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Then, a sex-averaged table was developed using the sex-averaging rule described in ICRP publication Fig. The notable changes are that upper large intestine and lower large intestine from the ICRP 30 model were replaced by right colon, left colon, and rectosigmoid colon. The ICRP model has variable transit times in the various segments of the model for different ages and sexes and for 4 distinct substances solids, caloric liquids, noncaloric liquids and total diet.

The dose estimate tables give male and female values for dose to approximately 25 target organs, as well as sex-averaged values for the 5 phantom ages considered 1-y-olds, 5-y-olds, y-olds, y-olds, and adults.

In a break with tradition in radiopharmaceutical dosimetry, individual organ doses are given in units of equivalent dose e. Effective doses, by definition obtained by applying individual tissue weighting factors, are expressed in the same units as equivalent dose. Sample dose estimate tables are shown in Tables 1 — 3. Unlike the Cristy—Eckerman phantoms, no breast tissue was assigned in children 10 y old or younger. Several new organs have been explicitly defined in the RADAR phantoms: esophagus, eyes, salivary glands, and prostate in the male phantoms.

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Several dose estimate compendia for radiopharmaceuticals have been published. The MIRD committee published 20 dose estimate reports over some 35 y; this is a small number, and many e.


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The broadest and most up-to-date compendium has been published by the ICRP task group on radiopharmaceuticals. These dose estimates, however, are based on the outdated Cristy—Eckerman phantoms of , which use the organ masses given in the ICRP report on reference man 7. The dose estimates given in this article are based on the new-generation, voxel-based realistic phantoms, which use the newest ICRP reference organ masses The ICRP group tried to use surrogate organs to estimate doses to some missing organs e.

The ICRP does have defined voxel-based adult male and female phantoms 30 but has developed no pediatric or pregnant female voxel-based phantoms. Even these 2 adult models are based on hand-drawn volumes of interest to define organs, with manual sculpting to match the ICRP 89 organ masses. Food and Drug Administration—approved software tool; the current version 2. This software tool facilitates the calculation of dose estimates given appropriate input data and generates tables of dose factors.

Its widespread use is evidenced in the vast majority of publications involving radiopharmaceutical dosimetry. Traditionally, a factor of 20 has been applied in radiation protection 4. Some radiobiologic evidence indicates that this value may be as low as 5 31 or even 1 Because radiation weighting factors have been applied, dose values for individual organs are not given in units mGy but in units of mSv as in ICRP publications in which radiation weighting factors are used.

Radiopharmaceutical clinical trials – dose is more than sieverts and becquerels

This article gives male and female dose estimates for only 5 ages: 1-y-olds, 5-y-olds, y-olds, y-olds, and adults. We decided to develop a separate publication on dose estimates for women in different stages of pregnancy. All dose estimates cited in this article represent population averages for a particular age and sex and should never be applied to an individual patient.

Doses are given for several radiopharmaceuticals that may be used in a therapeutic setting. The individual organ doses give population averages that may be useful for planning purposes. More detailed and patient-specific dosimetry and dose planning should be applied for therapeutic application of radionuclides.

The use of an electronic publishing approach permits the publication of this kind of voluminous information in mainstream journals, with the technical basis being presented in printed form in the journal and the many necessarily large data tables provided electronically. Importantly, this compendium is essentially a living document since the dose estimates can be easily updated as biokinetic models change or new radiopharmaeuticals are developed, without the need for paper publication.

Stabin 1 and Jeffry A. E-mail: michael. Previous Section Next Section. Computational Phantoms for Animals With the advent of micro-CT imaging devices for small animals, Segars and Tsui developed computational phantoms for a mouse and a rat from CT images Fig. Mouse and rat computational phantoms. ICRP human alimentary tract model. View this table: In this window In a new window. Previous Section.

Physical models and dose factors for use in internal dose assessment. Health Phys. CrossRef Medline Google Scholar. J Nucl Med. MIRD pamphlet no. International Commission on Radiological Protection. Limits for Intakes of Radionuclides by Workers. ICRP publication Google Scholar.

Occupational intakes of radionuclides: part 1—ICRP publication Ann ICRP. Report of the Task Group on Reference Man.

Radiopharmaceuticals | Introduction to Drug Evaluation and Dose Estimation | Taylor & Francis Group

ICRP Publication Cristy M , Eckerman K. Stabin MG. A model of the peritoneal cavity for use in internal dosimetry. A model of the prostate gland for use in internal dosimetry. Evolution and status of bone and marrow dose models. Cancer Biother Radiopharm. Stabin MG , Konijnenberg M. Re-evaluation of absorbed fractions for photons and electrons in small spheres. RADAR: the radiation dose assessment resource—an online source of dose information for nuclear medicine and occupational radiation safety [abstract].

Segars JP. Basic anatomical and physiological data for use in radiological protection reference values: ICRP publication Segars WP , Tsui B. RADAR realistic animal model series for dose assessment. Two realistic beagle models for dose assessment. Then, citing key research and practical examples, the author looks at how to run studies and employ estimation and evaluation methods that lead to the best multiple agents with the least amount of trial and error.

References

He discusses methods that will allow researchers to more rigorously:. Incorporating developments in nanotechnology and radiology, with the ultimate goal of achieving personalized patient-specific treatment, this book crosses disciplines to addresses a range of topics including:. As s a medical physicist, he is eminently qualified to bring unique insight into the discussion of radiopharmaceutical dosage rates and efficacy.

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