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Today there are many kosher-for-Passover packaged foods available. However, care must be used to purchase only those packaged foods that have reliable rabbinical supervision which is valid for Passover. Obviously, all leavened foods made from—or that contain among their ingredients—wheat, barley, rye, oats, or spelt are actual chametz and are prohibited on Passover. Examples are bread, cake, cereal, spaghetti, beer and whiskey. Many medicines, sprays, and cosmetics contain chametz. Consult a competent rabbi as to which ones may be used on Passover. The same applies to pet food. Click here to to purchase your Passover essentials from our store.

Note: Please refer to the Holiday Calendar above to determine which blessings are recited on which holiday and Shabbat nights. They therefore ate matzah, unleavened bread. With only this food but with great faith , our ancestors relied on the Almighty to provide sustenance for the entire Jewish nation—men, women and children. The Humblest of Foods Matzah symbolizes faith. In contrast to leavened bread, matzah is not enriched with oil, honey or other substances. It consists only of flour and water, and is not allowed to rise. It is strongly recommended to use shmurah matzah to fulfill this commandment.

How much is one ounce of Matzah? Half a piece of shmurah matzah is generally one ounce. If store-bought matzot are used, the weight of the box of matzot divided by the number of pieces shows how much matzah is the equivalent of one ounce. The day chosen for the harvesting of the wheat is a clear, dry day. The moment it is harvested, the wheat is inspected to ensure that there is absolutely no moisture. From then on, careful watch is kept upon the grains as they are transported to the mill.

The mill is meticulously inspected by rabbis and supervision professionals to ensure that every piece of equipment is absolutely clean and dry. After the wheat is milled, the flour is again guarded in its transportation to the bakery. Thus, from the moment of harvesting through the actual baking of the matzah, the flour is carefully watched to ensure against any contact with water.

The water, too, is carefully guarded to prevent any contact with wheat or other grain. It is drawn the night before the baking, and kept pure until the moment it is mixed with the flour to bake the shmurah matzah. Also in the bakery itself, shmurah matzot are under strict supervision to avoid any possibility of leavening during the baking process. Shmurah matzot are round, kneaded and shaped by hand, and are similar to the matzot that were baked by the Children of Israel as they left Egypt. It is thus fitting to use shmurah matzah on each of the two Seder nights for the matzot of the Seder plate.

Click to order your own shmurah matzah.

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For each of the four cups at the Seder, it is preferable to use undiluted wine. However, if needed, the wine may be diluted with grape juice. One who cannot drink wine may use grape juice alone. It is preferable to drink the entire cup each time. However, it is sufficient to drink only the majority of each cup.

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The bitter herbs are eaten once after the matzah step 9 of the Seder , and then again with matzah in the Korech sandwich step How much bitter herbs should one eat each time? Three-quarters of an ounce a little more than 7 grams. Either of two different types of bitter herbs may be used at the Seder, individually or in combination:. Click here to learn more about the bitter herbs used on the Passover seder plate. Preparing the items for the Seder plate requires some time. It is best to prepare all the Seder foods before the onset of the holiday, in order to avoid halachic questions.

Three matzot are placed on top of each other on a plate or napkin, and then covered. Some also have the custom to separate the matzot from each other with interleaved plates, napkins or the like. The matzot are symbolic of the three castes of Jews: Priests, Levites, and Israelites. They also commemorate the three measures of fine flour that Abraham told Sarah to bake into matzah when they were visited by the three angels Genesis On a practical level, three matzot are needed so that when we break the middle matzah, we are still left with two whole ones to pronounce the hamotzi blessing as required on Shabbat and holidays.

A piece of roasted meat represents the lamb that was the special Paschal sacrifice on the eve of the exodus from Egypt, and annually, on the afternoon before Passover, in the Holy Temple. Accordingly, many communities have the custom to use a roasted chicken neck or the like. Preparation: Roast the neck on all sides over an open fire on the stove. Afterwards, some have the custom to remove the majority of the meat of the neck.

Role in the Seder: The shank bone is not eaten. After the meal it is refrigerated, and used a second time on the Seder plate the following night. A hard-boiled egg represents the holiday offering brought in the days of the Holy Temple. The meat of this animal constituted the main part of the Passover meal. Role in the Seder: Place one egg on each plate. As soon as the actual meal is about to begin, remove the egg from the Seder plate and use during the meal.

A popular way of eating these eggs is to chop and mix them with the saltwater which was set on the table. The eggs prepared this way are then served as an appetizer before the fish. Bitter herbs maror remind us of the bitterness of the slavery of our forefathers in Egypt. Fresh grated horseradish, romaine lettuce, and endive are the most common choices. Preparation: This must be done before the holiday begins.

