Alexey Borisovich Miller born 31 January is a Russian business administrator. Alexeyevsky District is the name of several administrative and municipal districts in Russia. Alexis Lichine December 3, — June 1, was a Russian wine writer and entrepreneur. Aleksey Mikhailovich p; — was the tsar of Russia from 12 July until his death, 29 January Alfa Group Consortium is one of Russia's largest privately owned investment groups, with interests in oil and gas, commercial and investment banking, asset management, insurance, retail trade, telecommunications, water utilities and special situation investments.
Alfred Spiro Moisiu born 1 December is a former Albanian general officer, diplomat and politician. Alfred Rosmer born Alfred Griot, — was an American-born French political activist and historian. Aleksi "Ali" Aaltonen 2 August — May was a Finnish journalist and former lieutenant of the Russian Imperial Army, who served as the first commander-in-chief of the Finnish Red Guards from November to the end of January Aliann Tabitha Omalara Pompey born 9 March is a Guyanese sprinter who specializes in the metres. Alisa Drei born 28 February is a Finnish former competitive figure skater.
Alistair Ian Cragg born 13 June , Johannesburg is an international track and field athlete. Alla Sizova 22 September — 23 November was a Russian ballet dancer, best known for her work with the Kirov Ballet. Alleyne Jeremy Francique born June 7, in St. Andrew's is a retired Grenadian athlete who specialized in metres, his personal best being Allyson Michelle Felix born November 18, is an American track and field sprinter who competes in the meters, meters, and meters. Altimo alt. Alwin de Prins born 29 October is a former competitive swimmer who represented Luxembourg.
He replaced Nartai Dutbayev, and was himself replaced by Adil Shayakhmetov. Below are current ambassadors of the European Union to third countries and international organizations. American Eagle Outfitters, Inc. The American Negro Labor Congress was established in by the Communist Party as a vehicle for advancing the rights of African-Americans, propagandizing for communism within the black community and recruiting African-American members for the party.
Amos Meller January 23, is best remembered as an Israeli composer and conductor. Amy Johnson 1 July — 5 January was a pioneering English aviator who was the first female pilot to fly alone from Britain to Australia. An Inspector Calls is a play written by English dramatist J. Priestley, first performed in in the Soviet Union and in in the UK. Anastasiya Andreyevna Myskina p; born 8 July is a former professional tennis player.
Anatole Kaletsky born 1 June is an economist and journalist based in the United Kingdom. Anatoly Vasilyevich Lyapidevsky — was a Soviet aircraft pilot and the first person to be awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union in June, The station was built between and , designed in the Soviet style, by Soviet architects and dedicated to the Czechoslovak—Soviet friendship. Andorra has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest six times, debuting in the contest. Andreas Knebel born June 21, in Sangerhausen is a former East German athlete who competed mainly in the metres.
The Andrey Pervozvanny class were a pair of predreadnought battleships built in the mids for the Baltic Fleet of the Imperial Russian Navy. Andrei Rublev p, also transliterated as Andrey Rublyov; born in the s, died 29 January or , or 17 October in Moscow is considered to be one of the greatest medieval Russian painters of Orthodox icons and frescos.
Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov p; 21 May December was a Russian nuclear physicist, dissident, and activist for disarmament, peace and human rights. Andrei Shleifer born February 20, is a Russian American economist and Professor of Economics at Harvard University, where he has taught since Andrei Arsenyevich Tarkovsky p; 4 April — 29 December was a Russian filmmaker, writer, film editor, film theorist, theatre and opera director.
Saint Andrew Bobola, S. Andrzej Bobola, — 16 May was a Polish missionary and martyr of the Society of Jesus, known as the Apostle of Lithuania and the "hunter of souls". Andrew Foster-Williams born in Wigan, Greater Manchester is an English operatic bass-baritone, concert singer and recitalist. Andrew Howe born 12 May is an Italian athlete who specializes in the long jump. Andrew Keith Paul Morton born is an Australian software engineer, best known as one of the lead developers of the Linux kernel. Andrew van der Bijl born 11 May in Sint Pancras, the Netherlands , known in English-speaking countries as Andrew van der Bijl or Brother Andrew, is a Christian missionary noted for his exploits smuggling Bibles to communist countries in the height of the Cold War, a feat that has earned him the nickname "God's smuggler.
Andrey Timofeyevich Bolotov 18 October — 16 October was the most prolific memoirist and the most distinguished agriculturist of the 18th-century Russian Empire. Andrey Nikolaevich Kolmogorov a, 25 April — 20 October was a 20th-century Soviet mathematician who made significant contributions to the mathematics of probability theory, topology, intuitionistic logic, turbulence, classical mechanics, algorithmic information theory and computational complexity.
Andrey Vasilievich Kvasov c. Andrey Anatolyevich Zaliznyak p; 29 April — 24 December was a Russian linguist, an expert in historical linguistics, dialectology and grammar. Andrey Petrovich Zvyagintsev p; born 6 February is a Russian film director and screenwriter. Andy Panayi is a British jazz musician, skilled in performance, composition and arranging.
Andy Yorke born 10 January is an English musician and former lead singer and guitarist for the band Unbelievable Truth. Ang Peng Siong born 27 October in Singapore is a swimmer from Singapore, who once held World Number 1 ranking in the 50 m freestyle. The Angara rocket family is a family of space-launch vehicles being developed by the Moscow-based Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center.
