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Oruro, Bolivia Revista del Museo de La Plata. Buenos Aires,. Lobo da Silva Arthur. A anthr apologia no exercito brasileiro. Archivos do. XXX, , p. Loys Francis de. A gap filled in the pedigree of man? The illustrated London. Londres, 15 juin , p. Milacsek T. Die Umschau. Main, , p. Paris, avril , p. XXI, , p. MooDiE Roy L. Archaeology of disease in South America. The scientific Monthly,.
St-Gabriel-Modling, t. XXIV, , p. Skulls from the Upper Orinoco. Indian Notes. Museum of the american Indian, Heye foundation, t. VI, , p. Oppenheim St. Die Naturwis-. XVII, i'asc. Remane A. Die Natur-. Roquette-Pinto E. Nota sobre os typos anthropologicos do Brasil. Senet Rodolfo. Las transiciones hasta el hombre actual y la dispersion de la especie.
La Prensa. Silva Soares Odilonda. Annual Report of the Director of the Board of trustees for the year Field Museum. Anthropology and archaeology. Kleiweg de Zwaan J. Het vraagstuk van den tevtiairen Mensch. Mensch en Maatschappij. Groningen, t. Noguera Eduardo. El puesto de la arqueologia entre las ciencias. Pond Alonzo W. Primitive methods of working stone based on experiments of Halvor L. Logan Museum Bulletin. Beloit, t. Rock Fritz. Die kulturhistorische Bedeutung von Ortun gsreihen und Ortun gsbil dern.
XXV, , p. Sur les sommets de l'Atlantide. Adam L. Die Kunst des alten Amerika und die alte Welt. Die Cicerone. Leipzig, t. XIX, fasc. Cahiers d'art. Paris, , 52 p. Succession de M. Paris, mars , 34 p. Back Rudolf. Blatter fur die Freunde der Antike. IV, , p. Bernhardi Anna. Revista chilena de historia natural. Santiago de Chile, t.
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Callegari G. L'archeologia americana nel Milan, t. Cauvet Commandant. Alger, J. Bringau, , p. Cook H. The antiquity of man in America. Cottevieille-Giraudet R. Proceedings of the international Institute of anthropology, 3rd session. Amsterdam, , p. Flying over ancient places. Freitas Affonso A. Frikderici Georg. Mackenzie Donald A. Myths of pre-columbian America.
Londres, , p. Marquez Miranda Fernando. La Plata, t. XX, , p. Sobre el dialecto cubano y el origen de las razas americanas. Revista bimestre cubana. La Havane, t. XXII, , p. Mummies examined with X-rays. Arquitcctura americana. Madrid, t. XCIII, , p. Ethnologische Studien. Leipzig, , p. Posnansky Arthur. En las Americas existia una lengua, una raza y un simbolo primitive que era la base de un dogma general.
Ultima hora. Prince Carlos. Origen de los Indios de America. Lima, , in Roux Cl. Lyon, , p. Schmidt Wilhelm. Der Ur sprung der Gottesidee. Eine historisch-kritische Studie. Spargo John. Early american pottery and China. New York, Century Co. Stolpe Hjalmar. Collected essays in ornemental art. On evolution in the ornamental art of savage people ; II. Studies in american ornamentation. A contribution to the biology of ornament.
Stockholm, Astonbl. Trykeri, , p. Washington, Pan American Union, Vaillant George C. On the threshold of native american civilization. Natural history. Verrill A. Old civilizations of the New World. Londres, Williams and Norgate, Ltd. Aerial survey of Pueblo land. Alexander H. Field notes at Jemez. Ancient Eskimo burials.
Ancient life of Bering sea. Ancient man in Texas. An early Eskimo culture in Alaska. Basket-makers in Oklahoma. Bell Charles N. An implement of prehistoric man. Thirty-sixth annual archaeological Report, Toronto, , p. Bernheimer Charles L. Rainbow bridge. Garden City N.
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Big Pueblo ruin located. Birket-Smith Kaj. Geo- grafisk Tidsskrift. Copenhague, t. Boas Franz.
Migrations of asiatic races and cultures to North America. Bolton Reginald Pelham. Indian remains in northern Vermont. New York, Museum of the american Indian, Heye foundation, t. VII, ,. Bradfield Wesley. Excavations in theSacvamentos. Buffalo paths are a myth. Bunzel Ruth L.
The Pueblo potter : a study of creative imagination in primitive. Burial mounds of early Indians. Bushneix Jr. David I.
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Mounds and other ancient earthworks of the United States. Annual Report of the Board of regents of the Smithsonian Institution for Washington, , p. Chronology of the southwest. Chumash village site excavated. Prehistoric art of the Alaskan Eskimo. Smithsonian miscellaneous Collections. Darlington H. The probable origin of some North American dice games. Davidson D. Lock Haven expedition.