Peel the raw horseradish roots, and rinse them off well. Note: Dry the roots very carefully, since they will be eaten with the matzah later on for the korech sandwich; to avoid gebrokts , not even a drop of water should be left on the horseradish. Next, grate the horseradish with a hand grater or electric grinder. Whoever will be grating the horseradish will begin to shed copious tears or cough a lot. Covering the face with a cloth from the eyes downwards helps prevent inhalation of the strong, bitter odor. The lettuce or endive leaves must be washed, carefully checked for insects, and thoroughly dried.

You can instead use just the stalks, which are easier to clean and check. Place the horseradish on the Seder plate, on top of a few cleaned, dried leaves of romaine lettuce. Role in the Seder: After the recital of most of the haggadah comes the ritual handwashing. Then matzah is eaten, followed by some maror, followed in turn by a sandwich of matzah and maror.

A mixture of apples, nuts and wine which resembles the mortar and brick made by the Jews when they toiled for Pharaoh. Preparation: Shell walnuts and peel apples and chop finely. Mix together and add a small amount of wine. Role in the Seder: This is used as a type of relish into which the maror is dipped and then shaken off before eating.

A non-bitter root vegetable alludes to the backbreaking work of the Jews as slaves. Perech means backbreaking work, and samech is numerically equivalent to 60, referring to 60 myriads, equaling ,, which was the number of Jewish males over 20 years of age who were enslaved in Egypt. Preparation: Peel an onion or boiled potato. Cut off a slice and place on Seder plate.

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On the table, next to the Seder plate, place a small bowl of salted water. Role in the Seder: After recital of kiddush , the family goes to the sink and ritually washes hands, but without saying the usual blessing. Then the head of the household cuts a small piece of the root vegetable used, dips it in saltwater, and gives each person at the table a very small piece over which they say the appropriate blessing. The lettuce symbolizes the bitter enslavement of our fathers in Egypt.

The leaves of romaine lettuce are not bitter, but the stem, when left to grow in the ground, turns hard and bitter. So it was with our enslavement in Egypt. At first the deceitful approach of Pharaoh was soft and sensible, and the work was done voluntarily and even for pay. Gradually, it evolved into forced and cruel labor. Preparation: Romaine lettuce is often very sandy. Wash each of the leaves separately, checking very carefully for insects.

Pat gently with a towel and let sit until completely dry, so that there will be no moisture to come in contact with the matzah. Depending on how much romaine lettuce is needed, it can take several hours to prepare. This task should be completed before candle-lighting time on the first night. Prepare enough leaves for both nights and store in the refrigerator.

Soaking of the romaine leaves may not be done on the holiday. Role in the Seder: The lettuce is used in conjunction with horseradish. It is used when eating the maror and when eating the matzah-and-maror sandwich. Place the leaves in two piles on the Seder plate, one under the maror and one separately at the bottom. Keep a stack of extra cleaned leaves handy in the refrigerator in case additional leaves are needed. Click here for a more detailed Seder wizard, and here for a spiritual guide to the Seder.

At the Seder, every person should see himself as if he were going out of Egypt. The Seder service begins with the recitation of kiddush , proclaiming the holiness of the holiday. This is done over a cup of wine, the first of the four cups we will drink while reclining at the Seder. Why four cups? The Torah uses four expressions of freedom or deliverance in connection with our liberation from Egypt see Exodus —7.

Also, the Children of Israel had four great merits even while in exile: 1 They did not change their Hebrew names; 2 they continued to speak their own language, Hebrew; 3 they remained highly moral; 4 they remained loyal to one another. When drinking the four cups and eating the matzah, we lean on our left side to accentuate the fact that we are free people. In ancient times only free people had the luxury of reclining while eating.

We wash our hands in the usual, ritually prescribed manner as is done before a meal, but without the customary blessing. A small piece of onion or boiled potato is dipped into saltwater and eaten after reciting the blessing over vegetables. The Hebrew word karpas , when read backwards, alludes to the backbreaking labor performed by the , Jews in Egypt. The middle matzah on the Seder plate is broken in two. The larger part is put aside for later use as the afikoman. The smaller part of the middle matzah is returned to the Seder plate.

At this point, the poor are invited to join the Seder. Why is this night different from all other nights? Why the dipping? Why the bitter herbs? Why are we relaxing and leaning on cushions as if we were kings? The answer includes a brief review of history, a description of the suffering imposed upon the Israelites, a listing of the plagues visited on the Egyptians, and an enumeration of the miracles performed by the Almighty for the redemption of His people. After concluding the first part of the haggadah by drinking the second cup of wine while reclining , the hands are washed again, this time with the customary blessings, as is usually done before eating bread.

