The army lacked its own horses, oxen and mules for transportation, so these auxiliaries were operated by civilians, who might run away if conditions looked bad. In combat, small units fought well, but their old-fashioned tactics were hardly of use against the Napoleonic forces, despite repeated desperate efforts at last-minute reform. Leading generals were assassinated, and the army proved incompetent to handle command-and-control.
Junior officers from peasant families deserted and went over to the insurgents; many units disintegrated. Spain was unable to mobilize its artillery or cavalry. Conditions steadily worsened, as the insurgents increasingly took control of Spain's battle against Napoleon. Napoleon ridiculed the army as "the worst in Europe"; the British who had to work with it agreed. The morale of the army had reached a nadir, and reformers stripped the aristocratic officers of most of their legal privileges.
Spain initially sided against France in the Napoleonic Wars , but the defeat of her army early in the war led to Charles IV 's pragmatic decision to align with the revolutionary French. A major Franco-Spanish fleet was lost at the Battle of Trafalgar in , prompting the vacillating king of Spain to reconsider his difficult alliance with Napoleon.
Spain temporarily broke off from the Continental System , and Napoleon — irritated with the Bourbon kings of Spain — invaded Spain in and deposed Ferdinand VII , who had been on the throne only forty-eight days after his father's abdication in March On July 20, , Joseph Bonaparte , eldest brother of Napoleon Bonaparte, entered Madrid and established a government by which he became King of Spain, serving as a surrogate for Napoleon. The former Spanish king was dethroned by Napoleon, who put his own brother on the throne. Spaniards revolted. Thompson says the Spanish revolt was, "a reaction against new institutions and ideas, a movement for loyalty to the old order: to the hereditary crown of the Most Catholic kings, which Napoleon, an excommunicated enemy of the Pope, had put on the head of a Frenchman; to the Catholic Church persecuted by republicans who had desecrated churches, murdered priests, and enforced a "loi des cultes"; and to local and provincial rights and privileges threatened by an efficiently centralized government.
On September 26, , a Central Junta was formed in the town of Aranjuez to coordinate the nationwide struggle against the French. On February 22 and 23, , a popular insurrection against the French occupation broke out all over Spain. The peninsular campaign was a disaster for France. Napoleon did well when he was in direct command, but that followed severe losses, and when he left in conditions grew worse for France. Vicious reprisals, famously portrayed by Goya in " The Disasters of War ", only made the Spanish guerrillas angrier and more active; the war in Spain proved to be a major, long-term drain on French money, manpower and prestige.
This constitution provided for a separation of the powers of the executive and the legislative branches of government. The Cortes was to be elected by universal suffrage, albeit by an indirect method. Each member of the Cortes was to represent 70, people. Members of the Cortes were to meet in annual sessions.
The King was prevented from either convening or proroguing the Cortes. Members of the Cortes were to serve single two-year terms. They could not serve consecutive terms; a member could serve a second term only by allowing someone else to serve a single intervening term in office. This attempt at the development of a modern constitutional government lasted from until Born in , Floridablanca was eighty years of age at the time of the revolutionary outbreak in He had served as Prime Minister under King Charles III of Spain from until ; However, he tended to be suspicious of the popular spontaneity and resisted a revolution.
A writer and follower of the philosophers of the Enlightenment tradition of the previous century, Jovellanos had served as Minister of Justice from to and now commanded a substantial and influential group within the Central Junta. However, Jovellanos had been imprisoned by Manuel de Godoy, Duke of Alcudia , who had served as the prime minister, virtually running the country as a dictator from until and from until Accordingly, even Jovellanos tended to be somewhat overly cautious in his approach to the revolutionary upsurge that was sweeping Spain in Napoleon took personal charge and with fresh forces reconquered Spain in a matter of months, defeating the Spanish and British armies in a brilliant campaign of encirclement.
After this the Spanish armies lost every battle they fought against the French imperial forces but were never annihilated; after battles they would retreat into the mountains to regroup and launch new attacks and raids. Guerrilla forces sprang up all over the country and, with the army, tied down huge numbers of Napoleon's troops, making it difficult to sustain concentrated attacks on enemy forces. The attacks and raids of the Spanish army and guerrillas became a massive drain on Napoleon's military and economic resources. The brutal war was one of the first guerrilla wars in modern Western history.
