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We use affective experience-sampling data from five sampling periods across twelve months in combination with end-of-year retrospective ratings from very old adults to examine the correspondence between reports of momentary affect over time i. In line with documented age differences in emotional memory, we hypothesized that older adults would be motivated to focus on salient past positive experiences resulting in retrospective affect being most strongly linked to peak PA over and above average momentary PA.

In contrast, peak or recent NA was expected to be less related to retrospective NA than the average of the momentary NA. The study included five measurement bursts scheduled two months apart. Each burst consisted of six days of experience sampling, including random signals five times per day on a portable beeper to report one's current affect ie, up to 30 possible assessments per burst. Individuals completed a mean of 4.

At the end of the year, participants recalled their affect for the past twelve months. Participants rated their momentary PA happy, interested, active, relaxed and NA depressed, bored, lonely, irritable on a scale from 0 not at all to 4 very much. Momentary PA and NA scores were computed as the average across the respective items.

Average momentary affect represents the mean of all momentary affect ratings across bursts. The response scale differed from the momentary assessment in range 1—4 vs. We then examined trajectories of PA and NA in conditional three-level models ie, day level, burst level, person level. PA decreased slightly from burst to burst b ; Given that Burst 1 PA was significantly higher than the momentary PA across the remaining bursts, we have rerun all analyses both with and without Burst 1 PA information. The pattern of findings was almost identical so that we only report results from the analyses including all available burst data.

There were significant interindividual differences in intercepts and slopes. Consistent with our hypothesis, all indicators of momentary PA and NA were moderately positively related to the retrospective scores in the valence-homogeneous comparisons, indicating that individuals reporting high retrospective affect also reported high momentary affect. Hence, older adults are fairly accurate in recalling their past affect. In a next step, we examined which of the momentary affect indices best predicted retrospective reports beyond the other indices.

Different Patterns of Prospective, Retrospective,and Working Memory Decline across Adulthood

We conducted seven multiple hierarchical regressions for each affect domain in which retrospective affect was the dependent variable and different momentary affect scores served as predictors, varying their entry order to obtain R 2 -change coefficients representing the unique predictive role of each index above the others Table 1.

The first four models compared average momentary affect with one of the four remaining indices of peak and recent affect. Models 5 and 6 included all three indices of momentary affect as predictors average, peak, and recent , once using burst-level and once using day-level peak and recent affect indicators.

In Model 7, all momentary affect indices were consecutively entered as predictors. Notes : Within-affect domain associations are in bold. Across-domain associations are in normal font. Results for valence-homogeneous analyses for PA indicated that average momentary affect across all momentary assessments was the strongest unique predictor. Neither peak nor recent momentary PA contributed a reliable unique proportion of explained variance. Overall, no individual momentary affect index stood out for within-domain correspondence of NA. The pattern of results was much less consistent for the valence-heterogeneous analyses.

These findings are in contrast to our hypotheses that peak PA would be the strongest or at least a unique predictor for recalled PA and that average NA would have a prominent role in shaping individual differences in recalled NA in older adults. The observed differences may reflect differential recall strategies that operate within affect domains: Whereas individuals tend to aim at feeling good in general, making an averaging strategy a useful approach for estimates of past PA, it may be functional to remember specific negative episodes both peak and recent to try to avoid the various specific contexts that elicited these states in the future, leading to a lack of a single specific momentary predictor of retrospective NA.

We note that in our small sample, variance in momentary NA was much lower but significant than in PA.


Hence, the different aspects of momentary NA may not have been suited to differentially relate to retrospective NA. Future studies may want to focus on a sample undergoing major life events expected to lead to stronger intraindividual and interindividual variation in NA in order to more closely examine the dynamics and subjective reconstruction of affect in times of challenge. In a final step, we also explored differences in the correspondence between momentary and retrospective affect as a function of age in our older adult sample to examine whether some of the hypothesized effects would be particularly evident for the oldest old.

We added the respective age interactions to the final step of Models 5 and 6 from Table 1 after centering all predictor variables , which included all three major indicators of momentary affect mean, peak, and recent on a day level and a burst level, respectively see Supplementary Tables A2 in the online Appendix for the complete results. The only significant age interaction emerged for the prediction of retrospective NA with peak day PA, indicating that for the oldest old adults, there was a particularly strong inverse relationship between peak day PA and retrospective evaluations of NA compared with the younger old adults.

Using data from 53 older adults who participated in five intensive measurement bursts across one year, we show that the affect system is remarkably robust until very old age. Through these Kuitca explores universal themes of migration and disappearance, the intersection of private and public space, and the significance of memory.