Anglicisation or anglicization, see English spelling differences , occasionally anglification, anglifying, englishing, refers to modifications made to foreign words, names and phrases to make them easier to spell, pronounce, or understand in English. Anna Karenina p is a novel by the Russian writer Leo Tolstoy, published in serial installments from to in the periodical The Russian Messenger. Tolstoy clashed with editor Mikhail Katkov over political issues that arose in the final installment Tolstoy's negative views of Russian volunteers going to fight in Serbia ; therefore, the novel's first complete appearance was in book form in Anna S.
Kashina, Ph. Anna Mikhailovna Larina 27 January — 24 February was the second wife of the Bolshevik leader Nikolai Bukharin and spent many years trying to rehabilitate her husband after he was executed in Anna Rogowska born 21 May is a retired Polish athlete who specialised in the pole vault. Cot's Baseball Contracts. Baseball Prospectus Cot's Baseball Contracts. Midland Freewheelers. Center for Technological Innovation and Entrepreneurship.
Clowns International. Commercial Crew Integrated Capability. Desertification Countermeasures and prevention. Favor song. Favor Media and entertainment. The Front Page film. Front page Entertainment. Male homosexuals. Hustle film. Hustle Films and television. Singapore Changi Airport Budget Terminal. List of Babar episodes season five. List of Babar episodes Season 5 Donkey Kong Junior Nintendo character.
Farm to Market Road Ranch to Market Road X92 New York City bus. List of express bus routes in New York City X Lingula of the left lung. Mia Khalifa Diss. Transnational compaines. Object-encoding neuronal ensemble. Neural ensemble Object-encoding neuronal ensemble.
- Colton P.I. - Second Unit?
- HAYY BIN YAQDHAN:IBN TUFAIL.
- Surviving Serendipity;
- The Intangible Elements of Culture in Ethnoarchaeological Research.
- The Romance Of Giovanni Calvotti From Coals Of Fire And Other Stories, Volume II. (of III.).
- Outsourcing the American Dream:Pain and Pleasure in the Era of Downsizing!
Plane song. American populism. Cocktails with Santa. Richard Cheese Studio albums. Cocktails With Santa. Cross of Saint Florian. Saint Florian St. Florian's Cross. Saturation biochemistry. Saturation chemistry Biochemistry. Ford Shelby GT-H. Snow water equivalency. Social problems of the United States. Stoneman Douglas High School shooting Officer response. Karen Wheeler character. Behavioural advertising. Cool Springs Press. Tim Minchin Alternative medicine: Minchin's Law. Type submarine Individual boats.
Vulcan rocket Engine testing and design optimization. A road England. AI accelerator Research and unreleased products. Color dove illusion. Afterimage Afterimage on empty shape. Ajuran-Portuguese war. Ajuran Sultanate Ajuran-Portuguese war. Behind the Player. Alfred Music Behind the Player. Wayne S. Vucinich Prize. Breakfast cereal Ready-to-eat RTE. Caherconree Fort. Caherconree Caherconree in myth. Carlisle bus station.
Carlisle Carlisle bus station. Chick film. Climate Data Store. Copernicus Climate Change Service Architecture. Dave Martin musician. David Martin Arts and entertainment. Deacon in the Catholic Church. Ratanmahal Wildlife Sanctuary. Devgadh Baria Ratan Mahal Sanctuary. Ratanmahal Sloth Bear Sanctuary. Kirkman Finlay died Dictionary of National Biography Kirkman Finlay. Dream Chaser Cargo System. Early modern Dutch. Dutch language Modern Dutch 15th century — present. Electoral district of Eastern Division of Camden Fictional Old Etonians. Eton College Fictional Old Etonians.
Fictional old Etonians. Tiger Tyagarajan. Blake's school. Greenwood, South Carolina Public services. First Transatlantic telephone call. History of the telephone 20th century developments. ICC Champions Trophy hosts. Soviet Internal Troops. Israeli system of government Political left. John Cockerill company to present. Suborbital rocket. House By The Sea. Mary Alice Crosswire. List of Coronation Street characters Edison Bailey. List of International Space Station expeditions Expedition List of Northern Ireland Parliament by-elections Monisha Sarabhai.
List of Star Wars planets and moons Batuu. Lorimer Street station. Luigi's Mansion: Dark Moon Sequel. Habib Metro Pakistan. Metro Cash and Carry Pakistan. Monster book. Next United Kingdom general election in Scotland. Next United Kingdom general election Scotland. Norwegian grammar. Norwegian language Morphology. President ship. President Transportation. President boat. Lion's Den match. Professional wrestling match types Lion's Den match.
Six-Man Tag Team match. Professional wrestling tag team match types Multiple man teamed matches. Ravenswood TV series Main cast. Rent Assessment Panel for Scotland. Generalized Vandermonde Determinant. Schur polynomial Definition. Shellshock comics. Facebook Analytics. Social media analytics fbclid. Digvijay Singh Chautala. Sam Owens character.
Sucden Financial. Sucden Sucden Financial Limited. Temperance Scotland Act Referendum. List of The Loud House Characters. Creative Publishing International. Kamloops WolfPack. Vulcan rocket Vulcan Heavy. Wildlife of Rwindi. Wildlife of the Democratic Republic of the Congo Overview. World Meteorological day.
World Meteorological Day World Meteorological day. Meteorological day. Declaration of Catalan independence. Acmella oleracea Jambu oil. List of Acting Presidents of the United States. Amarillo metropolitan area Combined Statistical Area. Archdeacon of Waiapu. Anglican Diocese of Waiapu Archdeacon of Waiapu. Anthropocene Criticism of the concept. Exploration missions. Vucinich Book Prize. Ed A Hewett Book Prize. Peregrine lunar lander. Astrobotic Technology Moon missions. Sonnenkrieg Division. Atomwaffen Division Sonnenkrieg Division.
