I see my life in terms of music I get most joy in life out of music. His mother played the piano reasonably well and wanted her son to learn the violin , not only to instill in him a love of music but also to help him assimilate into German culture. According to conductor Leon Botstein , Einstein began playing when he was 5.

However, he did not enjoy it at that age. When he turned 13, he discovered the violin sonatas of Mozart , whereupon he became enamored of Mozart's compositions and studied music more willingly. Einstein taught himself to play without "ever practicing systematically". He said that, "love is a better teacher than a sense of duty. The examiner stated afterward that his playing was "remarkable and revealing of 'great insight'. Music possessed an unusual meaning for this student. Music took on a pivotal and permanent role in Einstein's life from that period on.

Although the idea of becoming a professional musician himself was not on his mind at any time, among those with whom Einstein played chamber music were a few professionals, and he performed for private audiences and friends. In , while engaged in research at the California Institute of Technology, he visited the Zoellner family conservatory in Los Angeles, where he played some of Beethoven and Mozart's works with members of the Zoellner Quartet.

Einstein's political view was in favor of socialism and critical of capitalism, which he detailed in his essays such as " Why Socialism? Einstein was deeply impressed by Mahatma Gandhi. He exchanged written letters with Gandhi, and called him "a role model for the generations to come" in a letter writing about him. Einstein spoke of his spiritual outlook in a wide array of original writings and interviews. And one life is enough for me. He served on the advisory board of the First Humanist Society of New York , [] and was an honorary associate of the Rationalist Association , which publishes New Humanist in Britain.

For the seventy-fifth anniversary of the New York Society for Ethical Culture , he stated that the idea of Ethical Culture embodied his personal conception of what is most valuable and enduring in religious idealism. He observed, "Without 'ethical culture' there is no salvation for humanity.

On 17 April , Einstein experienced internal bleeding caused by the rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm , which had previously been reinforced surgically by Rudolph Nissen in Einstein refused surgery, saying, "I want to go when I want. It is tasteless to prolong life artificially. I have done my share; it is time to go. I will do it elegantly. During the autopsy, the pathologist of Princeton Hospital, Thomas Stoltz Harvey , removed Einstein's brain for preservation without the permission of his family, in the hope that the neuroscience of the future would be able to discover what made Einstein so intelligent.

Robert Oppenheimer summarized his impression of Einstein as a person: "He was almost wholly without sophistication and wholly without worldliness There was always with him a wonderful purity at once childlike and profoundly stubborn.

## Einstein’s Italian Mathematicians: Ricci, Levi-Civita, and the Birth of General Relativity

Throughout his life, Einstein published hundreds of books and articles. These four works contributed substantially to the foundation of modern physics and changed views on space , time, and matter. The four papers are:. Einstein's first paper [] submitted in to Annalen der Physik was on capillary attraction. Two papers he published in — thermodynamics attempted to interpret atomic phenomena from a statistical point of view. These papers were the foundation for the paper on Brownian motion, which showed that Brownian movement can be construed as firm evidence that molecules exist.

His research in and was mainly concerned with the effect of finite atomic size on diffusion phenomena. Einstein returned to the problem of thermodynamic fluctuations, giving a treatment of the density variations in a fluid at its critical point. Ordinarily the density fluctuations are controlled by the second derivative of the free energy with respect to the density.

At the critical point, this derivative is zero, leading to large fluctuations. The effect of density fluctuations is that light of all wavelengths is scattered, making the fluid look milky white. Einstein relates this to Rayleigh scattering , which is what happens when the fluctuation size is much smaller than the wavelength, and which explains why the sky is blue. It reconciled conflicts between Maxwell's equations the laws of electricity and magnetism and the laws of Newtonian mechanics by introducing changes to the laws of mechanics.

The theory developed in this paper later became known as Einstein's special theory of relativity. This paper predicted that, when measured in the frame of a relatively moving observer, a clock carried by a moving body would appear to slow down , and the body itself would contract in its direction of motion.