The Museum Journal. Delabarre Edmund Burke. Dighton Rock ; a study of the written rocks of New. New York, Walter Neale, , p. Hodge denounces pot hunters. Earl Morris on ea,rly Pueblos. Early Pueblo settlements in Nevada. Olancha tablet. Epidemic ravaged early California. Fewkes J. Aboriginal wooden objects from southern Florida. LXXX, , 2 p. Fowke Gerard. Archeological investigations, II. Forty-fourth annual Report of. Eossil man in Florida. Journal of science. New Haven, t.
Glad win Harold S. A method for designation of ruins in the southwest. The Medallion. Pasadena, Southwest Museum Papers. Los Angeles, Pasadena, , p. Golden age of the Pueblos. Guild L. The geography of american antiques. Garden City, Doubleday, T, p. Harrington John P. Exploration of the Burton mound, at Santa Barbara, California.
Forty-fourth annual Report of the Bureau of american ethnology, Hawley Florence M. Prehistoric pottery pigments in the southwest. XXXI, , p. Hewett describes Chaco canyon past and present. Primitive man in Michigan. Ann Arbor, Museum of zoology, , xn p. Hodge F. North America : Archeology. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Latest anthropological explorations in Alaska. XXVII, ,. Investigations in Taos valley. Jeancon Jean Allard. Archaeological research in the northeastern San Juan basin. The State historical and natural history.
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Society of Colorado and the University of Denver. Denver, The Webb-Kennedy. The Colorado Magazine. Denver, t. Ill, n" 2, ,. Jenness D. Notes on the Beothuk Indians of Newfoundland. Annual Report for of the National Museum of Canada. Judd Neil M. The present status of archaeology in the United States. Eine indianische Stadt, Pueblo Bonito. Die Woche. Die Koralle. Les Aztecs dans l'Ontario? XXIII, , p. Indianische Felsenwohnungen in Arizona und Colorado. Illustrierte Zeitung. MacLeod W. On California mortuaries. American anthropologist, Menasha, new series, t. Magoffin Ralph van Deman.
A thousand miles of american archaeology. Mason J. The Texas expedition. Mathiassen Therkel Archaeological collections from the western Eskimos. Report of the fifth Thule expedition Geogra- fisk Tidsskrift. McKern W. Ohio tvpe of mounds in Wisconsin. Year Book of the Public Museum of the city of Milwaukee. Milwaukee, t. VIII, part 1, , p. Menu of the mound builders. Moorehead Warren King. The mound builder problem to date. Mound builders were weavers. New accessions to Museum. Olson Ronald L. Chumash prehistory. University of California Publications in.
Berkeley, t. Parker Arthur C. Indian medicine and medicine men. Thirty-sixth annual. Petroglyphs in British Columbia. Petroglyphs in Pennsylvania.
Pra'historischer Salzbergbau. Francfort, t. Prehistoric circular house. Prehistoric irrigation canals in Arizona. Pueblo chronology by tree rings. Rasmussen Knud. Eskimoer og Stenalderfolk. Forslag til en international Under-. Geografisk Tidsskrift. Renaud E. A mound builder cousin of the basket maker. Ritchie William A. Some Algonkian and Iroquoian camp sites around Rochester. Researches and transactions of the New York state archeological Association.
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University of Denver Bulletin. A late basket maker site in the Chaco canyon, New Mexico. Bureau of american ethnology, Bulletin Rogers Malcolm J. The stone art of the San Dieguito plateau. Saville Marshall H. On certain archaeological specimens from New England. VI, ,. Schenck W. Egbert et Dawson Elmer J. Archaeology of the northern San. Joaquin valley. University of California Publications in american archaeology. Schrabish Max. Archaeology of Warren and Hunterdon counties.
Trenton, Sequence of mound builder cultures. Shetrone H. The mound builders. XXX, ,. Skeleton from Indiana mound. Smith Harlan I. Cement casts of petroglyphs. New York, new series, t. LXIV, , p. Smith H. Some shell-heaps in Nova Scotia. Museum of Canada. Indian remains of the Penobscot valley and their significance. Maine Bulletin. Orono, t. XXIX, fasc.
Steward Julian H. Petroglyphs of California and adfoining states. University of. California Publications in american archaeology and ethnology. Stewart George W. Prehistoric rock basins in. Strong William Duncan. A" stone culture from northern Labrador and its relation. Sun symbols to be exhibited. Talus mound excavated.
Terrecotte preistoriche nella Valle di Mimbres, New Mexico. X, , p. The status of ethnological and archaeological research in the southwest. Tower and kiva in one. Die asiatische A bkunft der Indianer Nordamerikas. Der Erdball. Waterman T. Culture horizons in the southwest. Origin of the small mounds on. American Journal of science. New Haven, septembre , p.