Audrey Hepburn Marriages, relationships and children. Continuous backup. Belgian Half-blood. Belgian Warmblood Belgian sport horse. BioShock series Mind In Revolt. Who Put The Bomp. Articulate brachiopod. Meade County Public Library. Brandenburg, Kentucky Library. Interstate 8 Business Winterhaven-Yuma, Arizona. Business routes of Interstate 8 Winterhaven-Yuma loop. By-elections to the 41st Canadian Parliament Water carbonator. Carbonated water Products. Catholic Church and antisemitism. Catholic Church and Judaism Antisemitism. Brunswick Street, Manchester. Chorlton-on-Medlock Brunswick. The Mastaba, Serpentine.
Christo and Jeanne-Claude The Mastaba. Commander-in-Chief, Medway and at the Nore. Environmental impact of concentrated solar power. Concentrated solar power Effect on wildlife. Nightwind comics. Dayton metropolitan area Combined Statistical Area.
Financial deplatforming. Deplatforming Financial deplatforming. History of dinner. Early history of video games East Kerry UK Parliament constituency Straight-through cable. Fear the Walking Dead Cast and Characters. Float song. County Road Florida. The Body on the Train. A Snapshot of Murder. A Woman Unknown novel. A Medal for Murder. Fresh Pretty Cure! Fresh Pretty Cures. Academic feminism. Gender feminism History. Honour playing card. Glossary of card game terms Honour. Greater Hartford Combined Statistical Area.
Greater Orlando Combined Statistical Area. Pictorial Quilt The Hawk film. Hawk disambiguation Entertainment. Heartland American TV series. High School Musical 4: Wild and Knights. I-Space Chinese company Hyperbola-1S. European migrant crisis in Finland. Impeachment trial of Bill Clinton.
Impeachment of Bill Clinton Acquittal by the Senate. Bomber Command Spire Memorial. Jack Irish: Dead Point. Jack Irish Telemovies — John Adams priest. The Killer novel. Killer Novels and short stories. Lady with the Ring Ireland. Lakshadweep Lok Sabha constituency General election Return to launch site. Sub-orbital rocket. Degrees of relationship. Lexus LS XF Harder Than Hard. Tommy Merlyn Earth-X. List of Arrow characters Prometheus Earth-X. Dumbarton Fencibles. List of British fencible regiments Dumbarton Regiment. Oriya film series. Justice League season 1. List of Justice League episodes Season one — Justice League season 2.
List of Justice League episodes Season two — Electro Atlas Comics. Electro Timely Comics. Star Wars television show. Star Wars live action series. Star Wars Galaxy of Adventures. List of Star Wars television series Micro-series. Killer Frost Earth List of The Waltons characters Olivia Walton. List of defunct airlines of Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. X28B New York City bus.
List of wind farms in Colorado. List of power stations in Colorado Wind power stations. M Browning machine gun. Evolution of marsupials.
Сім’я з Калуша, в якої народилася трійня, тісниться в маленькій квартирі
Habib-Metro Pakistan. Military Assistance Advisory Group Taiwan. Military Assistance Advisory Group China. Mount Zion High School Illinois. Movements band Band Members. April's Garden. Murder of April Tinsley Memorials.
- ezodoob.tk Ebooks and Manuals.
- Originally published in 2005 as Haeresis bulgarica w bułgarskiej świadomości kulturowej.
- In the Land of And.
- Wikipedia:Database reports/Broken section anchors!
- Financial Policy Workshops: The Case of Kenya!
- Yubi and the Blue-tailed Rat!
- Tormenti infernali (Italian Edition).
National parks in North Macedonia. North Macedonia National parks. Birmingham Academy 2. O2 Academy Birmingham Academy2. Three-banded panther worm. Park City Transit. Tyger's Head St. Paul's Churchyard. Paternoster Row Tyger's Head. PlayerUnknown's Battlegrounds Other platforms. German potato salad. Professional wrestling match types move match. Professional wrestling match types Luchas de Apuestas.
Eight-man elimination tag team match. Professional wrestling tag team match types Elimination tag team match. Tag team four-way elimination match. Professional wrestling tag team match types Four corners tag team elimination match. Midtribulation Rapture. Rapture Pre-tribulational Premillennialism. Riki-Oh Original Video Animations. Rusev wrestler Rusev Day —present. Autonomous sailing ship.
Sailing ship Automated sailing. Automated sailing ships.
And So It Begins
Saint-Martin station. Saint Martin disambiguation Transit. Scots National League Military wing. Shadow of Heroes TV play. Kalashnikov Variation. Sicilian Defence Kalashnikov Variation: Nb5 d6. Facebook Click Identifier. Interim Cryogenic Propulsion Stage. SpongeBob's Big Birthday Blowout. SpongeBob SquarePants season 12 ep Provost of St Andrew's Cathedral, Aberdeen. Star wars live action tv series. Star Wars TV show.
Star wars tv series. T operators and variants TB3M. Behavioral marketing. Online Behavioral Advertising. Interest-based advertising. Tom yum fried rice. Thai fried rice Khao phat tom yam. Khao phat tom yam. The Popeye and Olive Comedy Show. The Food Programme Awards. The Lark TV play. The Loud House The Casagrande family. Marshall Editions. Trams in India Nashik Nasik.