At the Hirshhorn, coordinating curator Hankins will work closely with the artist to install the show. This venue, with its distinctive circular layout, provides a unique opportunity for Kuitca to explore his ideas about public architectural space. Ideas about absence inform later paintings in this period: haunting scenes populated with overturned chairs, sullied beds that appear to be on fire and spotlit microphones abandoned by the speaker. Working with the floor plan of a one-bedroom apartment inspired the artist to foreground other representations of spaces—plans of public institutions; city, highway and topographic maps; and reimaginings of road maps and star charts.

Kuitca further explored organizational systems inspired by plans, maps and public spaces throughout the s and early s. These works, along with large collages and small, manipulated digital prints, reveal how certain ideas are sustained, reinvented and abstracted across media, especially when seen in the context of his paintings. This prolific and diverse body of work inspires viewers to contemplate their relationship not only to the object in front of them but also to their place within the larger world.

Based in Buenos Aires, Argentina, Kuitca has garnered international attention since the mids. He continued to exhibit internationally at museums and galleries throughout the s in cities such as Amsterdam; Valencia, Spain; and Paris. Kuitca was chosen to represent Argentina at the Venice Biennale in Here, we used, for the first time, an ecological behavioral observation method that is free of self-report to examine the prevalence of mental time travel behavior in everyday conversations i.

The first goal of the current research was to develop and validate a new, naturalistic observation approach to studying mental time travel reflected in everyday conversations. We tapped onto mental time travel by focusing on those utterances that were about the self with a time reference.

academic year retrospective: Topics by

In two studies, we validated our coding scheme using a text analysis program and with adult samples representing different age groups and countries. The second goal of the current research was to examine how often people engage in conversational time travel, and when they do, how often they talk about their past versus future. There is some work on how much people think about their personal past versus future in everyday life e.

The solitary nature of thinking versus the social nature of talking should have different effects on mental time travel e. That is, much of human behavior occurs in a social context, therefore we examined, for the first time, mental time travel in the context of conversations. Previous studies measuring the incidence of subjective thoughts and experiences have typically used variants of the original experience-sampling method ESM; Csikszentmihalyi et al. One type of ESM is event-contingent sampling e.

The second type is signal-contingent sampling , which requires people to evaluate the presence of a targeted experience when prompted by a randomly timed signal e. One important advantage of these methods is their high ecological validity. They asked participants to report whenever they realized that they were thinking about their future and found that participants reported experiencing, on average, 59 future-oriented thoughts on a typical day.

In contrast, Rasmussen and colleagues i. They made a distinction between voluntarily thinking about memories versus involuntary memories which spontaneously pop up without deliberate search and compared their frequency. They showed that participants self-reported recalling on average 7—8 voluntary and 20—22 involuntary autobiographical memories per day. Taken together, these two studies suggest that young adults think about their personal future twice as much as their past. Berntsen and colleagues Berntsen and Jacobsen, ; Finnbogadottir and Berntsen, , however, did not replicate this finding.

They used the diary method to examine involuntary mental time travel and compared the frequency of involuntary memories and involuntary future-oriented thoughts. They found that involuntary memories were as frequent as involuntary future-oriented thoughts in daily life around 22 per day. In a signal-contingent experience sampling study, Gardner et al. Via random prompts throughout the day, they asked young adults to report whether they were thinking about a specific autobiographical memory at that moment or not.

It was unclear to the authors why this small discrepancy occurred, but they suggested it might be due to the investigation of both past- and future-oriented thoughts in the second study. However, Felsman et al. Via text messages throughout the day, they asked participants to report which of the following would best characterize their thoughts: past-, present- or future-focused. Signal-contingent experience sampling has been used to examine involuntary thoughts, as well, particularly mind-wandering.

Mind-wandering is defined as a shift of attention from a primary task in the present toward internal information or self-generated thought, such as autobiographical memories Smallwood and Schooler, Song and Wang examined the temporal orientation of mind wandering by randomly prompting participants throughout the day and asking whether they were mind wandering or not, and if mind wandering, whether they were thinking about past, future, present or atemporal events. They found a prospective bias such that participants were mind wandering about the future We should note that this prospective bias has been repeatedly shown in laboratory studies of mind wandering e.

However, researchers have identified some factors that affect the temporal orientation of mind wandering, with some eliminating the prospective bias, such as manipulating the experimental settings e. They have resulted in two different findings on the prevalence of thinking about the personal past versus future: Some reported that future-oriented thoughts occur almost twice as frequently as past-oriented thoughts, whereas others reported similar proportions of both. Another line of research that is relevant for our work is time perspective or temporal orientation.