Webb W. West Geo A. Raymond notes that the accident also prompted the circulation of ballads and poetic exercises among students. The accession of new sovereigns and their ceremonial reception by the people provided, by definition, news of national and international interest. First page of a relation printed in Dutch at Antwerp in , whose title can be translated as: About the assemblies of princes, counts and lords in Frankfurt to elect the King of the Romans.
And how the king was crowned and anointed at Aachen and what great state and magnificence took place there. Homenaje al Profesor Klaus Wagner, ed.
A large number of avvisi on the journey appeared in Rome and Ferrara. Bonner Mitchell notes that the earliest livret i. Bonner Mitchell provides an account of the festivities in Ferrara, together with facsimiles of some of the relevant news pamphlets. Dutch relations on her entry into Ferrara were published in Delft and in Amsterdam, as well as in Antwerp. One, published in Brussels in , summarised her travels through Italy. Margherita, N. Phillip the III. The quenes maiesties passage through the citie of London to Westminster the daye before her coronacion.
A royal progress performed by her nearly twenty years later is recorded in two newslet- ters printed in See also Shaaber Detailed depiction of features and clothes in the superb handsomely coloured engraving in a Flugblatt on the embassy from Moscow that was received by the Holy Roman Emperor in Regensburg in , with a commen- tary in verse below Zentralbibliothek, Zurich. The Muscovite embassy to the Holy Roman Emperor in was commemorated in a spectacularly illustrated Flugblatt which portrays the features and the attire of the seven ambassadors in convincing detail and briefly tells the story of the event in verse Fig.
An Italian report published in Bologna spoke of the funeral service held in Brussels, as did one published in Cremona in , and one printed in Milan reported on the ceremonies For the first item, see Shaaber A copy of the second, at British Library, Diego de Yepes, printed by Plantin and Mourentorf in Antwerp in , and in a Dutch translation of the same account, printed at Rotterdam. Mitsgaders d'overeveringhe syns rijcx USTC The title is elegantly laid out, entirely in roman capitals, with the opening words highlighted in larger italic, and accompanied by an engraving of a crowned eagle Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Rome.
In addition, Shaaber mentions a pamphlet entitled The secret Last Instructions that king Philip the Second […] Left to his son Kinge Philip the Third […] conteining howe to governe him self after his fathers Death. Such was the case of Selim II, who died in November , an event recorded and illustrated in a Flugblatt published the following year in Strasbourg which claims that the Turkish sultan had been poisoned, together with his five sons Fig. Whilst nearly all festivities were organised by the ecclesiastical and civil administrations, carnival typically implied tension between popular celebration of pre-Lenten license — feasting and drinking, the wearing of masks, role reversal, social rule-breaking, etc.
A virtually annual event was the publication of avvisi in Rome giving accounts of the carnival feasts of Agone and Testazzo, held in February, the earliest examples catalogued by Tullio Bulgarelli dating from Vncle to the Count Palatine. The death of the Turkish Sultan Selim II and also, supposedly, of his five sons, illustrated in a dramatic Flugblatt, printed at Strasbourg in , which highlights, in the background, the Cathedral of St Sophia and the gate to the seraglio Zentralbibliothek, Zurich.
Whilst the Spanish match was, in the end, a non-event, it was emblematic of public celebration. To the extent that discovery generally led to conquest, and that conquest usually involved war, it is convenient to survey the treatment of these topics together. Discovery and Conquest The opening years of the printing revolution coincided with the early decades of the age of discovery — the rounding of the Cape of Good Hope in , the crossing of the Atlantic in , the opening of the sea route to India in , the recognition of the Americas as a separate continent in , the circumnavigation of South America in First published in Paris in , three years later it had gone into no less 1 In addition, the letter was published in Latin in Rome, Antwerp, Basel and Paris.
Thanks especially to the printers, news regarding the discovery of the New World swept rapidly across the Old. Weller lists three editions of this relation, all published in The only typographical gesture towards decoration on the page is the woodcut block initial capital letter, still in the style of medieval manuscripts, and the following four capitals that complete the first word New York Public Library. Otherwise, The voiage of Anthony of Espeio who in the yeare Vpon Cales, and also since that in the Cape S. In hochteutsche Spraach transferirt Munich, ? The woodcut illustration is made up from two separate blocks: on the left, one supposedly showing a native man and woman, but perhaps originally intended to depict Adam and Eve; on the right, one showing a bethroned king, on this occasion representing the king of Portugal Staatsbibliothek Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin.