Taking hold of the three matzot with the broken one between the two whole ones , recite the customary blessing before bread. Take at least one ounce of the bitter herbs. In keeping with the custom instituted by Hillel, the great Talmudic sage, a sandwich of matzah and maror is eaten. Break off two pieces of the bottom matzah, which together should be at least one ounce.

Again, take at least one ounce of bitter herbs and dip them in the charoset. A rabbi was once asked why Jews eat eggs on Passover. It symbolizes the Paschal lamb, which was eaten at the end of the meal.

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After eating the afikoman , we do not eat or drink anything except for the two remaining cups of wine. A third cup of wine is filled and Grace is recited. After the Grace we recite the blessing over wine and drink the third cup while reclining. Now we fill the cup of Elijah and our own cups with wine. We open the door and recite the passage which is an invitation to the Prophet Elijah, the harbinger of the coming of Moshiach, our righteous Messiah.

After reciting the Hallel, we again recite the blessing over wine and drink the fourth cup, reclining. Having carried out the Seder service properly, we are sure that it has been well received by the Almighty. Comme une mendiante! Un musicien de rue juif orthodoxe chante. Paroles : E. Kozakevitch — Musique : L. La terre regorge de jus. Dans ce film, Ruth Halimi revient sur ces 24 jours de cauchemar. Quelles sont les sources du mariage dans la Thora? Le Rabbi de Loubavitch: Sillam sur. Puis en direct avec : Yeochoua, Lior et Alexandra pour les questions des auditeurs!

Fascinating moving pictures in color show the situation of the city in summer , just after the Second World War and the capitulation of Germany. Daily life after years of war. Environ une centaine de jeunes trouveront leur place ici. Charles Lugassy is a cultivated journalist for Radio Shalom equipped with 15 years experience in journalism with Radio Canada, 20 years experience in immigration consulting and a highly active and reputable presence in the Jewish Sephardic community.

Was ein Museum zeigt, ist bedeutend. Queen Elizabeth II. Mai in Wien als Irma Wieselberg; — Video: David Friedman. File name: File:Sofermausoleum. I took this picture.

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Bis war das in Wien kaum jemandem bekannt. Er musste zweimal fliehen. Sein Werk ist heute aktueller denn je. Gedenktafel in Wien. Vor Widerhofergasse 5 wo Fried wohnte versammelten sich am Hevenu Shalom Wir haben Euch Frieden gebracht sang. Leider wird in deutschen Medien immer mehr einseitig und falsch zum Nachteil Israels berichtet, so war es schon in den letzten 10 Jahren. April Es war das erste durchgehend betriebene KZ und wurde dadurch eines der bekanntesten Konzentrationslager. Es diente — v. Die wichtigsten Infos wurden herausgesucht und mit zum Teil originalen Aufnahmen zu einer kleinen Dokumentation verarbeitet.

Lizenzierungen am Ende des Videos. Das historische Original wurde vor fast einem halben Jahr gestohlen. Von den Dieben fehlt jede Spur. Juli bis November Selbst Marlene Friederike Becht , die er gerade erst kennenlernte, vermag nicht auf ihn einzuwirken. Kinostart: 6. Als das KZ am Das ca. Als britische Soldaten am April das KZ befreiten, fanden sie ein grausames Bild vor. Kor wurde mit ihrer Familie nach Auschwitz deportiert und erhielt die Gefangenennummer A Heute abend, am Januar begangen und ist seit ein offizieller Gedenktag.

Zum In the Tyrol Serfaus community has several hotels on Jewish-Orthodox guests specialized. For four years — always in July and August — they have only for Orthodox Jews their businesses open. No easy task, but it applies to strict religious rules to be taken. To ask about the Jewish dietary laws Kaschrut that milk and meat products can not be mixed together. Psalm Halleluja Lobet Gott! Lobet, Knechte des Ewigen, lobet den Namen des Ewigen! Gepriesen sei der Name des Ewigen von nun an bis in Ewigkeit!

Von Sonnenaufgang bis zu ihrem Niedergang sei der Name des Ewigen gelobt! Was ist mit dir, o Meer, dass du fliehest? Vor dem Herrn erbebe, du Erde, vor dem Gott Jakobs! Der Fels in Wasserteich wandelt, Kieselstein in Wasserquelle. Psalm Der Ewige hat unser gedacht, Er segnet.