Temporal orientation refers to relatively stable individual differences in the relative emphasis one places on the past, present, or future Zimbardo and Boyd, Temporal orientation has been widely examined in relation to personality traits e. Jason et al. This finding is similar to others reviewed above showing that future-oriented thoughts occur twice as much as past-oriented thoughts. There is only one study on temporal orientation that is not based on self-report: Park et al.

They used the model to classify over 1. This result does not fit with the questionnaire findings above and presents an equal proportion of past- and future-oriented messages. In conclusion, studies based on self-report i. All of these studies have focused on thoughts, therefore, we can conclude that future-oriented thoughts tend to dominate our private mental worlds compared to past-oriented thoughts. In contrast, our social worlds might be dominated by past-oriented thoughts: Humans spend one fifth of their waking time in spontaneous conversation Dunbar, and a significant portion of this time is dedicated to talking about past events Eggins and Slade, ; Dessalles, According to Desalles , the function of recalling the past is to accumulate stories that are relevant to tell in conversation.

He claims that events that are memorable are exactly those that are good for narrating. Similarly, Mahr and Csibra argue that the main function of remembering is communication.

They claim that social interactions require the justification of entitlements and obligations, which is possible only by reference to past events. In sum, these theoretical accounts highlight the importance of recalling the personal past in conversations. Therefore, we examined, for the first time, mental time travel in conversations and explored whether there is a retrospective bias in talking behavior, in contrast to the prospective bias observed in thinking behavior e.

The most important novelty of this work is its naturalistic observation approach to studying spontaneous, everyday conversations unobtrusively and with minimal participant burden. We used the Electronically Activated Recorder in both studies to collect random snippets of everyday conversations. The EAR is a portable audio recorder that intermittently records brief snippets of ambient sound and speech Mehl et al. The strength of the current work is its attempt to increase ecological validity through sampling from a wide range of natural situations: We obtained a huge sample size by collecting more than 32, sound snippets.

The EAR has been used with good acceptance and compliance Mehl, , in all age groups Bollich et al. The psychometric properties of EAR-observed conversational behavior have been established in prior research with student Mehl and Pennebaker, and adult populations Bollich et al. First, the EAR recorded only a small fraction of the day e. Second, participants had the opportunity to review their recordings and erase any files they did not want on record, before the investigators accessed the data.

Third, in order to protect bystanders, we encouraged participants to wear the EAR visibly with large warning stickers on them and to readily mention the study to others. Next, we coded whether time-dependent utterances were about the self i. In Study 2, we validated the coding scheme with different samples. Previous studies on mental time travel have mostly focused on 1 college students or young adults, 2 one culture, with no cross-cultural comparisons, 3 experiences of a single temporal focus, such as only autobiographical memories or only future-oriented thoughts e.

Important and novel aspects of the current work is the inclusion of 1 participants that represent the whole adult life span, 2 participants from two countries, and 3 both past- and future-oriented utterances. We compared the prevalence of past- and future-oriented utterances across young, middle-aged and older adults in the United States and Switzerland. Study 1 examined the utterances of healthy spouses of breast cancer patients over a weekend United States , and Study 2 examined the utterances of healthy young and older adults over 4 days Switzerland.

In addition to sampling such a wide range of individuals, one novel achievement of this work is its sampling from the universe of real-life situations. This study is part of a larger project on American couples coping with breast cancer. Breast cancer patients and their healthy spouses were recruited at the Arizona Cancer Center, as described in earlier work that examined cancer conversations of couples Robbins et al.

The reason we used this dataset is that it was the only readily available dataset with Ear transcripts that we could use to develop our coding scheme. We first compared utterances manually coded as time-dependent and those coded as time-independent in terms of the following LIWC variables: future-tense and past-tense. We expected time-dependent utterances to include significantly more verbs with tense than time-independent utterances. Second, we compared autobiographical self-related and others-related utterances in terms of personal pronouns: We expected self-related utterances to include more 1st person singular and plural pronouns, whereas others-related utterances to include more 2nd and 3rd person pronouns.

Finally, utterances coded as personal past, personal future and present were compared in terms of their verb tense. We expected, for example, utterances about the personal past to include more verbs with the past tense than utterances about the present and personal future. Recent theories on episodic memory Desalles, ; Mahr and Csibra, suggest that the main function of remembering the past is communication.