Hawkins by the Spaniards in what today is Ecuador, as does one published in Lima, and a letter from the captive to his father, John Hawkins, came out in Spanish trans- lation. Two Italian avvisi on the expedition were printed in Rome in With an answere briefely confuting the Spanish lies, and a short relation of the fight according to truth. And a small and not very well prouided English ship. However, doubtless due, in part, to the restrictions imposed on their publication from the middle of the sixteenth century,19 only a score of Spanish relaciones on the Americas printed in Spain in the course of the sixteenth century are still extant — a trickle, when compared with more than four times as many on the Turkish threat, or as we saw in chapter 2 at least twenty just on the travels and marriage of Philip III and Margaret of Austria at the end of the century.
By the mid-sixteenth-cen- tury relations sent from India by the Jesuits were being published in Spain, such as a letter written to the Jesuit College in Coimbra and published in Actas del Segundo Coloquio Internacional Madrid , ed. The first page of the English newsletter is reproduced in Chris R. Kyle and Jason Peacey, Breaking News. A German relation on what appears to be the same Dutch incursion into the Philippines was published c. Aprill des Jars wider etliche hollendische Raubschiff, so in dieselben Inselne inge- fallen, vnd jhren General Obristen, Frantz Witt Henricson erhalten hat.
More news from the East Indies was published in London at the beginning of the seventeenth century, such as an eight-page newsletter printed in A True and perfect relation of the nevves sent from Amsterdam, the The eighth of his petitions was published in Madrid in It was then reprinted in Pamplona and Seville in , and in Valencia in That same year it was published in German in Augsburg.
In Fig. First page of a newsletter, published in , that sets out what it advertises as a most dangerous and memorable adventure, in which five men rowed from London to Bristol, and back. In it was published in German in Oppenheim, and in in French in Paris, and in English in London, and it went on being published internationally for decades thereafter. One instance of how an intrinsically insignificant act of derring-do could get into print is the newsletter written by James Sargent and printed in London in under a title that begins: The most dangerous and memorable adventure of Richard Ferris, a pamphlet published by Richard Ferris himself Fig.
With a mere handful of exceptions, news of war meant news of victories, with the defeated party simply keeping mum, at least in print. Generally speaking, no news was bad news. News of war that came off the presses was, then, nearly always good news, and occasionally it is actually presented precisely as such, for instance in a pamphlet printed in London in entitled: Good newes from Fraunce.
A true discourse of the winning of sundry cheefe townes, castles, and holdes in Fraunce, which tells of 28 The front pages of these various editions are reproduced below, Appendix III, Figs. War, then, occupies the majority of extant news pamphlets across Europe, virtually from the outset.
As Shaaber points out, military news was also amongst the first to appear in print in England, with the first English printed newsletter that he documents being an account of the English victory over the Scots at the Battle of Flodden Field in USTC ; Shaaber For English newsletters on war, see David Randall, ed. The relation includes a three-page list of the principal French prisoners and one page with the names of the principal French casualties Real Biblioteca del Monasterio, El Escorial.
Francia in Italia. Reports of the war inspired several early Neue Zeitungen. The stock woodcut of a nobleman reading could have been used for the title page of any number of different pamphlets or books — Seguin 84 notes that it had been used at least seventeen years before. At least half a dozen were published in Catholic Germany and in Vienna, celebrating the Imperial defeat of the French at Saint-Quentin, in Picardy, in , and the news was also reported in Italy.
Relaciones on the signing of the treaty were published in Seville, whilst its terms were printed in Ferrara, Rome and Verona; in Bologna, in a text that had previously appeared in Brussels, Lyon and Turin; and also, in a version translated from a French original printed in Paris and in Vicenza, Ferrara, Turin, Rome and Orvieto. Collins provides synopses of these pamphlets. Voss, Elizabethan News Pamphlets. It also figures in a French pamphlet printed at Arras, as well as in another, also in French, published in Antwerp by Plantin, and in a Dutch pamphlet, also printed at Antwerp see USTC , , Lambert, Pamphleteering in France during the Wars of Religion.
Equally naturally, Spanish victories — notably the Sack of Antwerp in , also known as the Spanish Fury, which left ten thousand dead — were reported as atrocities in Flugschriften published in Protestant German cities, and also in a newsletter by George Gascoigne published in London under the title: The spoyle of Antwerpe. Another typical atrocity story is: A true discours of the most horrible and barbarous murthers and massacres committed by the troupes of the Duke of Sauoye […] without respect or exception of person, sexe or age, as wel of men and women, as of poore infants and children, printed in London in see Collins Dutch troops burnt down parts of the local castle, the Protestant victory being cele- brated in England.
