typical in the rest of the country. The Nile is also featured in a number of Egyptian myths. The Nile River is approximately 4, miles long and was historically thought to be the longest river in the world. There is plenty of debate surrounding this, however, for many believe the Amazon River in South America might be longer.

The Lost Grand Canyon of Egypt, Part III: A Brief Chronology of Events – Naturalis Historia

The fact that the Nile—unlike other great rivers known to them—flowed from the south northward and was in flood at the warmest time of the year was an unsolved mystery to the ancient Egyptians and Greeks. In the Odyssey , the epic poem written by the Greek poet Homer 7th century bce , Aigyptos is the name of the Nile masculine as well as the country of Egypt feminine through which it flows.

The Nile River basin , which covers about one-tenth of the area of the continent, served as the stage for the evolution and decay of advanced civilizations in the ancient world. On the banks of the river dwelled people who were among the first to cultivate the arts of agriculture and to use the plow.

Even in some of the regions in which the average rainfall is sufficient for cultivation, marked annual variations in precipitation often make cultivation without irrigation risky. The Nile River is also a vital waterway for transport, especially at times when motor transport is not feasible—e. Improvements in air, rail, and highway facilities beginning in the 20th century, however, greatly reduced dependency on the waterway.

Nile River river, Africa. See Article History. Top Questions.

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The Geological Evolution of the River Nile by Rushdi Said

Laddas ned direkt. This book gives the geological history of the river Nile since it started to excavate its course in the Egyptian plateaus in late Miocene time in response to the lowering sea level of the desic- cating Mediterranean. It formed a canyon longer, deeper, and just as awe inspiring as the Grand Canyon, Arizona. The canyon was transgressed by the advancing Mediterranean as it started filling during the early Pliocene, and since then by a number of rivers which ebbed and flowed as they succeeded one another.

The modern Nile is a recent and humble successor to mighty rivers which once occupied the Nile Valley.


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Grateful acknowledgment is made to Professor Fred Wendorf, leader of the Expedition, and to several members for their fruitful discussions.