Past research on autobiographical memory emphasizes significant social functions of memories showing that people recall their personal past to provide material for conversation Pasupathi et al. In contrast, future-oriented thinking is shown to serve directive functions such as planning, decision making, problem solving, goal intention and goal achievement e. For example, Kulkofsky et al. Thus, we expected to observe significantly more autobiographical memories i.

That is, we expected a retrospective bias in conversational time travel in contrast to the prospective bias observed in mental time travel e. Our sample of real-life situations included 9, sound snippets collected from 51 healthy spouses. All participants were in a marriage-like relationship, and were primarily English speaking.

The first study session usually occurred on a Friday afternoon. All participants, first, gave written informed consent in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. They, then, completed a set of questionnaires as part of the larger study, and were provided with an introduction to the EAR.

They were told that the device should be worn as much as possible over the weekend during their waking hours. Participants were informed that the snippets would be recorded without their awareness and they should proceed with their normal, everyday life as much as possible. They were also told the EAR would cease recording during sleeping hours. All participants were explicitly told they would have an opportunity to review all recordings prior to anyone listening to them and to erase any files they did not want on record.

Following that weekend, typically on the Monday, the EAR devices were collected from the participants and another battery of questionnaires, which included demographics and medical information, was administered. Participants were debriefed and given a password-protected Cd containing all of their sound files to review.

Original Research ARTICLE

There were over 9, sound files collected and of those only one participant deleted just one file. The device was set to record 50 s every 9 min. This sampling rate has been established in previous studies as yielding stable estimates of habitual daily behavior Mehl et al. All sound files were listened to, transcribed and coded by trained coders. Files were coded, as part of the larger project, for whether the participant was talking or not. We first differentiated between time-dependent versus time-independent utterances.

Time-independent utterances had no reference to time and included semantic memory i. Time-dependent utterances included a reference to time i. Personal past refers to talking about personally experienced past events: These could be specific events that happened at a particular place and time , repeated events e. Finally, utterances about the present refer to talking about the current activity, task or situation.

This also includes extremely recent past and extremely close future, which is connected to the present moment e. All coding categories were dichotomous, indicating presence 1 or absence 0 of a temporal focus. Categories were not mutually exclusive, such that any s sound file might include any combination of temporal foci. Each sound file was double-coded by two coders. We calculated inter-rater reliability by using the TIME variable, but not the single temporal focus variables separately: The two coders agreed on the TIME variable Nevertheless, all sound files that showed a disagreement between the two coders were re-listened to and the disagreement was resolved through discussion.

LIWC software is one of the most widely used and best-validated text analysis tool in psychological science e. LIWC analyzes text word-by-word and categorizes it into different linguistic e. In the current study, we used the following categories: past-tense, future-tense, present-tense and all personal pronouns. A total of 4, sound files included participant speech The average number of words in these transcripts was four e.

We excluded sound files 3. Analyses were conducted with the remaining 3, sound files: In order to run the following analyses of variance, this dataset with one sound file on each row sound-level dataset was converted into a person-level dataset one row is one participant which aggregated data on the person level. Note that we make all data available upon request to interested researchers. We first compared utterances manually coded as time-dependent and those coded as time-independent in terms of their verbs with past-tense and future-tense.

That is, utterances that we had coded as time-dependent included more verbs with past and future tense than utterances coded as time-independent, which validated our coding. Second, we compared autobiographical self-related and others-related utterances in terms of the number of their personal pronouns. Finally, we validated our conversational time travel coding by comparing utterances manually coded as personal past, personal future and present in terms of their verb tense.

Hirshhorn Presents Major Guillermo Kuitca Retrospective

In sum, all of our expectations regarding our coding categories were confirmed and we succeeded in validating the coding scheme with LIWC. In order to calculate percentages, we used the sound files that included only a single temporal category e. There were 2, sound files that included only one temporal category Figure 1 , top row.

Out of these, Sound files that included self-related utterances were further divided into past That is, participants talked about their personal past in Study 1: frequencies and percentages for each temporal category. We ran a repeated-measures ANOVA to compare the number of past-, present-, and future-oriented utterances. For this analysis, we used the aggregate person-level amount of talking about the past, present versus future. We observed, over a weekend, the daily conversations of healthy spouses of breast cancer patients and developed a coding scheme for the temporal focus of their utterances.