## 25 quotes that take you inside Albert Einstein's revolutionary mind

This paper also argued that the idea of a luminiferous aether —one of the leading theoretical entities in physics at the time—was superfluous. Einstein originally framed special relativity in terms of kinematics the study of moving bodies. In , Hermann Minkowski reinterpreted special relativity in geometric terms as a theory of spacetime. Einstein adopted Minkowski's formalism in his general theory of relativity. General relativity GR is a theory of gravitation that was developed by Einstein between and According to general relativity , the observed gravitational attraction between masses results from the warping of space and time by those masses.

General relativity has developed into an essential tool in modern astrophysics. It provides the foundation for the current understanding of black holes , regions of space where gravitational attraction is so strong that not even light can escape. As Einstein later said, the reason for the development of general relativity was that the preference of inertial motions within special relativity was unsatisfactory, while a theory which from the outset prefers no state of motion even accelerated ones should appear more satisfactory. In that article titled "On the Relativity Principle and the Conclusions Drawn from It", he argued that free fall is really inertial motion, and that for a free-falling observer the rules of special relativity must apply.

This argument is called the equivalence principle. In the same article, Einstein also predicted the phenomena of gravitational time dilation , gravitational redshift and deflection of light. In , Einstein published another article "On the Influence of Gravitation on the Propagation of Light" expanding on the article, in which he estimated the amount of deflection of light by massive bodies.

Thus, the theoretical prediction of general relativity could for the first time be tested experimentally. In , Einstein predicted gravitational waves , [] [] ripples in the curvature of spacetime which propagate as waves , traveling outward from the source, transporting energy as gravitational radiation.

The existence of gravitational waves is possible under general relativity due to its Lorentz invariance which brings the concept of a finite speed of propagation of the physical interactions of gravity with it. By contrast, gravitational waves cannot exist in the Newtonian theory of gravitation , which postulates that the physical interactions of gravity propagate at infinite speed.

While developing general relativity, Einstein became confused about the gauge invariance in the theory. He formulated an argument that led him to conclude that a general relativistic field theory is impossible. He gave up looking for fully generally covariant tensor equations, and searched for equations that would be invariant under general linear transformations only.

In June , the Entwurf 'draft' theory was the result of these investigations. As its name suggests, it was a sketch of a theory, less elegant and more difficult than general relativity, with the equations of motion supplemented by additional gauge fixing conditions. After more than two years of intensive work, Einstein realized that the hole argument was mistaken [] and abandoned the theory in November In , Einstein applied the general theory of relativity to the structure of the universe as a whole.

As observational evidence for a dynamic universe was not known at the time, Einstein introduced a new term, the cosmological constant , to the field equations, in order to allow the theory to predict a static universe. The modified field equations predicted a static universe of closed curvature, in accordance with Einstein's understanding of Mach's principle in these years. This model became known as the Einstein World or Einstein's static universe. Following the discovery of the recession of the nebulae by Edwin Hubble in , Einstein abandoned his static model of the universe, and proposed two dynamic models of the cosmos, The Friedmann-Einstein universe of [] [] and the Einstein—de Sitter universe of In many Einstein biographies, it is claimed that Einstein referred to the cosmological constant in later years as his "biggest blunder".

The astrophysicist Mario Livio has recently cast doubt on this claim, suggesting that it may be exaggerated. In late , a team led by the Irish physicist Cormac O'Raifeartaigh discovered evidence that, shortly after learning of Hubble's observations of the recession of the nebulae, Einstein considered a steady-state model of the universe. For the density to remain constant, new particles of matter must be continually formed in the volume from space.

It thus appears that Einstein considered a steady-state model of the expanding universe many years before Hoyle, Bondi and Gold. General relativity includes a dynamical spacetime, so it is difficult to see how to identify the conserved energy and momentum. Noether's theorem allows these quantities to be determined from a Lagrangian with translation invariance , but general covariance makes translation invariance into something of a gauge symmetry. The energy and momentum derived within general relativity by Noether's prescriptions do not make a real tensor for this reason.

Einstein argued that this is true for a fundamental reason: the gravitational field could be made to vanish by a choice of coordinates. He maintained that the non-covariant energy momentum pseudotensor was in fact the best description of the energy momentum distribution in a gravitational field.