Transformers video game. Transformers disambiguation video games. TCG Atilay S Colombian submarine Tayrona S Colombian submarine Pijao S List of United States Secretaries of the Interior. Woodham Academy arson fire. Trigonometric functions cosine. Star in a Reasonably Priced Car.
Top Gear test track Celebrity laps. Positive-semidefinite matrix. Definiteness of a matrix Positive semidefinite. Offensive tackle. Tackle gridiron football position Offensive tackle. Day for Night The Smashing Pumpkins album. C'est la vie phrase. Glossary of French expressions in English C'est la vie. Keeping Up with the Kardashians Related programming. Kinematic viscosity. Viscosity Dynamic and kinematic viscosity. Defenestration Self-defenestration jumping out of a window. Elvis Presley Final year and death.
Erection of nipple. Trailer promotion MPAA rating cards for theatrical trailers. The yellow dog of Lao Pan. List of individual dogs Faithful after master. Mexican Federal District. Mexico City Federal District. Thaler First Bohemian Thaler from Joachimsthal. Commissioned officer. Officer armed forces Commission Sources and Training. Aegon VI Targaryen. Erection of nipples. List of polyglots The Americas. Service set Rainov used some elements from esoteric literature of that period as normative constructions for his texts. As Vrinat notes, it is not coincidental that all those figures had long been known in esoteric literature, where they are referred to as Sages, Priests or Magi, i.
Boev, N. The most striking demonstration of the internal inconsistency of those texts comes in their reflection on the problem of evil and the figure of Lucifer. According to this Faustian idea, creative evil is only perceived as negative when it remains unrecognised. Blavatsky interprets Lucifer as a second Logos: Logos in his highest form, an enemy in his lowest form. Among the tsars, their wives and lovers we find the figure of Boyan the Magus, the legendary son of Tsar Simeon and brother of the inept ruler, Tsar Petar.
And in the dark streets of the plague-stricken city the smell of burning human flesh rose with the smoke, and high pillars of fire soared above the city. The souls of nobles and clergy grew cruel, and their thirst for suffering was unquenchable, so when they went to watch the burning of people it was as if they were going to a feast [H. The burning stake becomes a metaphor for the fate of people faithful to the ethical injunctions of the pneumatics,14 fighting the good fight against injustice: the sole enlightened keepers of secret books, people who can control the instincts of the mutinous crowd [see H.
No one could see him in the daytime, and at night they feared him. Vague rumours had. Dimitrova; see pp. Those people are superstitious and hungry, mercenaries and miracle workers, innumerable and insane. They believe recklessly, and they kill with dexterity and without scruples.
They follow miracle-working icons and unknown prophets. Paraskeva [see H. As Quispel noted, the magus drew his stature from the divine power that submerges him in the archaic contents of life of the soul: a figure who can work powerful magic — attract women, turn back streams, levitate, foretell the future — thanks to his powerful spells. In the variant described by Quispel, the figure of the magus is a popular topos in Judaeo-Christian culture. One particular instance of that topos in Bulgarian culture took shape in the period of the national revival, inspired by Yuri Venelin, an explorer of the southern Slavic lands in the early nineteenth century, and an immensely influential figure in the shaping of Bulgarian national discourse.
The first Bulgarian writer to make literary use of that legend was the indefatigable myth-maker Georgi S. In , Dimitar Marinov an eminent student of Bulgarian folklore follows in the footsteps of Venelin and Rakovski to make use of the forged folk legend in his article on the holiday of boyanik to create the figure of Boyan, an Orphic singer, as noted by Pundev.
The mighty Spirit of evil has given him full power! At the turn of the nineteenth century, there was a spike in interest in Boyan the Magus among the Theosophists. Through the Bogomilism of the Perfect Ones of whom Boyan the Magus was the best representative Rainov was discovering a creative spirit — a figure free from religious dogma, in revolt against constraining norms. Ivan of Rila to the status of a secondary cultural hero by bringing his spiritual greatness into question: perhaps even removes him from the cultural pantheon altogether [H.
He placed him within the broader context of Bulgarian complexes of inferiority to Europe: It seems that we very much want to believe in a historical illusion that would allow us to grow in our own regard. It is an offensive yet not altogether unfounded notion that European culture would have lost nothing if we had never existed. Mutafchiyev, and in the s in V. This is why we strive to find some undiscovered, significant content within the confines of our deaf history. The Bogomil was being portrayed as a heroic and rational figure: a man true to his beliefs and wanting to serve mankind, becoming an ideological and moral exemplar included to the national pantheon of pre-Communist heroes.
Like SS. Cyril and Methodius, the characters are portrayed as heroes on a mission of enlightenment, bringing hermetic knowledge to lands stretching from the West to the Urals. The text is an avalanche of absurdities and factual errors unworthy of polemic, listing countless titles of esoteric writings supposedly authored by Boyan the Magus and his learned followers it should be noted that the existence of those supposed monuments of esoteric literature is not confirmed, or even hinted at, in legitimate scholarship.
People listen to his words of truth, grandeur in life and silent meekness. The Bogomils are already many. They account for a half of the church. They speak softly, calmly, they preach disinterestedly, and people flock to follow those unknown apostles. Bogomilism has changed Europe. This extensive quote, which is a testament to the human need for myth bordering, in this case, on sheer absurdity , is a handy demonstration of the mythologems of Bulgarian culture in an extremely falsifiable form.
In his preface, Glogov claimed that the esoteric treatise of his own devising was a faithful reconstruction made from memory of an authentic Bogomil book.