Überleben im Versteck - Versteckte Juden in Berlin während der NS-Zeit

Segnet das Haus Israels, segnet das Haus Aarons. Der Ewige vermehre euch, euch und eure Kinder. Nicht die Toten loben Gott, und nicht die, die in die Grabesstille hinabsteigen. Wir aber preisen Gott von jetzt bis in Ewigkeit. Von jetzt bis in Ewigkeit. Psalm Wie soll ich dem Ewigen all die Wohltaten erwidern, die Er mir erwiesen hat? Den Kelch der Rettung will ich erheben, und den Namen des Ewigen anrufen.

Wie soll ich dem Ewigen all die Wohltaten erwidern, die Er mir erwiesen hat? Dir will ich Dankopfer darbringen, und den Namen des Ewigen anrufen. Inmitten Jerusalem. Elishewas Familie befolgt streng die Regeln der Thora, die durch zahllose detaillierte Gebote und Verbote den Alltag regeln. Der soziale Umgang schreibt weitgehende Geschlechtertrennung vor. Aber wie orientiert man sich an dieser verwirrend hohen Anzahl von Vorschriften und ihren vielen Ausnahmen? Wie der Titel stellt, dies ist ein kurzer Vergleich zwischen die beiden Sprachen, Jiddisch und Deutsch.

Wir sind beiden Studenten des Deutsches das meint dass wir nur Hochdeutsch gelernt haben, mindestens ich, verdammnt noch mal! Also, ich weiss nicht weil du dies beobachtet, aber hoffentlich wirst du diesen kurzen Film sehr viel geniessen!! Reporter Stefan Quante ist in schwierigen Zeiten tief in das faszinierende Gemeindeleben eingetaucht.

Reporter Stefan Quante hat sich in schwierigen Zeiten im faszinierenden Gemeindeleben umgesehen. Er erwartet, dass sich das Klima massiv verschlechtern wird.

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Immer wieder gibt es Angriffe auf Juden in Deutschland. Wie kommt es zu diesem Judenhass unter Muslimen? Immer mehr von ihnen wollen aber unerkannt bleiben. Einfach nur, weil er Jude ist. Bei muslimischen Jugendlichen tritt antisemitisches Gedankengut dabei nicht nur vereinzelt auf. Bei Jugendlichen ohne Migrationshintergrund lag der Wert bei lediglich 2,1 Prozent. Wie verbreitet ist ausgrenzendes Denken im akademischen Milieu?

Zuvor hatte sie sich mit ihrer Familie in einem Hinterhaus in Amsterdam versteckt gehalten, wo sie ihre Erlebnisse und Gedanken in einem Tagebuch niederschrieb. Der Schwerpunkt der Sammlung liegt auf illustrierten Handschriften, die im Marcel Bordon,R. Yitchak Ziskind,R. Yechiel Brukner, und mehr……. Renate Rossberger hat sie besucht. Thomas Muggenthaler hat sich vorab informiert. Sowie Parascha von Rabbiner Joel Berger. Umso wichtiger sind Gleichgesinnte. Erst am 8.

Bei der Vernehmung am Quick navigation Mr Irving, take me to Wannsee conference Ewig und immer ist der Jude unschuldig daran; er ist der Leidtragende und die Schuld hat immer nur der andere. Notes by David Irving:. Mai Schreiben Hugo Byttebier an den Herausgeber, 2. Januar Oktober Dezember Die Welt , Bonn, Wie die Nachrichtenagentur Reuter am The Times , Sassen soll mehrmals seinen Namen gewechselt haben; Ende sollte er jedoch aus Argentinien ausgewiesen werden.

Nachdem Lehmann-Willenbrock starb, lebt seine Witwe noch in Bremen. Schreiben Woltersdorf an Irving, Siehe hierzu u. November Bild-Zeitung, Abendpost , Berlin 1. Stollberg, From: Licus Media Utting a. Ammersee, Germany. About this Item: Berlin : O. Condition: Gut. November-Dezember-Lieferung , Nr. Gebundene Ausgabe. Aus dem Inhalt: Hans Pfitzner erhielt den Beethovenpreis; Goebbels; Alterungs- u. Kein Besitzvermerk. Jede Lieferung m. Rechnung und ausgew. Er diktierte nicht nur die Programmauswahl in Nazideutschland, als Autor und Dramaturg war er zunehmend selbst beteiligt.

Neuware - 'The greatest history of an event I know' - C. James Regarded by many as among the most powerful works of history ever written, The History of the Russian Revolution offers an unparalleled account of one of the most pivotal and hotly debated events in world history. This book presents, from the perspective of one of its central actors, the profound liberating character of the early Russian Revolution.