French supply lines stretching across Spain were mauled repeatedly by the Spanish armies and guerrilla forces; thereafter, Napoleon's armies were never able to control much of the country. The war fluctuated, with Wellington spending several years behind his fortresses in Portugal while launching occasional campaigns into Spain. After Napoleon's disastrous campaign in Russia, Napoleon began to recall his forces for the defence of France against the advancing Russian and other coalition forces, leaving his forces in Spain increasingly undermanned and on the defensive against the advancing Spanish, British and Portuguese armies.
Spain lost all of its North and South American colonies, except Cuba and Puerto Rico, in a complex series of revolts — Trade was handled by American and Dutch traders. The colonies thus had achieved economic independence from Spain, and set up temporary governments or juntas which were generally out of touch with the mother country. After , as Napoleon was defeated and Ferdinand VII was back on the throne, the king sent armies to regain control and reimpose autocratic rule.
In the next phase —16, Spain defeated all the uprising. A second round —25 was successful and drove the Spanish out of all of its mainland holdings. Spain had no help from European powers. Indeed, Britain and the United States worked against it. When they were cut off from Spain, the colonies saw a struggle for power between Spaniards who were born in Spain called "peninsulares" and those of Spanish descent born in New Spain called "creoles". The creoles were the activists for independence.
Multiple revolutions enabled the colonies to break free of the mother country. After that Spain played a minor role in international affairs.
Business and trade in the ex-colonies were under British control. The Napoleonic wars had severe negative effects on Spain's long-term economic development. The Peninsular war ravaged towns and countryside alike, and the demographic impact was the worst of any Spanish war, with a sharp decline in population in many areas caused by casualties, outmigration, and disruption of family life. The marauding armies seized farmers' crops, and more importantly, farmers lost much of their livestock, their main capital asset.
Severe poverty became widespread, reducing market demand, while the disruption of local and international trade, and the shortages of critical inputs, seriously hurt industry and services. The loss of a vast colonial empire reduced Spain's overall wealth, and by it had become one of Europe's poorest and least-developed societies; three-fourths of the people were illiterate.
There was little industry beyond the production of textiles in Catalonia. Natural resources, such as coal and iron, were available for exploitation, but the transportation system was rudimentary, with few canals or navigable rivers, and road travel was slow and expensive.
British railroad builders were pessimistic about the potential for freight and passenger traffic and did not invest. Eventually a small railway system was built, radiating from Madrid and bypassing the natural resources. The government relied on high tariffs, especially on grain, which further slowed economic development. For example, eastern Spain was unable to import inexpensive Italian wheat, and had to rely on expensive homegrown products carted in over poor roads.
The export market collapsed apart from some agricultural products. Catalonia had some industry, but Castile remained the political and cultural center, and was not interested in promoting industry. Although the juntas , that had forced the French to leave Spain, had sworn by the liberal Constitution of , Ferdinand VII had the support of conservatives and he rejected it. The government, nearly bankrupt, was unable to pay her soldiers. There were few settlers or soldiers in Florida, so it was sold to the United States for 5 million dollars.
In , an expedition intended for the colonies revolted in Cadiz.
When armies throughout Spain pronounced themselves in sympathy with the revolters, led by Rafael del Riego , Ferdinand relented and was forced to accept the liberal Constitution of This was the start of the second bourgeois revolution in Spain, the trienio liberal which would last from to The tumultuous three years of liberal rule that followed —23 were marked by various absolutist conspiracies. The liberal government, which reminded European statesmen entirely too much of the governments of the French Revolution, was viewed with hostility by the Congress of Verona in , and France was authorized to intervene.
France crushed the liberal government with massive force in the so-called " Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis " expedition, and Ferdinand was restored as absolute monarch in In Spain proper, this marked the end of the second Spanish bourgeois revolution. In Spain, the failure of the second bourgeois revolution was followed by a period of uneasy peace for the next decade. Having borne only a female heir presumptive, it appeared that Ferdinand would be succeeded by his brother, Infante Carlos of Spain.
While Ferdinand aligned with the conservatives, fearing another national insurrection, he did not view Carlos's reactionary policies as a viable option. Ferdinand — resisting the wishes of his brother — decreed the Pragmatic Sanction of , enabling his daughter Isabella to become Queen. Carlos, who made known his intent to resist the sanction, fled to Portugal. Isabella was only three years old at the time so her mother, Maria Cristina of Bourbon-Two Sicilies , was named regent until her daughter came of age.