Truly translated out of the Dutch copie cited in British Library catalogue. Partly because the defend- ing force included English soldiers, the course of the siege inspired many English news pamphlets. Und Relation printed in Augsburg. The military opera- tions mounted during the period we are concerned with, and later, with a view to countering the expansion of the Ottoman Empire into both continental Europe and the Mediterranean occupy hundreds of news pamphlets throughout the continent, representing perhaps the largest number of surviving editions on a single issue in the early German press.
And the flash points were not confined to Europe. A Glaubhafftige zeyttung vnd bericht i. Most of this news first arrived in Italy. For very early printed news of military actions against the Turks, see Meserve In all, Cabrera is known to have printed at least fifteen pamphlets on the war between and It consisted mainly of reports of Turkish defeats,92 but also of ceremonies and processions held at the Turkish court, and the appearance in Turkey of such ill omens as untimely deaths, comets, signs and monsters.
War at Sea One of the first events to get into print on a large scale internationally was the Turkish siege of Rhodes in For Germany, see Roth It is the subject of an Italian pamphlet published in Venice, of a Warhafftige Newe zeytung and Ain sendbrief printed in Augsburg, and of a pamphlet printed at Erfurt.
News of action on the North African coast, and of battles fought at sea, abounded in the press, most especially in Spain and Italy. A copy of an Italian relation of the successful Spanish campaign was purchased in Rome for Ferdinand Columbus in December , and a copy of a different relation of the same events was bought for him at the same time in Viterbo. For the change from news in Latin to news in the vernaculars, see above, chapter 1.
Estudio cultural y literario, Doctoral thesis presented at the University of Salamanca, a: They are reported in an avviso published in Rome Fig. It was reported in several Neue Zeitungen, as well as in other German pamphlets not so entitled, such as the translation of a letter sent from Malta by the Spaniard Francisco de Guevara, who was wounded in the fighting, printed at Augsburg. One avviso, published in Naples, had arrived via Syracuse, in Sicily; another had reached the printer in Bologna via Rome; and two more, which do not specify where they were printed, had originated in Messina, the title of one of them, Novi avisi, suggesting that the printer expected his readers to have had access to previous news of the siege.
Informar, narrar, celebrar. Cagliari, de septiembre de , ed. Such was the case with the siege of Malta. See also USTC , Naturally, there was a spate of Spanish relaciones on Lepanto, as the combined Christian forces had been commanded by Don John of Austria, the illegitimate son of Charles V. The victory at Lepanto was, however, only a momentary reverse for the Turks. Whilst the Christian reconquest of Tunis in is recorded in several occasionnels, such as La conqueste de Tunis and La prinse de Biserte et nouveaux advertissemens du succes des affaires de Tunes, both printed at Lyon, the Turkish conquest of Cyprus, in the same year as Lepanto, is reported in a Neue Zeitung published in the Protestant cities of Basel and Strasbourg, and the recovery of Tunis and La Goleta by an Ottoman fleet of over ships in is reported in a Neue Zeitung printed in Protestant Nuremberg.
Surprisingly, Barbarics and Pieper 77 claim that only one news pamphlet on Lepanto was published in Spain. Encounters with Turkish and Barbary shipping in the Mediterranean — as well as with English and Dutch pirates — occupy many Spanish relaciones, notably in the first quarter of the seventeenth century. Several relaciones celebrate Spanish successes against English and Dutch pirates, as for instance one printed in Salamanca in Some newsletters reported English action against enemy shipping, especially against the Spaniards and the Turks, from around , when hostilities broke out against Spain.
Another example is the account of a naval victory, also in The Valiant and most laudable fight performed in the straights, by the Centurion of London, against fiue Spanish Gallies see Collins Discribing the many perrilous euents of the most woorthy deseruing Gentleman, Edward Glenham Esquire.
His hardy attempts in honourable fights, in great peril […] Also the cause of his imprisonment, and hys challenge of combat, against a Stranger: maintaining his Countries honour Collins Another edition published in London the same year and running to 32 pages, bears the title Ward and Danseker tvvo notorious pyrates, Ward an Englishman, and Danseker a Dutchman.
VVith a true relation of all or the mo[st] piraces by them committed vnto the first of Aprill. The Armada, although primarily an Anglo-Spanish affair, was transformed by the press into an event that became hot news throughout Europe. It is perhaps surprising that so much information regarding the preparations being made for the immense enterprise was published in Spain and in Portugal. And how within fiue dayes after, foure English youths did valiantly ouercome This occasionnel is illustrated in Bertrand T.
Whitehead, Brags and Boasts. Whitehead analyses in detail the extensive Spanish and English propaganda cam- paigns that were put out in print, sometimes in the guise of news, before, during and after the Armada. After the collapse of the Spanish Match in , the disastrous Anglo-Dutch expedition in , inspired by the Duke of Buckingham, which ended with the English soldiers getting fatally drunk on Cadiz wine, was reported in Spanish relaciones and Italian avvisi.