The first goal of the study was to validate our coding scheme using a text analysis tool: We succeeded and showed that utterances manually coded as 1 time-dependent versus time-independent, 2 self-related versus others-related, and 3 past-, present- versus future-oriented were indeed different from each other in terms of the words they included. The second goal of the study was to explore the prevalence of conversational time travel in everyday life and to compare the frequency of past- and future-oriented utterances. Our coding scheme first revealed that individuals mostly produced time-dependent utterances Semantic information and general comments about the world occurred in only In contrast, participants talked about other people in only 5.

This suggests that vicarious memories Pillemer et al. This is the first study to examine the prevalence of vicarious thoughts about others and to explore them in everyday life, therefore these findings may inspire future work. Finally, we examined mental time travel as reflected in autobiographical utterances and found that That is, people talked about their personal past almost twice as much as their personal future, and the difference was significant. This is in line with our expectation of a retrospective bias in the social setting of conversations e.

Participants referred to their past much more than their imagined future while interacting with others. This is in contrast to previous work on private thoughts: While thinking, people seem to focus more on the future than the past e. One explanation might be that recalling past events i. In contrast, prospection may be more functional while thinking, as private thoughts tend to serve higher directive functions such as setting goals, planning and decision making e.

For example, Rasmussen and Berntsen asked participants in the laboratory to remember two events from their past and to imagine two events from their future, and to rate each event on their perceived functions. Past events were rated higher than future events on the social function, as well as on their frequency of being shared with others.

Cole et al. In sum, we believe that the social nature of conversations creates an efficient context for memories to be recalled in everyday life. This shows that while people are talking, more than half of their utterances are focused on what they are actually doing or observing i. Similarly, Park et al. Study 1 had some limitations. The sample included partners of cancer patients. This may have biased the situation samples toward a present- or past-orientation.

However, only 3. Still, it is an open question to which degree the situation samples would differ with a population that is not associated with cancer. Furthermore, most of the participants were men and middle-aged. Therefore, in Study 2, we tried to obtain more gender-balanced samples from both young and late adulthood. A second limitation was that sound files were collected over a weekend. Although 2 days of EAR sampling has proven to yield reliable data e. Therefore, in Study 2, we collected data across 1 weekend and 2 weekdays, with a counterbalanced order.

Another limitation was that our inter-rater reliability calculation was overly strict, which led to a lower agreement between coders than expected. In Study 2, we used the same strategy for consistency across studies, but also used a less strict way of calculation. Finally, we had to exclude from the analyses all sound files with multiple temporal foci e. In Study 2, we validated our coding scheme with two new samples from a different country. We observed healthy young and older adults in Switzerland for 4 days.

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Our goal was to examine whether the coding scheme used in Study 1 would lead to similar results with participants 1 from different age groups, 2 from Switzerland who speak a different language i. We expected our finding on conversational time travel to be replicated: Past-oriented utterances should outnumber future-oriented utterances independent of age group, country of origin and language and sampling rate of EAR. In terms of age effects, Park et al. However, there were some differences in the relative proportion of each orientation across age.

We expected to find similar results, with a retrospective bias in conversational time travel for all age groups. There are no cross-cultural studies on mental time travel, but we did not anticipate country of origin to have a major impact, as mental time travel is a universal human ability Suddendorf and Corballis, In terms of sampling rate effects, Gardner and Ascoli tested different sampling intervals in their experience-sampling study e.

We also did not expect sampling rate to affect our results. Participants were recruited via the participant pool of the Gerontopsychology Lab at the University of Zurich, via flyers in university buildings and advertisements in a local newspaper, and through snowball sampling used by a research assistant.

All participants lived in Switzerland and spoke Swiss German. Older participants were healthy with no record of neurological or psychiatric illness and lived independently. Older participants were compensated with 50 Swiss Francs, whereas young participants could choose between 50 Swiss Francs and research credits.

Participants met the researchers for an introduction session, after which data collection with the EAR started. Data collection spanned four consecutive days. Finally, participants met with the researchers again for a feedback session. Participants came to the Psychology Institute for the first session, typically held on a Wednesday or a Friday afternoon. Six older participants were visited at home for their convenience.

Participants were given instructions on the study, asked to sign an informed consent form and to complete questionnaires including demographic and psychological measures. All questionnaires were administered in a group setting except for the MMSE which was administered privately.

Next, participants received their assigned iPhone with its protective case and charging cable. They were reminded to carry the iPhone as much as possible over the next 4 days during their waking hours. They were told that the EAR would record 30 s of ambient sounds at a time, and that they would not be aware of when the EAR was recording, so that they could continue their normal lives. They were also informed that they would have the opportunity to review and delete any sound files at the end of the study, before anyone listened to them.