Carlos invaded the Basque country in the north of Spain and attracted support from absolutist reactionaries and conservatives; these forces were known as the "Carlist" forces. The supporters of reform and of limitations on the absolutist rule of the Spanish throne rallied behind Isabella and the regent, Maria Christina; these reformists were called "Cristinos. The Cristinos found a capable general in Baldomero Espartero. His victory at the Battle of Luchana turned the tide of the war, and in , the Convention of Vergara put an end to the first Carlist insurrection.
The progressive General Espartero , exploiting his popularity as a war hero and his sobriquet "Pacifier of Spain", demanded liberal reforms from Maria Cristina. The Queen Regent, who resisted any such idea, preferred to resign and let Espartero become regent instead in Espartero's liberal reforms were then opposed by moderates, and the former general's heavy-handedness caused a series of sporadic uprisings throughout the country from various quarters, all of which were bloodily suppressed.
Another Carlist uprising, the Matiners' War , was launched in in Catalonia , but it was poorly organized and suppressed by Isabella II of Spain took a more active role in government after coming of age, but she was immensely unpopular throughout her reign — She was viewed as beholden to whoever was closest to her at court, and the people of Spain believed that she cared little for them. As the result of the popular insurrection, the Partido Progresista Progressive Party obtained widespread support in Spain and came to power in the government in Isabella's plan failed and cost Isabella more prestige and favor with the people.
In , Isabella launched a successful war against Morocco , waged by generals O'Donnell and Juan Prim that stabilized her popularity in Spain. Alongside the French, Spain intervened elsewhere in Cochinchina —63 and Mexico — Furthermore, the government accepted Santo Domingo's voluntary return to the Spanish Empire. Spain also extended its military presence in the Pacific off the South American coast. In , a revolt led by Juan Prim was suppressed. In another insurgency, known as the Glorious Revolution took place. The progresista generals Francisco Serrano and Juan Prim revolted against Isabella and defeated her moderado generals at the Battle of Alcolea Isabella was driven into exile in Paris.
Two years later, in , the Cortes declared that Spain would again have a king. The country was plagued by internecine strife, not merely between Spaniards but within Spanish parties. Following the Hidalgo affair and an army rebellion, Amadeus famously declared the people of Spain to be ungovernable, abdicated the throne, and left the country 11 February In the absence of the Monarch, a government of radicals and Republicans was formed and declared Spain a republic. The First Spanish Republic —74 was immediately under siege from all quarters. The Carlists were the most immediate threat, launching a violent insurrection after their poor showing in the elections.
There were calls for socialist revolution from the International Workingmen's Association , revolts and unrest in the autonomous regions of Navarre and Catalonia , and pressure from the Catholic Church against the fledgling republic. Although the former queen , Isabella II was still alive, she recognized that she was too divisive as a leader, and abdicated in in favor of her son, Alfonso. After the tumult of the First Spanish Republic , Spaniards were willing to accept a return to stability under Bourbon rule.
The Carlist insurrection was put down vigorously by the new king, who took an active role in the war and rapidly gained the support of most of his countrymen. Election fraud materialized in the so-called caciquismo became ubiquous, with elections reproducing pre-arranged outcomes struck in the Capital. In , Cuba launched a war of independence against Spain. On that island, as had been the case in Santo Domingo, the Spanish government found itself embroiled in a difficult campaign against an indigenous rebellion.
Unlike in Santo Domingo , however, Spain would initially win this struggle, having learned the lessons of guerrilla warfare well enough to defeat this rebellion. The pacification of the island was temporary, however, as the conflict revived in and ended in defeat at the hands of the United States in the Spanish—American War of Cuba gained its independence and Spain lost its remaining New World colony, Puerto Rico , which together with Guam and the Philippines were ceded to the United States for 20 million dollars.
The "disaster" of created the Generation of '98 , a group of statesmen and intellectuals who demanded liberal change from the new government. However both Anarchism on the left and fascism on the right grew rapidly in Spain in the early 20th century. A revolt in in Catalonia was bloodily suppressed. They interpreted the American victory in as well as the Japanese victory against Russia in as proof of the superiority of willpower and moral values over technology. Over the next three decades, Jensen argues, these values shaped the outlook of Francisco Franco and other Falangists.