Collins 71 includes the following relation, published in A relation of such things as were obserued to happen in the iourney of the right Honourable Charles Earle of Nottingham, L. High Admirall of England, his highnesse ambassadour to the King of Spaine being sent thither to take the oath of the sayd King for the maintenance of peace betweene the two famous kings of Great Brittaine and Spaine. With the death of Captaine Stukeley. As it was sundrie times plaid by the Lord high Admirall his servants, and a Dutch pamphlet, printed at The Hague in , retold the story of his disappearance.
Individual soldiers could merit a newsletter, especially if sufficiently well connected. One such was the son of the Earl of Dorset, whose death was memorialised in a newsletter registered by John Wolfe in A Commemoration of the most valiant and worthie Knight Sir William Sackuill slayne in the Warres of Ffraunce. Above all, they heard about war, on land and at sea. What they learned was, at the very least, that the world beyond their national frontiers was largely made up of threatening heretics and infidels, and that the enemies of their nation and their faith could be overcome if the courage and the devotion that had ensured victories in the past continued in the present and into the future.
The massive quantities of printed war reporting brought about a pervasive flow of information selected and designed to reassure and encourage See Collins , Studi offerti a Giuseppina Ledda, ed. Antonina Paba, Roma, Aracne, , As much celebrations of success as mere information, they went out of their way to show how victory was brought about by superior soldiership, by the wisdom of rulers and by divine intervention. A huge amount of effort was devoted to propaganda by both sides, including — as we have already seen when it came to war reporting — the diffusion of appropriately selected and slanted news.
Luther and his fellow reformers rapidly became prolific exploiters of the power of the press to spread their theses across the continent and to purvey news that put them in a good light and the Catholic Church in a bad one. When, after being excommunicated in , he was summoned to appear before an assembly of the Holy Roman Empire at Worms and there refused to recant, he was declared an outlaw by the newly elected emperor Charles V and continued to pen polemics against the papacy, as well as against the Jews and the Anabaptists.
Altogether, by the time of his death in , his multifarious writings are reckoned to have gone into over three thousand editions. However, Rome was not slow to answer back. As early as , Catholic anti-Lutheran pamphlets were being published, occasionally in the guise of Neue Zeitungen, such as the lengthy poem entitled Newe zeyttung Allen guten 1 See Mark U. Edwards Jr. Thus was born the first major ideological propaganda war conducted via the press. Secular and ecclesiastical events of particular significance were greeted, not just by the prescribed ceremonial and the attendance of the populace, but also by pamphlets and books whose purpose was to publicise and commemorate them and preserve a record of the collective endorsement involved.
Apart from associated oral and printed paraphernalia, such as edicts, decrees, notices, ballads and hymns, the result was hundreds of relations of such activities which, in especially important cases, could include accounts of processions, illuminations, decorations, church ser- vices, sermons, celebratory verses, etc. A summary of the itinerary was published in Rome, Bologna, Ferrara and Padua, and his entry into Macerata was celebrated in an account published there that included descriptions of the triumphal arches specially erected for the occasion.
As Michelson shows, in Reformation Italy many preachers extended the reach of their sermons by remaking them for publication. One such was the reception given in Valencia in to a relic of St Vincent Ferrer. Relations on miracles are considered at greater length in chapter 6, below. From the beginning of the sixteenth century the Portuguese were doing business in the Far East and by the middle of the century had occupied Manila, whilst they and the Spaniards opened up trade routes across the Pacific.
Italian accounts of the reception accorded by the pope to the four young Japanese ambassadors were printed in in Venice, Reggio Emilia, Brescia, Milan and elsewhere. A strikingly handsome Flugblatt, printed in Augsburg in , depicting the four young Japanese ambassadors, with their Jesuit escort, on their arrival in Milan. The print bears the seal of the Jesuits University Library, Kyoto. One, pub- lished in , reports how the Christian galley slaves in a Turkish ship mutinied and how eighty Turks who had been enslaved with them begged to be baptised when the vessel landed in Palermo.
An exotic assassination — that of the Turkish Sultan Mehemet Bassa in — had been illustrated in a Warhafftige Contrafactur i. Another piece of good news regarding Turkey appeared in a pamphlet printed in Seville in that told of the death of the sultan, of the fire that had burned down his seraglio, of the freedom gained by the Christian slaves in his palace and of the struggles between the rival pretenders to the throne. Thus, an Italian relatione printed in Venice in tells of the terrifying comet-like apparition that hung over the Protestant town of Rupelmonde for five days and persuaded many heretics to recant Fig.