This approach has been echoed by Lev Landau and Evgeny Lifshitz , and others, and has become standard. In , Einstein collaborated with Nathan Rosen to produce a model of a wormhole , often called Einstein—Rosen bridges. These solutions cut and pasted Schwarzschild black holes to make a bridge between two patches. If one end of a wormhole was positively charged, the other end would be negatively charged. These properties led Einstein to believe that pairs of particles and antiparticles could be described in this way. In order to incorporate spinning point particles into general relativity, the affine connection needed to be generalized to include an antisymmetric part, called the torsion.

This modification was made by Einstein and Cartan in the s. The theory of general relativity has a fundamental law—the Einstein field equations , which describe how space curves. The geodesic equation , which describes how particles move, may be derived from the Einstein field equations. Since the equations of general relativity are non-linear, a lump of energy made out of pure gravitational fields, like a black hole, would move on a trajectory which is determined by the Einstein field equations themselves, not by a new law.

So Einstein proposed that the path of a singular solution, like a black hole, would be determined to be a geodesic from general relativity itself. This was established by Einstein, Infeld, and Hoffmann for pointlike objects without angular momentum, and by Roy Kerr for spinning objects. In a paper, [] Einstein postulated that light itself consists of localized particles quanta. Einstein's light quanta were nearly universally rejected by all physicists, including Max Planck and Niels Bohr. This idea only became universally accepted in , with Robert Millikan 's detailed experiments on the photoelectric effect, and with the measurement of Compton scattering.

Einstein concluded that each wave of frequency f is associated with a collection of photons with energy hf each, where h is Planck's constant. He does not say much more, because he is not sure how the particles are related to the wave. But he does suggest that this idea would explain certain experimental results, notably the photoelectric effect. In , Einstein proposed a model of matter where each atom in a lattice structure is an independent harmonic oscillator.

In the Einstein model, each atom oscillates independently—a series of equally spaced quantized states for each oscillator. Einstein was aware that getting the frequency of the actual oscillations would be difficult, but he nevertheless proposed this theory because it was a particularly clear demonstration that quantum mechanics could solve the specific heat problem in classical mechanics. Peter Debye refined this model. Throughout the s, quantum mechanics expanded in scope to cover many different systems. After Ernest Rutherford discovered the nucleus and proposed that electrons orbit like planets, Niels Bohr was able to show that the same quantum mechanical postulates introduced by Planck and developed by Einstein would explain the discrete motion of electrons in atoms, and the periodic table of the elements.

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Einstein contributed to these developments by linking them with the arguments Wilhelm Wien had made. Wien had shown that the hypothesis of adiabatic invariance of a thermal equilibrium state allows all the blackbody curves at different temperature to be derived from one another by a simple shifting process. Einstein noted in that the same adiabatic principle shows that the quantity which is quantized in any mechanical motion must be an adiabatic invariant.

Arnold Sommerfeld identified this adiabatic invariant as the action variable of classical mechanics. In , Einstein received a description of a statistical model from Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose , based on a counting method that assumed that light could be understood as a gas of indistinguishable particles.

Einstein also published his own articles describing the model and its implications, among them the Bose—Einstein condensate phenomenon that some particulates should appear at very low temperatures. Einstein's sketches for this project may be seen in the Einstein Archive in the library of the Leiden University. Although the patent office promoted Einstein to Technical Examiner Second Class in , he had not given up on academia. In , he became a Privatdozent at the University of Bern. This paper introduced the photon concept although the name photon was introduced later by Gilbert N. Lewis in and inspired the notion of wave—particle duality in quantum mechanics.

Einstein saw this wave—particle duality in radiation as concrete evidence for his conviction that physics needed a new, unified foundation. In a series of works completed from to , Planck reformulated his quantum theory and introduced the idea of zero-point energy in his "second quantum theory". Soon, this idea attracted the attention of Einstein and his assistant Otto Stern. Assuming the energy of rotating diatomic molecules contains zero-point energy, they then compared the theoretical specific heat of hydrogen gas with the experimental data.