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The bipartisan system began to collapse in the later years of the constitutional part of the reign of Alfonso XIII, with the dynastic parties largely disintegrating into factions: the conservatives faced a schism between datistas , mauristas and ciervistas. Spain's neutrality in World War I allowed it to become a supplier of material for both sides to its great advantage, prompting an economic boom in Spain. The outbreak of Spanish influenza in Spain and elsewhere, along with a major economic slowdown in the postwar period, hit Spain particularly hard, and the country went into debt.
A major workers' strike was suppressed in Spanish colonial policies in Spanish Morocco led to an uprising known as the Rif War ; rebels took control of most of the area except for the enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla in As Prime Minister Primo de Rivera promised to reform the country quickly and restore elections soon. He deeply believed that it was the politicians who had ruined Spain and that governing without them he could regenerate the nation.
His slogan was "Country, Religion, Monarchy. The late s were prosperous until the worldwide Great Depression hit in In early bankruptcy and massive unpopularity forced the king to remove Primo de Rivera. Historians depict an idealistic but inept dictator who did not understand government, lacked clear ideas and showed very little political acumen.
He consulted no one, had a weak staff, and made frequent strange pronouncements. He started with very broad support but lost every element until only the army was left. His projects ran large deficits which he kept hidden. His multiple repeated mistakes discredited the king and ruined the monarchy, while heightening social tensions. Urban voters had lost faith in the King and voted for republican parties in the municipal elections of April , in what had been considered a referendum on the Monarchy.
The king fled the country without abdicating and a republic was established. Political ideologies were intensely polarized, as both right and left saw vast evil conspiracies on the other side that had to be stopped. The central issue was the role of the Catholic Church, which the left saw as the major enemy of modernity and the Spanish people, and the right saw as the invaluable protector of Spanish values. Under the Second Spanish Republic, women were allowed to vote in general elections for the first time. The Republic devolved substantial self-government to Catalonia and, for a brief period in wartime, also to the Basque Provinces.
Economic turmoil, substantial debt, and fractious, rapidly changing governing coalitions led to escalating political violence and attempted coups by right and left. This in turn energized political movements across the spectrum in Spain, including a revived anarchist movement and new reactionary and fascist groups, including the Falange and a revived Carlist movement. A devastating —39 civil war was won by the rebel forces supported by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, which General Francisco Franco got to lead some months after the beginning of the conflict once other possible challengers to the rebel leadership died.
The rebels backed among other by traditionalist Carlists , Fascist falangists and Far-right alfonsists defeated the Republican loyalists with a variable support of Socialists, Liberals, Communists, Anarchists and Catalan and Basque nationalists , who were backed by the Soviet Union. The Spanish Civil War was marked by numerous small battles and sieges, and many atrocities, until the rebels the "Nationalists" , led by Francisco Franco, won in There was military intervention as Italy sent land forces, and Germany sent smaller elite air force and armored units to the rebel side the Nationalists.
The Soviet Union sold armaments to the "Loyalists" "Republicans" , while the Communist parties in numerous countries sent soldiers to the "International Brigades. Britain, France and the United States remained neutral and refused to sell military supplies. Worldwide there was a decline in pacifism and a growing sense that another world war was imminent, and that it would be worth fighting for. In the s, Spanish politics were polarized at the left and right extremes of the political spectrum.
The left-wing favored class struggle , land reform to overthrow the land owners, autonomy to the regions, and the destruction of the Catholic Church. The right-wing groups, the largest of which was CEDA, a Catholic coalition, believed in tradition, stability and hierarchy. Religion was the main dividing line between right and left, but there were regional variations. The Basques were devoutly Catholic but they put a high priority on regional autonomy.
The Left offered a better deal so in —37 they fought for the Republicans. In they pulled out of the war. The Spanish Republican government moved to Valencia, to escape Madrid, which was under siege by the Nationalists. It had some military strength in the Air Force and Navy, but it had lost nearly all of the regular Army. After opening the arsenals to give rifles, machine guns and artillery to local militias, it had little control over the Loyalist ground forces.
Republican diplomacy proved ineffective, with only two useful allies, the Soviet Union and Mexico. Britain, France and 27 other countries had agreed to an arms embargo on Spain, and the United States went along. Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy both signed that agreement, but ignored it and sent supplies and vital help, including a powerful air force under German command, the Condor Legion.
Tens of thousands of Italians arrived under Italian command. Portugal supported the Nationalists, and allowed the trans-shipment of supplies to Franco's forces. The Soviets sold tanks and other armaments for Spanish gold, and sent well-trained officers and political commissars. It organized the mobilization of tens of thousands of mostly communist volunteers from around the world, who formed the International Brigades.