The reception by the pope of the delegation from Japan had been published the previous year in Rome see Bulgarelli, The news hardly ever includes any idea of the hardships and miseries of life as a soldier that Don Quixote eloquently sets out in his speech on Arms and Letters. However, in accounts of martyrdoms, the pain and suffering inflicted on the victims were frequently described in order to enhance the glory achieved thereby.
Religious persecution, and in particular execution, provided an important current of news inspired by ideological fervour and political calculation. War and religion went hand in glove, with religion justifying war, and war promoting religion. To take just one example, Spanish news of the persecution of Catholics in England vied with English news of the persecution of Protestants in Spain and France. An Italian relatione printed in Rome states that it is a translation of the Spanish original published in Seville, whilst another, printed in Palermo, mentions the fact that the Franciscans were all Spanish, and yet another, published in Rome, Bologna and Milan in , stresses the fact that it was the king of Japan who had ordered 34 Nevves from Turkie.
Or a true and perfect relation sent from Constantinople Touching the death of Achmet the last emperour of the Turkes. As also the miraculous deliuerances of Mustapha, brother to the said Achmet then emperour and his strang escapes from his purposed death cited in British Library catalogue.
First page of a Relatione, published in Venice in , telling of the great prodigy that had recently appeared above the Protestant city of Rupelmonde, in Flanders. The page is ornamented with a large stock woodcut Biblioteca Nazionales Marciana, Venice. A version published that year in Naples, running to three chapters, is a far more detailed report than the previous news pamphlets, and in 37 See Bulgarelli ; USTC , , Francisci von der obseruantz Munich, Written in Spanish, and printed first at Mexico in the West Indies.
Edward M. Wilson, II, Cieza, La fonte que mana, , This unusually lengthy page newsletter was published by the Jesuits at St Omer in , doubtless with a view to smuggling copies into England. The layout makes use of a large number of fonts and the badge of the Jesuit Order British Museum, London. First page of an 8-page Dutch relation containing the last words of the Duke of Northumberland uttered from the scaffold, with the title placed within an elaborate decorative woodcut border British Museum, London. In Elizabethan England, of course, the situation was reversed, although persecuted Roman Catholics could occasionally find solace in instances of divine retribution.
At what became known as the Black Assize, Roland Jenks, a bookbinder from Oxford, was convicted in of supporting the pope, whereupon he laid a curse upon those present in court, as a result of which several hundred men were said to have dropped dead, including two of the judges. First page of a page canard, with the opening words highlighted with capitals in three different fonts. The story had been published in Rouen before appearing in Paris. The title does not mention the fact that pp.
Wilkinson has studied over four hundred pamphlets printed in France — including news reports, outright propaganda and sermons — that have to do with Mary, especially her status as a Catholic martyr, promoted by the Catholic League to rally popular opinion against Henri III. Emondo Campione della Compagnia di Giesu, patito in Inghilterrra per la fede catholica rom […]. Tradotto dall'inglese in lingua francese, et poi dal francese in italiano USTC Two more avvisi were printed in Brescia that include news of other acts of cruel persecution in England see USTC , News of the execution of four Catholics in Oxford in was published the following year in Paris, translated from an Italian avviso printed in Rome.
The reference to Thomas Benested could conceivably be due to confusion with Thomas Belson, who had been executed in Oxford in For a masterly analysis of the presentation of evidence in the aftermath of the Gunpowder Plot, see Dolan According to the Gregorian calendar, Luisa died on 2 January VVryten by an Inglish priest of the same college, to a gentleman and his vvyf in Flaunders, latelie fled out of Ingland, for profession of the Catholique religion see USTC Whilst he does not touch on news pamphlets on the massacre and its aftermath, Robert Kingdon does deal with the propaganda that it sparked off across Protestant Europe Myths about the St.
The infamous end of the doubly relapsed Marco Antonio de Dominis — the 'Fat Bishop of Spalato' caricatured in Thomas Middleton's A Game at Chess — is told in a newsletter, published in London in , entitled: A relation sent from Rome, of the processe, sentence, and execution, done vpon the body, picture, and bookes, of Marcus Antonius de Dominis, Archbishop of Spalato, after his death. Five years earlier, in , a German Flugschrift had put into print the story of a nun in Florence who had given birth.
However, some pro-Jesuit news pamphlets were published in parts of Germany that remained Catholic, such as one printed at Ingolstadt in which reported frightful diabolical lies about terrible murderous acts supposedly committed by the Jesuits that had been spread throughout the land USTC Ein wunderbarlicher Fisch, a Protestant Flugblatt printed in that satirically depicts a monk as a freakish squid, supposedly caught near Copenhagen Zentralbibliothek, Zurich.