Wikipedia:Database reports/Broken section anchors - Wikipedia
As corroborating evidence, the preface included letters from the Vatican and from European universities, expressing interest in this text snatched from the jaws of oblivion. Anton Glogov did not make a secret of his motivation. Although his work followed patterns of interpretation concerning the importance of the Bulgarian heresy to European culture which had by that time become conventional in Bulgarian culture, Glogov took a more independent approach in conceptualising its dualist ideology, ignoring the standards of scholarly research in the process.
The creation of the first man — a female — was in a way a consequence of this cosmic struggle; the being thus created was meant to bring solace. In retaliation, the destructive force collected body parts from the most ferocious of animals, and fashioned out of them a being outwardly resembling the woman, but endowed with the demonic qualities of its maker and compelled by sex drive. Spiritual clear-sightedness was restored by Priest Bogomil, who preached the idea that people could be saved by rejecting the objectification of women.
Though couched in modern language, the concept of impersonal forces competing for primacy in the universe has a very ancient and quintessentially gnostic pedigree. The notion that the the first woman was an emanation of deity is a key clue to its reconstruction. Passed down in innumerable variants and also present in Jewish Kabbalist mysticism , this particular myth is summarised by Quispel as follows: In the beginning were the kingdom of light and the kingdom of darkness; then a divine hypostasis, usually called the original man or Sophia, shows the original light to the demons belonging to the world of darkness; those archons, usually described as the seven planetary spirits, become lustful and chase the light, which tries to flee.
In some versions it is said that light itself became lustful and peers down spectandi libido , in others it is said to have sacrificed itself to forestall an invasion of the dark demons. Those sparks are human souls which live scattered in the world, but also the soul of the world and the life of the cosmos in general.
At one point the light and the darkness must separate, and the light will return to its source [Quispel 66]. For humans and the world in general, salvation will take the form of a restoration of the original order or the One. For Glogov, with his dualist agenda, the hope of world repair involves resisting the strategies by which people are enslaved by the force of destruction.
In his understanding, this resistance should take the form of rejecting sexuality as the basis of relationships between men and women, and freeing women from its domination. It seems more plausible to argue that Glogov uses the popular Russian mythologem of the Silver Age in order to adopt a sophisticated theurgic-erotic utopia for the purposes of unsophisticated Bulgarian readers who were expecting salvation in the here and now. Glogov destabilises the fundamental Bogomil assertion that the material world was created by Satan, thus moving away from Bogomilism and towards a pantheistic ecstasy inspired by the beauty of nature — his dualism only applies to human spiritual life.
His idea that the humans were the only element introduced into the created world by the destructive force updates the old gnostic distinction between the pneumatics whose souls are free of sin and the hylics who have no souls at all. This dichotomy was politicised, with detailed instructions on how to organise social life in communities providing the rules for building a new social order guaranteeing a final solution to the problem of evil by eliminating the hylics and creating the new man.
Peter Deunov — was a Bulgarian mystic who came up with a peculiar doctrine which drew, in a number of ways, on esoteric doctrine, and whose sermons referenced, among other things, the Bogomil heritage. Deunov came to appreciate the comfortably familiar, local elements of Bulgarian identity following his experiences in the United States.
Starting in , he spent a total of seven years in the United States, first as a seminarian at Drew Theological Seminary in Madison, than as a student of theology and medicine at the Boston University School of Theology. Although he received a solid education as a future minister, Deunov rejected an offer to work for the Evangelical parish at Yambol. The reasons for his decision are unknown. Over time it became clear that he was intending to create a doctrine of his own.
In practice, he retained only some of the organisational aspects of esoteric schools such as groups based on levels of initiation or special lectures for the best students. Slavejkov of a modern Bulgarian translation of the Bible. In this approach, everyone realises their own humanity in harmony with oneself, rather than accept an external model imposed by society, the earlier generations or by religious or political authorities. As such, the Theosophists mixed and matched their mysticism with the new evolutionary and electromagnetic worldviews of science. But they refrained this ancient view by latching onto the language of eccentric waves, vibrations, cosmic frequencies, and fields of force.
The connections between the teachings of Deunov and the thought of Madame Blavatsky are evident in their respective systems of cosmogony24 and occult historiosophy. Similarly, both Blavatsky and Deunov adopted for their systems the modern evolutionist theories of the time. Deunov used the then-fashionable concept of human races, borrowed from Count Joseph Arthur de Gobineau, and although his understanding of human races was spiritual in nature, he devoted many years to painstaking phrenological research. All the people on Earth can be gathered together into one single body — this is the large, great cosmic man named Adam Kadmon in whom nothing dies, but everything is subject to change.
In one fell swoop Deunov negates the cultural consequences of this basic dichotomy, dismissing it as an instance of faulty reasoning, and goes on to prove this with the analogy of the human body, a subject on which Deunov was regarded as something of an expert after spending a year in medical school in the United States.
To him, instances of evil were like the process of perspiration seen on micro and macro scales. Sweat evil returns to man in a form that is beneficial not only to himself, but to nature in general. On the other hand, Deunov considers perspiration i. You start with good, and you will end up with evil. This is the first inevitable rule of life. This is descent. If you start with evil, you will end up with good.
Despite the mystical and pragmatic arguments Deunov marshals in support of this relativistic rule, his argument is essentially based on common sense reasoning, with all its heterogeneity and bricolage. Good and Evil in Life , cast some extra light on those problems. Deunov interprets the meaning of binary systems in nature by reversing the usual values of common sense thinking. Good in the world is a negative force — it is constructive.