The numbers matched nicely. However, after publishing the findings, they promptly withdrew their support, because they no longer had confidence in the correctness of the idea of zero-point energy. In , at the height of his work on relativity, Einstein published an article in Physikalische Zeitschrift that proposed the possibility of stimulated emission , the physical process that makes possible the maser and the laser.

This paper was enormously influential in the later development of quantum mechanics, because it was the first paper to show that the statistics of atomic transitions had simple laws. Einstein discovered Louis de Broglie 's work and supported his ideas, which were received skeptically at first. In another major paper from this era, Einstein gave a wave equation for de Broglie waves , which Einstein suggested was the Hamilton—Jacobi equation of mechanics.

Einstein was displeased with modern quantum mechanics as it had evolved after Contrary to popular belief, his doubts were not due to a conviction that God "is not playing at dice. Einstein believed that a physical reality exists independent of our ability to observe it. In contrast, Bohr and his followers maintained that all we can know are the results of measurements and observations, and that it makes no sense to speculate about an ultimate reality that exists beyond our perceptions. The Bohr—Einstein debates were a series of public disputes about quantum mechanics between Einstein and Niels Bohr , who were two of its founders.

Their debates are remembered because of their importance to the philosophy of science. In , Einstein returned quantum mechanics, in particular to the question of its completeness, in the "EPR paper". No matter how far the two particles were separated, a precise position measurement on one particle would result in equally precise knowledge of the position of the other particle; likewise a precise momentum measurement of one particle would result in equally precise knowledge of the momentum of the other particle, without needing to disturb the other particle in any way.

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Given Einstein's concept of local realism , there were two possibilities: 1 either the other particle had these properties already determined, or 2 the process of measuring the first particle instantaneously affected the reality of the position and momentum of the second particle. Einstein rejected this second possibility popularly called "spooky action at a distance". Einstein's belief in local realism led him to assert that, while the correctness of quantum mechanics was not in question, it must be incomplete.

But as a physical principle, local realism was shown to be incorrect when the Aspect experiment of confirmed Bell's theorem , which J. Bell had delineated in The results of these and subsequent experiments demonstrate that quantum physics cannot be represented by any version of the picture of physics in which "particles are regarded as unconnected independent classical-like entities, each one being unable to communicate with the other after they have separated.

Although Einstein was wrong about local realism, his clear prediction of the unusual properties of its opposite, entangled quantum states , has resulted in the EPR paper becoming among the top ten papers published in Physical Review. It is considered a centerpiece of the development of quantum information theory. Following his research on general relativity, Einstein entered into a series of attempts to generalize his geometric theory of gravitation to include electromagnetism as another aspect of a single entity.

In , he described his " unified field theory " in a Scientific American article titled "On the Generalized Theory of Gravitation". In his pursuit of a unification of the fundamental forces, Einstein ignored some mainstream developments in physics, most notably the strong and weak nuclear forces , which were not well understood until many years after his death. Mainstream physics, in turn, largely ignored Einstein's approaches to unification.

Einstein's dream of unifying other laws of physics with gravity motivates modern quests for a theory of everything and in particular string theory , where geometrical fields emerge in a unified quantum-mechanical setting. Einstein conducted other investigations that were unsuccessful and abandoned. These pertain to force , superconductivity , and other research.

In addition to longtime collaborators Leopold Infeld , Nathan Rosen , Peter Bergmann and others, Einstein also had some one-shot collaborations with various scientists. Einstein and De Haas demonstrated that magnetization is due to the motion of electrons, nowadays known to be the spin.

In order to show this, they reversed the magnetization in an iron bar suspended on a torsion pendulum. They confirmed that this leads the bar to rotate, because the electron's angular momentum changes as the magnetization changes. This experiment needed to be sensitive, because the angular momentum associated with electrons is small, but it definitively established that electron motion of some kind is responsible for magnetization. Then to each possible quantum motion of a particle in a box associate an independent harmonic oscillator.

Quantizing these oscillators, each level will have an integer occupation number, which will be the number of particles in it. This formulation is a form of second quantization , but it predates modern quantum mechanics.