Hundreds of sixteenth-century German pamphlets, nearly all of them grossly sectarian, gave out frightening news of materialisations of divine wrath, such as monstrous births, murders, storms, floods and ghastly apparitions in the heavens. Toulon] in Prouence on a cruell Papisticall Bishop. Some of the prin- cipal early Protestant victims were celebrated in the books of martyrs written by Jean Crespin and John Foxe in the s. With the manner of his torments, and his great patience at his death, which he suffered for the profession of the Gospell of Christ Iesus, published in London in Seville] whoe was there burned for the testimony of Iesus Christ.
A Flugschrift, printed in Nuremberg in and then in Strasbourg in by Matthias Hupfuff, which was certainly plausible, told of fighting between Old and New Christians in Lisbon. Martin p. Other instances of the blood libel occurred in most of Europe, providing grounds for expropriations, massacres, torture, trials and expulsions of the Jews. One instance is contained in a Flugblatt printed at Prague in which tells how two Jews and their female accomplices were tried and executed for plotting to torture a Christian child.
When Simon was discovered, mutilated and murdered, at Easter , nearly the whole of the entire tiny Jewish community of Trent was arrested and tortured, and most of them were hanged, decapitated or burned at the stake. Simon — who was instantly revered as a martyr in Trent and its environs, performed over a hundred miracles within a year, and was included in the Calendar of Saints until — had his story immediately told in a flood of gory reports and poems in Latin, Italian and German, some of them amply illustrated, which were published within days of the 99 See Weller Two editions, without place of printing, are included in USTC: , See P.
By around , this classic depiction of the child martyr was tellingly accompanied — for example in a Flugblatt depicting a painting on the Bridge Tower at Frankfurt — by one of the most obnoxious antisemitical inventions, the so-called Judensau, a sow suckled by Jews. The case of Simon of Trent is a very early example of the deliberate use made of the press to mount a successful political publicity campaign that, in this instance, was used to sway opinion in the face of opposition to Jew-baiting by the Vatican.
Jews had been expelled from Spain in , unless they converted, but until the nineteenth century the Inquisition put on trial New Christians who were denounced for having lapsed. On occasion, the lesson could be exported. See R. Po-chia Hsia, Trent And the same went for religions and sects. News coincided with other forms of information and indoctrination — not least sermons — to reinforce, for Catholic consumers, the belief that Protestants were damned for all eternity, and vice versa, and that, for both Protestants and Catholics, infidels principally Muslims and Jews were destined for no better a fate.
Whilst here we have been concerned with news that directly addresses sectarian issues, we have already noted, when discussing news of rulers and of war, that it, too, was dominated by sectarian, as well as political, considerations. In the following chapters we shall see that the same held true in respect of the entire range of news topics covered by the early modern press.
While domestic politics was subject to an unspoken proscription, accounts of witchcraft, executions, apparitions and monstrous births, children who spoke in tongues, parhelia, earthquakes, dire predictions and other anomalous phenomena were reliable commercial enterprises. Ostensibly, a great deal of it was primarily concerned to titillate, aiming to arouse positive — or, more often, negative — reactions in readers and listeners.
Only in France does there appear to be a term to define this kind of press: the canard. As such, they frequently approach the mechanics of the sermon, spelling out, on the one hand, the disastrous consequences of giving in to temptation and, on the other, the divine mercy to be had by those who avoid sin or else repent in time. Indeed, at least as much as news about rulers and victories, sensationalist news was heavily charged with value judgements based on political and theological considerations.
The tales told in those pamphlets were fear-inspiring, but they also had a positive message to purvey: evil was always punished, and the endings, if not happy, were at least retributive, with the devil often depicted as the purveyor of divine wrath. Thus, a canard printed in Paris tells the tale of a young Flemish girl from Brabant who, in , because she was excessively vain when it came to clothes, was strangled by the devil, who caused her body to be turned into a black cat, as was witnessed by all the people who attended her funeral. See also Cressy At the end of the period we are concerned with, three relaciones in verse published in Barcelona between and explain how a merchant was carried off by demons because he refused to go to confession; how a vulgar woman cursed her children, telling them they could go to the devil, and how that produced very unpleasant consequences; and how the devil, dressed up as a young man, told a tailor that his wife was having an affair with a black slave, whereupon the tailor killed her, and how he made a moving confession from the gallows.
These relaciones are reproduced in Ettinghausen a: 88, 98, BDRS The calculation is based on the fact that Roman legions were made up of up to 5, soldiers each. However, the devil did not always have his way. A Flugblatt printed in explains how an evil woman met the devil on a heath one day and fought, scratched, tore and bit so much that she beat him — a tale presumably intended, at least in part, as a warning against unsavoury female company. Front page of a canard that tells how a robber dressed up as the devil and was hanged in Bayonne in December