And you will note that all good people are weak people in the world. Later, he gets beaten up in similar circumstances, and this way he learns about correct behaviour. The road to spiritual development as portrayed by the shape of the Pentagram28 recommended to the Brothers as an aid in contemplation is circular rather than linear, implying inescapable repetitions whose internal dynamics make it possible for people to recognise the evil they commit or experience as a seed of good in this incarnation or the next.
In this specific structure of the world, individuals as well as groups occupy places given to them by Destiny. He uses a somewhat insulting example of the human excretory system or that of the sanitation system in a house — without which, life would not be possible. This clearly implies that the human community is a single organism where evil people apparently play a key role because they detoxifying the cosmic man Adam Kadmon , and serve as an egress for the evil in this world — i. He acknowledged that such people have a social and cosmic utility, and dismissed as fools those who wished to eradicate evil.
This idea is communicated in a language which the Teacher considered particularly suited for communicating occult messages:. The Bulgarian language is the most precise language in which the occult law and the Word of God can be expressed, as the Bulgarian nation is the oldest nation on earth. Literacy did not emerge in an arbitrary manner. There is a specific way in which language appeared in the world. Languages were not created on Earth. They are a copy of the things from the invisible world. My ideas are ideas of God, of the great Spirit, which permeate the entirety of Being.
You think I do not know much about grammar! If we study history we see the greatness of their work. As a corollary, the natural users of that language i.
Although he described the Turkish occupation of Bulgaria as punishment, for Deunov, the sin in question was not Christian disunity as Paisius would have it , but rather the rejection of Bogomil teachings, a gesture which defied the cosmic order:. In the old Tsardom of Bulgaria, the leaders at the time expelled the Bogomils, who were carriers of a great doctrine proclaiming reforms of life and social order in the most ideal manner; but the Bulgarians paid for that expulsion with the five hundred years of Turkish oppression; for when a nation does not obey the great word of God given by Providence, and does not apply this great word in their life, they are left to bear the consequences of their imprudence, and then the greatest evil happens to them.
Exiled from Bulgaria, the Bogomils took their ideas to the West. But now, if the Bulgarians realise the mistakes of their past, and do not repeat the same mistakes in the current ideological developments, they will get much better results in the life of society. If they squander the present conditions, everything will be given to another nation. I tell you, if the Bulgarians do not accept the teaching we preach, nothing will remain of Bulgaria, not even a memory! Imported from America, such Slavophile inspirations confirmed the Slavic myth31 inculcated in the Bulgarians since the national revival period in a way that could not be dismissed as parochial and peripheral navel-gazing.
Although Deunov stuck to occult ideas, his commentary on the political situation in Europe and Bulgaria at the time often showed common sense, a moral sense and even a certain brilliance of insight: he recognised the degenerated nature of Nazi and Bolshevik ideologies, which he described as false religions sic!
Finally, he campaigned to make paneurythmic exercises32 part of the Bulgarian school curriculum as a tool of spiritual and physical improvement. Deunov died in December of The myth of the magus, which remains alive in the Bulgarian cultural tradition, makes it possible to frame events in the real world in terms of self-fulfilling prophecies. Unsurprisingly, the magus theosophist who, as it were, negotiates the image of the world — mediating between a revitalised tradition of neo-gnosis and the utopia of a bright future — becomes the symbol of a new synthesis.
Peter Deunov died in , but his teachings are being revived in modern day Bulgaria. Their publications mostly include texts from the interwar period with updated commentary. With titles like Bogomilism. Slavdom is associated with that part of contemporary humanity which will form the spiritual body of the coming sixth race. Although Theosophical ideas draw on the language of traditional religion, they are actually engaged in developing a shared platform that transcends religious differences and opposes any form of institutionalised orthodoxy.
Any resulting frustration depends on the extent of cultural devastation caused by Communism, and the confusion this produced in a society that is trying to reconstruct its own identity. As a result, the need for demonstrative originality gets uncomfortably tied to conformity with regard to broader global models. This said, only This decay stems from increasing rationalisation, resulting in a disintegration of global systems of meaning which used to provide meaning and cohesion to the chaotic experience of past societies. This resulting tension between religion and politics made it possible to mobilise religious symbols in the service of political utopia.
According to the responses, the Church does not meet the expectations of the faithful, and the internal schism affecting the Church since contributes to the growing number of believers leaving the Church. The attempts to obtain and domesticate the Gnostic tradition a tradition which implicitly undermines any trust in the world were a dramatic attempt to solve the great mystery of Bulgarian history at the price of transforming Bogomil cosmogony and axiology.
In the place of the former abhorrence of the world appeared its pantheistic affirmation, and the escapist tendencies were replaced by activism and a will to power. Those fundamental shifts in the sphere of values produced a blurring of the difference between good and evil, as shown above. In this context, the characteristic belief of the White Brotherhood that there were no limits to human spiritual self-improvement a belief that is typical of Theosophy in general finds support in an axiological system based on many-valued logic, adopted in Europe by mystical movements fascinated with Asia.
The Marxist Variant As World War II ended and the proponents of Communist ideology launched a project of reinterpreting history in their own intellectual mould, their reactions to the Bogomil legacy were a continuation of pre-war Marxist thinking on the subject including the ideas of Dimitar Blagoev, see the previous chapter.