In , the Left united in the Popular Front and were elected to power. The political violence of previous years began to start again. There were gunfights over strikes; landless labourers began to seize land, church officials were killed and churches burnt.
On the other side, right wing militias such as the Falange and gunmen hired by employers assassinated left wing activists. The Republican democracy never generated the consensus or mutual trust between the various political groups that it needed to function peacefully. As a result, the country slid into civil war.
The Nationalists under Franco won the war, and historians continue to debate the reasons. The Nationalists were much better unified and led than the Republicans, who squabbled and fought amongst themselves endlessly and had no clear military strategy. The Army went over to the Nationalists, but it was very poorly equipped — there were no tanks or modern airplanes. The small navy supported the Republicans, but their armies were made up of raw recruits and they lacked both equipment and skilled officers and sergeants. Nationalist senior officers were much better trained and more familiar with modern tactics than the Republicans.
On 17 July , General Francisco Franco brought the colonial army stationed in Morocco to the mainland, while another force from the north under General Mola moved south from Navarre. Another conspirator, General Sanjurjo, who was in exile in Portugal, was killed in a plane crash while being brought to join the other military leaders. Military units were also mobilised elsewhere to take over government institutions.
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Franco intended to seize power immediately, but successful resistance by Republicans in the key centers of Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, the Basque country, and other points meant that Spain faced a prolonged civil war. By much of the south and west was under the control of the Nationalists, whose Army of Africa was the most professional force available to either side.
Both sides received foreign military aid: the Nationalists from Nazi Germany and Italy, while the Republicans were supported by organised far-left volunteers from the Soviet Union. The Republicans managed to hold out in Madrid , despite a Nationalist assault in November , and frustrated subsequent offensives against the capital at Jarama and Guadalajara in Soon, though, the Nationalists began to erode their territory, starving Madrid and making inroads into the east.
The North, including the Basque country fell in late and the Aragon front collapsed shortly afterwards. The bombing of Guernica on the afternoon of 26 April — a mission used as a testing ground for the German Luftwaffe 's Condor Legion — was probably the most infamous event of the war and inspired Picasso's painting. The Battle of the Ebro in July—November was the final desperate attempt by the Republicans to turn the tide. When this failed and Barcelona fell to the Nationalists in early , it was clear the war was over.
The remaining Republican fronts collapsed, as civil war broke out inside the Left, as the Republicans suppressed the Communists. Madrid fell in March The war cost between , and 1,, lives. It ended with the total collapse of the Republic and the accession of Francisco Franco as dictator of Spain. Franco amalgamated all right wing parties into a reconstituted fascist party Falange and banned the left-wing and Republican parties and trade unions.
The Church was more powerful than it had been in centuries. The conduct of the war was brutal on both sides, with widespread massacres of civilians and prisoners.
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After the war, many thousands of Republicans were imprisoned and up to , were executed between and Some , refugees escaped to France; they remained in exile for years or decades. The Francoist regime resulted in the deaths and arrests of hundreds of thousands of people who were either supporters of the previous Second Republic of Spain or potential threats to Franco's state. They were executed, sent to prisons or concentration camps. According to Gabriel Jackson, the number of victims of the White Terror executions and hunger or illness in prisons just between and was , The lost children of Francoism may reach , During Franco 's rule, Spain was officially neutral in World War II and remained largely economically and culturally isolated from the outside world.
Under a military dictatorship, Spain saw its political parties banned, except for the official party Falange. Labour unions were banned and all political activity using violence or intimidation to achieve its goals was forbidden. Under Franco, Spain actively sought the return of Gibraltar by the United Kingdom, and gained some support for its cause at the United Nations.
During the s, Spain began imposing restrictions on Gibraltar, culminating in the closure of the border in It was not fully reopened until Spanish rule in Morocco ended in Though militarily victorious in the —58 Moroccan invasion of Spanish West Africa , Spain gradually relinquished its remaining African colonies. Spanish Guinea was granted independence as Equatorial Guinea in , while the Moroccan enclave of Ifni had been ceded to Morocco in Two cities in Africa, Ceuta and Melilla remain under Spanish rule and sovereignty. The latter years of Franco's rule saw some economic and political liberalization the Spanish miracle , including the birth of a tourism industry.