Originally published in three parts, Trotsky's masterpiece is collected here in a single volume. It is still the most vital and inspiring record of the Russian Revolution ever published. Published by Amber Books Ltd Feb The book offers a comprehensive survey of Soviet AFVs, from the pre-war T light tank and BT fast tank series to the heavy Joseph Stalin tanks and self- propelled guns pp.

Published by Berlin : Verlag der Sozialistischen Monatshefte, Ordentlich ausgesondertes Biblioitheksexemplar mit nur geringf. Restspuren einer Inventarnummer a. Einband gut erhalten, Gelenke part. Signatur-Stempel a. Titelseite fehlend. Published by Azbuka Feb About this Item: Azbuka Feb , Neuware - Joseph Brodsky geboren Mai in Leningrad; gestorben Brodsky war ein Einzelkind in der Familie Leningrader Intellektueller.

Ranges bei der Marine. In der Nachkriegszeit war sie als Buchhalterin angestellt. Joseph Brodsky hatte seinen Vornamen nach Josef Stalin erhalten. Brodsky kam 'mit einem Koffer und 50 Dollar in der Tasche in Wien an'. Dort nahm sich der US-amerikanische Dichter W. Auden, der die Sommermonate in Kirchstetten verbrachte und 'dessen Lyrik Brodsky bereits in Leningrad bewunderte', seiner an. Seine Gedichte schrieb er weiterhin, mit einigen Ausnahmen, in russischer Sprache, daneben aber auch viel beachtete Essays in Englisch. Neben seinem vorrangig lyrischen Werk ragt ein stark essayistisch ausgearbeiteter Roman empor: Die Erinnerungen an Petersburg.

Iosif Brodskij. Tverdyj pereplet V nastojaschij tom izbrannyh proizvedenij Iosifa Brodskogo voshli pojeticheskie sborniki 'Ostanovka v pustyne', 'Konec prekrasnoj jepohi', 'Chast' rechi', 'Novye stansy k Avguste', 'Uranija' i 'Pejzazh s navodneniem', vypuskavshiesja amerikanskim izdatel'stvom 'Ardis' s po gody, a takzhe p'esa 'Mramor' i esse.

Although the scholars have agreed on many of its main traits - such as one-party dictatorship and politically motivated terror - there are yet many open questions and no final consensus has been reached. The explanatory power of the old totalitarianism theory has proved to be insufficient, but the new interpretations contesting it are yet open to discussion. In this volume, based on a symposium organized by the Aleksanteri Institute, six scholars representing different fields of social research are presenting their points of view on the "Stalinism phenomenon".

From: akpool GmbH Berlin, Germany. About this Item: Condition: sehr guter Zustand. Published by State Art Publishers, About this Item: State Art Publishers, Valery Pavlovich Chkalov Russian:??????? Contents Early life Chkalov was born in the upper Volga region, the town of Vasilyevo, near Nizhny Novgorod, the son of a boiler maker. His mother died when he was six years old. Chkalov studied in the technical school in Cherepovets but later returned to work as an apprentice with his father and as a stoker on river boats.

He saw his first plane in and decided to join the Red Army's air force. He trained as a pilot and graduated in joining a fighter squadron. Chkalov married Olga Orekhova, a schoolteacher from Leningrad, in In the early s he became a test pilot. Achievements Chkalov achieved several milestones in Aviation. In and , he participated in several ultra long flights, including a hour flight from Moscow, Soviet Union to Vancouver, Washington, United States via the North Pole in a Tupolev ANT airplane June 18 20, , a non-stop distance of 8, kilometres 5, mi.

The flight pioneered the polar air route from Europe to the American Pacific Coast. Death Chkalov meets with Joseph Stalin Chkalov died on 15 December while piloting a prototype of the Polikarpov I fighter, which crashed during her maiden test flight. The series of events leading up to the crash is not entirely clear. Neither the aircraft's two chief designers, Nikolai Nikolaevich Polikarpov and Dmitri Lyudvigovich Tomashevich, approved the flight, and no one had signed a form releasing the prototype from the factory. In any event, Chkalov took off and made a low altitude circuit around the airfield.

For the second circuit, Chkalov flew farther away, climbing to over 2, m 6, ft even though the flight plan specifically forbade exceeding m 1, ft. Chkalov apparently miscalculated his landing approach and came in short of the airfield, but when he attempted to correct his approach the engine cut out. Chkalov was able to avoid several buildings, but struck an overhead powerline.