This absorption refrigerator was then revolutionary for having no moving parts and using only heat as an input. Their invention was not immediately put into commercial production, and the most promising of their patents were acquired by the Swedish company Electrolux. While traveling, Einstein wrote daily to his wife Elsa and adopted stepdaughters Margot and Ilse. The letters were included in the papers bequeathed to The Hebrew University. Margot Einstein permitted the personal letters to be made available to the public, but requested that it not be done until twenty years after her death she died in [].

Einstein had expressed his interest in the plumbing profession and was made an honorary member of the Plumbers and Steamfitters Union. Corbis , successor to The Roger Richman Agency, licenses the use of his name and associated imagery, as agent for the university. In the period before World War II, The New Yorker published a vignette in their "The Talk of the Town" feature saying that Einstein was so well known in America that he would be stopped on the street by people wanting him to explain "that theory".

He finally figured out a way to handle the incessant inquiries. He told his inquirers "Pardon me, sorry! Always I am mistaken for Professor Einstein. Einstein has been the subject of or inspiration for many novels, films, plays, and works of music. Time magazine's Frederic Golden wrote that Einstein was "a cartoonist's dream come true". Many popular quotations are often misattributed to him. Einstein received numerous awards and honors, and in , he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect".

None of the nominations in met the criteria set by Alfred Nobel , so the prize was carried forward and awarded to Einstein in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other people, see Einstein surname. For other uses, see Albert Einstein disambiguation and Einstein disambiguation. German-born physicist and developer of the theory of relativity.

Princeton, New Jersey , United States. Federal polytechnic school —; B. Satyendra Nath Bose Ernst G. See also: Einstein family. Main articles: Albert Einstein's political views and Albert Einstein's religious views. Main articles: Annus Mirabilis papers , Photoelectric effect , Special theory of relativity , Mass—energy equivalence , and Brownian motion. Main articles: Statistical mechanics , thermal fluctuations , and statistical physics. Main article: Critical opalescence. Main article: History of special relativity.

Main article: History of general relativity. See also: Equivalence principle , Theory of relativity , and Einstein field equations. Main article: Hole argument. Main article: Physical cosmology. Early universe. Subject history. Discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation. Religious interpretations of the Big Bang theory.

Main article: Stress—energy—momentum pseudotensor. Main article: Wormhole. Main article: Einstein—Cartan theory. Main article: Einstein—Infeld—Hoffmann equations. Main article: Old quantum theory.

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Main articles: Photon and Quantum. Main article: Einstein solid. Main article: Adiabatic invariant. Main article: Bose—Einstein statistics. Main article: Wave—particle duality. Main article: Zero-point energy. Main article: Stimulated emission. Main article: Matter wave. Main article: Bohr—Einstein debates. Main article: EPR paradox. Main article: Classical unified field theories.

Main article: Einstein's unsuccessful investigations. Main article: Einstein—de Haas effect. Main article: Einstein refrigerator. Main article: Albert Einstein in popular culture. Main article: Einstein's awards and honors. Einstein, Albert [Manuscript received: 16 December ].

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Written at Zurich, Switzerland. Annalen der Physik Berlin in German. Hoboken, NJ published 14 March Bibcode : AnP Einstein, Albert a [Manuscript received: 18 March ]. Written at Berne, Switzerland. Hoboken, NJ published 10 March Einstein, Albert b [Completed 30 April and submitted 20 July ].

Written at Berne, Switzerland, published by Wyss Buchdruckerei. Services Support Centre Contact Us. Group Tours. Independent Travel. Inbound Tour Operators. Outbound Tour Operators. Software for Tour Operators.

Consultancy When dealing with InsideTravel Technology you can be confident that you are working with a company that understands the challenges your business faces. In Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics. From he lived in the US, where he was held in esteem until his death at Princeton, New Jersey in , aged Skip to main content.

Google Tag Manager. The theory of relativity. Einstein's General Theory of Relativity was published on May 11th, Young Einstein: the physicist at work in the Swiss patent office,