Spain began to catch up economically with its European neighbors. Franco ruled until his death on 20 November , when control was given to King Juan Carlos. The Spanish transition to democracy or new Bourbon restoration was the era when Spain moved from the dictatorship of Francisco Franco to a liberal democratic state. The transition is usually said to have begun with Franco's death on 20 November , while its completion is marked by the electoral victory of the socialist PSOE on 28 October Under its current constitution, Spain is a constitutional monarchy.
On 23 February Antonio Tejero , with members of the Guardia Civil entered the Congress of Deputies, and stopped the session, where Leopoldo Calvo Sotelo was about to be named prime minister of the government. Along with political change came radical change in Spanish society. Spanish society had been extremely conservative under Franco, but the transition to democracy also began a liberalization of values and social mores. On 1 January , Spain exchanged the peseta for the new Euro currency. The peseta continued to be used for cash transactions until January 1, On 11 March a number of terrorist bombs exploded on busy commuter trains in Madrid by Islamic extremists linked to Al-Qaeda , killing persons and injuring thousands.
In the wake of its joining the EEC, Spain experienced an economic boom during two decades, cut painfully short by the financial crisis of During the boom years, Spain attracted a large number of immigrants , especially from the United Kingdom, but also including unknown but substantial illegal immigration , mostly from Latin America, eastern Europe and north Africa. The GDP shrank 1. Economists concluded in early that, "Where once Spain's problems were acute, now they are chronic: entrenched unemployment, a large mass of small and medium-sized enterprises with low productivity, and, above all, a constriction in credit.
Spain is ranked as a middle power able to exert modest regional influence. It has a small voice in international organizations; it is not part of the G8 and participates in the G20 only as a guest. Spain is part of the G6 EU. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of a series on the. Early history. Early modern. Transition to democracy Spain since By topic. Colonial history Economic history Military history.
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Main article: Spanish Civil War. Main article: Francoist Spain. Main article: History of Spain —present. Main article: Spanish transition to democracy. Further information: Spanish property bubble , —14 Spanish financial crisis , and Eurozone crisis. British Broadcasting Corporation. BBC News. Archived from the original on March 16, Britannica Online Encyclopedia.
Encyclopaedia Romana. University of Chicago. Retrieved Rome in the Mediterranean World. University of Toronto. Library of Congress Country Series. The Library of Iberian Resources Online. Spain: A Modern History. University of Michigan Press. Moorish Spain. The Viking Age. Jovian Press. Archived from the original on Historia da lingua galega. Retrieved 19 August Cambridge University Press. A History of the Global Economy.
From to the Present. Renaissance and Reformation. Marshall Cavendish. New York: Cambridge University Press , p. Elliott , "Imperial Spain: —", Penguin Books, , p. Elliott July Yale University Press. Friedrich, The age of the baroque: pp. Elliott Imperial Spain OUP Blog. Retrieved 5 July Stanley G. Oxford University Press. Cambridge UP. Griffin Infobase Publishing.
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Modern Spain: A Documentary History. Cambridge U. Nafziger Historical Dictionary of the Napoleonic Era. Scarecrow Press. Chandler The Campaigns of Napoleon. Simon and Schuster. Osprey Publishing. Vittoria Wellington Sweeps the French from Spain.
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Iberia and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History. Latin American revolutions, — old and new world origins , scholarly essays. European Historical Economics Society. Retrieved 29 April Ringrose Spain, Europe, and the 'Spanish Miracle', — Encyclopedia of the age of imperialism: — Retrieved 13 December Payne Stanford University Press.
Church, Politics, and Society in Spain, — Harvard U. Center for European Studies Working Paper Madrid: Centro de Estudios Constitucionales 96 : Skip to main content. Description Reviews Table of Contents. Scott K. Taylor is associate professor of history at Siena College. He lives in Albany, NY. It stands alongside works like Ruth MacKay's 'Lazy, Improvident People': Myth and Reality in the Writing of Spanish History and others that challenge the persisting stereotypes of Spanish exceptionalism and integrate Spain into the mainstream of European history.
Katie Harris, Renaissance Quarterly. He revels in the abundance of documentation he has consulted. Carefully researched and engagingly written, Taylor's book speaks directly to an issue of pressing concern and current scholarly debate. It is a thought-provoking reexamination of the stereotypical view of Spanish honor.
Taylor's adept study and interdisciplinary approach will be of interest to students of early modern Spanish and European history, literature, anthropology, gender, and society. Also of Interest. John Lukacs. Ideologies of Empire in Spain, Britain and France c.