This crudely simplified vision was held up as a timeless moral example. Two revised and extended editions of his book came out after , devoting more attention to the problem of gnostic mysticism in the Bogomil community. That said, the kind of historical disguise they use nevertheless places their books within an openly atheist and anticlerical agenda.
In a fashion reminiscent of the moral relativism of the gnostics, Mutafchiyeva portrays this popular hatred as a positive force, in that it becomes the driving force behind the Bogomil revolt, which she identifies with the mutiny of enlightened reason against oppressive dogma and economic exploitation, the first such attempt in the history of the modern world. People become attached to the forbidden words out of hatred for those who minded, out of hatred of prohibitions and of violence, or simply out of sheer hatred.
Each nation has contributed to the development of human thought. Religion is replaced not so much by enlightened rationality as by its secular substitutes. The idea that the world could be made whole by the new man who, once created, will be able to change the world in the spirit of universal good, had been one of the most actively exploited topoi in European culture since the beginning of the twentieth century.
The product of the tradition of the Enlightenment, emerging at a time when educated elites had largely forsaken their traditional faiths, it took the inconsistent form of a secular religion. Those elements of their actual worldview that were at variance with the communist utopia needed to be dealt with in order to bring the characters safely in line with Marxism. The predominant approach was to shift the narrative focus in such a way as to play down or obscure certain aspects and ramifications of the Bogomil Manichaean outlook.
Therefore, he believed deeply. And this is why, as he unmasked the official faith, he sought to replace it with another. He did not reject faith per se. However, he was also a man of reason, and this fact was quite unusual in the Middle Ages. The same compensatory approach to national complexes is palpable in the interpretations of Vladimir Topencharov. In popular written language, the Bogomilian pen had defined at an early stage — already in that distant medieval century — the basic position of the anti-clerical and anti-feudal struggle of the nations that were attaining maturity in Europe.
He repurposes the myth of education as an agent of progress originating in the Western Enlightenment within a new ideological context to glorify the Bulgarian tradition as the original wellspring of all progress. Striving for good, sensitivity to beauty — light are not typical of pessimists. Topencharov refused to accept that the Bogomil worldview was marked by a gnostic abhorrence of the material world, dismissing the idea as pseudo-scholarly fallacy. In doing so, he came close to the modernist view, which deified beauty as a force capable of transforming the world.
Notably, one important anomaly resulted from the political activity of Lyudmila Zhivkova — , daughter of Todor Zhivkov, the Bulgarian satrap and long-time First Secretary of the Bulgarian Communist Party. When Lyudmila Zhivkova became the Minister of Culture, nobody expected her to treat the position as anything more than a comfortable sinecure, her excellent educational background notwithstanding she had been carefully educated in the West as an art historian. Some of her achievements were undeniable: she helped to open Bulgaria up to a carefully managed set of Western cultural values, and she reinvigorated Bulgarian art after its long period of hibernation under the doctrines of Socialist Realism: achievements which have gone largely overlooked since Other members of the Bulgarian intelligentsia are mostly keeping an embarrassed silence on the subject, a surprising and paradoxical reaction.
Artistic achievements and professional careers in Communist Bulgaria, once a source of prestige and privilege, have come to be regarded as an uncomfortable and to some shameful reminder of past opportunism. Having said all that, some literary testimonies on the ideological choices made by writers in that generation2 seem to suggest that the ideas promoted by Zhivkova, which had precious little to do with official Marxism, were increasingly present and developed in their writings.
It was an open secret that Zhivkova stood apart from the apparatchiks in the Eastern Bloc as an unapologetic follower of European and Asian spirituality dressed up in a Marxist guise. Those private criticisms of Zhivkova presumably led to some kind of political initiatives, whose documentary evidence currently remains locked up in Bulgarian state archives. This is a gem of the Bulgarian language — a thing unique and unheard of, which should be carved into a marble slab and exhibited at the entrance to the Committee of Culture. Such insightful thoughts must not remain confined to the yellowed pages of newspapers.
The voice of light lit the fire of life, and joined your hands in the name of brotherhood; in fearless flight, courageous dreams crossed the universe, and the universe echoed the spiritual torches of creativity. Shining in the song of light, the beautiful pursuit towards the future lit the fires of space, the chime of the community, lighting the way of the bold, opened a treasure trove of the heart and it accepted the call of beauty! After a serious car crash, which almost left Zhivkova blind, she took an interest in yoga and self-healing methods.
Combining the unshakeable belief of a missionary with the powerful state apparatus she had at her disposal as the daughter of Todor Zhivkov First Secretary of the Communist Party of Bulgaria , Lyudmila Zhivkova decided to spearhead the mission of a wholesale cultural re-education of Bulgarian society. The project, planned on a timescale of decades, would have involved a revitalisation of the ancient cultural heritage of.
The high point of the festival involved the unveiling of the Banner of Peace monument. The upper part of the obelisk was decorated with seven large bells, symbolising the seven main principles of the Mahatma and Teacher Roerich, a fact Zhivkova did not try to hide.
Donchev also published a biography of Roerich. Dreams and Deeds, constructs a legend of Zhivkova as a precursor of occultism in Bulgaria. She understands very well that a state should be built. According to W. Once united and bound together by ties of brotherhood, the Russian nation is capable of bringing spiritual revival to the planet [Pawluczuk: ]. Gorky see Agursky —, It was ahead of everyone, even the Soviet Union, which it was supposed to obediently follow. In this interpretation, Bulgaria is viewed as special, a chosen country, a central point from which esoteric ideas of utmost significance emanate to the world: a pioneer of the Living Ethics, the most perfect sublimation of the free Eurasian spirit.
Still, she certainly had a lasting influence on the Bulgarian intelligentsia. Recognised as the sage of the village […] a skilled diviner of the wise book of nature. For more information about the White Brotherhood, see pp. From onwards her activities were officially monitored by the authorities to impose control over her clients. In the Zhivkov period, the play was performed in Bulgaria and abroad with considerable success. The world portrayed in each is a grotesque blend of irony and tragedy, heterogeneous motivations and different time periods.
In order to produce narrative vehicles capable of settling scores in the real world, both writers combined a historical setting with a ludic outlook, and laced their works with philosophical references. In a cultural context where the heretical tradition was appreciatively portrayed by the state as a prefiguring of Communist ideology, Tsanev and Dimitrova were able to propose a reductio ad absurdum of this dialogue with a politicised version of Bogomilism, and fashioned it, in their respective ways, into a tool for attacking modernity.
Both writers turn their satirical edge against the authorities, who work in tandem with its subordinated institution of the Orthodox Church meaning the Party , which fabricates spurious myths and serves as an instrument of mind control. However, certain differences in terms of dramatic emphasis meant that the two plays had very different fates. The only character to defend the Bogomils is a professional barrister sent in from the twentieth century, who represents the viewpoint of posterity, though one reduced to a Marxist perspective.
The Bogomils, as it is known, reject, in the form of religious heresy, the political and social foundations of feudalism, namely: the power of the Tsar, the state as a tool of oppression, material inequality, as well as demagogy, which is used to justify these three things. The shrewd suggestion that any dissenting voices in the audience who contest this interpretation of history should join the action on stage alongside the preferred party in the trial was a clever ruse. Tsanev was engaging in a piece of protective camouflage to mask any suspicious intentions that might draw the attention of the state control apparatus.
Physically as well as metaphysically, Tsar Boril is indestructible. Represented by countless doubles, the tsar loses his life in a series of scenes, only to be revived again. The quasi-carnivalesque mask — the costume, the grotesque guise that transforms a condemned masquerader into a ruler — takes on a kind of semiosis. An institution whose power is based on a diabolically consistent exercise of physical and symbolic violence, the tsar is always renewing himself, representing an allegory of the evil that continues to be present in the world. This vision is complemented by the Byzantine principle of Caesaropapism, which Tsanev reduced as absurdum to demonstrate how its logic turns clergymen into cynical yes-men for the secular authorities.
The Patriarch: O Lord, I have come! The profanes appear to be dregs of society, their material status defined by their clothes, a preposterous mix of rags and clown costume. Contrary to pragmatic logic, the profanes are the only group in the world of the play who suffer no repressions. Their taut bowstrings speak for themselves: the inexorable logic of absurdity releases them from any responsibility for the crimes they perpetrate. The Bogomils, the grand defendants of the Bulgarian Middle Ages, have a different status in the play.
Tsanev is far from viewing the Bogomils as scapegoats. On the contrary — each of them is guided by a personal motivation as they freely embrace their fate. Several personalities stand out from this nameless crowd: the blind man Avitokh, Princess Maria, the Bogomil Perfectus, Stefan, Bosota the boyar and courtier, or Yoan Kukuzel, a medieval composer of Orthodox sacred music. They differ in terms of biographies and ethical values, but what brings them together is intellectual independence and the courage to stand by their convictions.
The diabolical Tsar Boril derides their values: Come on, old man, admit that you have been recruited by the Bogomils. Standing at the opposite pole are similarly timeless types: the prophet, the teacher, the poet. This is what they call heretics in Europe — Bulgarians. This is because the heresy set out from Bulgaria. Inwardly, however, the Bogomil priest Stefan has a very different interpretation of Bulgarian spiritual reality. It is the Bogomils who are pure believers, Stefan asserts: We are the true Christians, you are the heretics!
Stefan freely chooses to die at the stake. In this context, Tsanev appears to be referencing the view, sanctioned by all Bulgarian tradition to date, that Bogomilism had a remarkably far-reaching impact. This idea has obviously served as a source of consolation since the Enlightenment, with people hoping to leave a major and lasting mark on a world gradually improved by the force of the human mind free from the fetters of dogma [Taylor ]. As a result, the homage to Bogomilism made on behalf of history is tempered by the skeptical sense that those ideals might never be actually implemented.
The Bogomils are ahead of their time: The verdict is clear. And history confirms this verdict. There is defeat, but no resignation. There is no victory, but there is heroism. Like a torch, the Bogomil spirit has been passed through the darkness of the eight centuries that separate you from me. In other words, the Bogomil victory is moral rather than pragmatic. Their success consisted in the fact that they alerted Bulgarian people and taught them to mistrust power and not be taken in by duplicitous political messaging: Generations learned to read historical documents, Father.
His overly generous conclusion that Bulgarians were endowed with an exceptional amount of political nous were probably intended to be cautionary: Since when did the ideals which establish the state become a danger to the state, and was considered heresy? Why do you condemn those who preach your own ideals? It is you who should be tried — and you should be tried twice! Because there are two option: either you lied earlier that you have ideals, or today you betrayed those ideals. So I press charges of lies and betrayal on you! In invoking the proto-Bulgarian tradition more than a decade before it was fully vindicated by the Communist regime, Tsanev finds ideological support for such postulated ideals as democratic government and social justice.
I am dying for that day when man will get free from the bondage of things. Pre-Christian proto-Bulgarian inscriptions are considered the oldest set of medieval Bulgarian writings.