List of Questions with Timestamps: - Difference between the ego and the witness. Is consciousness a creation of the brain. If we are one consciousness, why do we react differently in different circumstances. How do I choose a guru? Is enlightenment possible without mantra diksha? How to practice non-injury but still protect ourself? List of Questions with Timestamps: - On Vedantic meditation. Her limbs are perfectly shaped, her shining black hair and moist pale skin glisten in the sunlight; the lines of her body evoke the fullness of her breasts and the lush softness of her lips, and when her sari occasionally drops away to reveal her hidden nakedness, even a distant observer pauses to marvel and reflect upon such spontaneous loveliness.
Like all daughters of India, however, her character and substance are profoundly ethnic and contextual. She is occasionally raped and to some extent always abused, at best becoming a concubine in some house of Western scholarship, at worst a whore in some brothel of ideology or of an insipid cross-cultural mysticism.
Her natural paradoxes then appear as an unintelligent fickleness; her simple elegance as simple-mindedness; her refreshing openness to varying perspectives as proof of her lack of originality; and effortless devotion as hopeless naivete. According to the exegesis scholar Robert Minor, the Gita is "probably the most translated of any Asian text", but many modern versions heavily reflect the views of the organization or person who does the translating and distribution.
In Minor's view, the Harvard scholar Franklin Edgerton's English translation and Richard Garbe's German translation are closer to the text than many others. The Gita has also been translated into European languages other than English. In , passages from the Gita were part of the first direct translation of Sanskrit into German, appearing in a book through which Friedrich Schlegel became known as the founder of Indian philology in Germany.
The Gita Press has published the Gita in multiple Indian languages. Raghava Iyengar translated the Gita into Tamil in sandam metre poetic form. Mother Geeta in the similar shloka form. The book is significant in that unlike other commentaries of the Bhagavad Gita , which focus on karma yoga , jnana yoga , and bhakti yoga in relation to the Gita, Yogananda's work stresses the training of one's mind, or raja yoga.
Popular lyricist and music composed Ravindra Jain has written the Hindi translation of Bhagwad Gita named Ravindra Gita  which is on the way for publishing. The textual development of the Bhagavad Gita has been researched, but the methods of this research have developed since its onset in the late 18th century. According to Adluri and Bagchee, 19th century German Indologists had an anti-Brahmanic stance,  due to their "Protestant suspicion of the Brahmans.
Bhagavad Gita integrates various schools of thought, notably Vedanta, Samkhya and Yoga, and other theistic ideas. It remains a popular text for commentators belonging to various philosophical schools. However, its composite nature also leads to varying interpretations of the text and historic scholars have written bhashya commentaries on it. According to Richard Davis, the Gita has attracted much scholarly interest in Indian history and some commentaries have survived in the Sanskrit language alone.
The Bhagavad Gita is referred to in the Brahma Sutras, and numerous scholars including Shankara , Bhaskara , Abhinavagupta of Shaivism tradition, Ramanuja and Madhvacharya wrote commentaries on it. He calls the Gita as "an epitome of the essentials of the whole Vedic teaching ".
Abhinavagupta was a theologian and philosopher of the Kashmir Shaivism Shiva tradition. The Gita text he commented on, is slightly different recension than the one of Adi Shankara. He interprets its teachings in the Shaiva Advaita monism tradition quite similar to Adi Shankara, but with the difference that he considers both soul and matter to be metaphysically real and eternal.
Their respective interpretations of jnana yoga are also somewhat different, and Abhinavagupta uses Atman, Brahman, Shiva, and Krishna interchangeably. Abhinavagupta's commentary is notable for its citations of more ancient scholars, in a style similar to Adi Shankara. However, the texts he quotes have not survived into the modern era. Ramanuja was a Hindu theologian, philosopher, and an exponent of the Sri Vaishnavism Vishnu tradition in 11th- and early 12th-century. Like his Vedanta peers, Ramanuja wrote a bhashya commentary on the Gita.
Madhva , a commentator of the Dvaita Vedanta school,  wrote a commentary on the Bhagavad Gita , which exemplifies the thinking of the "dualist" school Dvaita Vedanta. Madhva's commentary has attracted secondary works by pontiffs of the Dvaita Vedanta monasteries in Udupi such as Padmanabha Tirtha , Jayatirtha , and Raghavendra Tirtha. Vallabha the proponent of "Suddhadvaita" or pure non-dualism, wrote a commentary on the Gita, the "Sattvadipika". According to him, the true Self is the Supreme Brahman.
Bhakti is the most important means of attaining liberation. Barack Obama in during his U. With the translation and study of the Bhagavad Gita by Western scholars beginning in the early 18th century, the Bhagavad Gita gained a growing appreciation and popularity. At a time when Indian nationalists were seeking an indigenous basis for social and political action, Bhagavad Gita provided them with a rationale for their activism and fight against injustice.
The Bhagavad-Gita deals essentially with the spiritual foundation of human existence. It is a call of action to meet the obligations and duties of life; yet keeping in view the spiritual nature and grander purpose of the universe. Robert Oppenheimer , American physicist and director of the Manhattan Project , learned Sanskrit in and read the Bhagavad Gita in the original form, citing it later as one of the most influential books to shape his philosophy of life.
Oppenheimer later recalled that, while witnessing the explosion of the Trinity nuclear test , he thought of verses from the Bhagavad Gita XI,12 :. If the radiance of a thousand suns were to burst at once into the sky, that would be like the splendor of the mighty one We knew the world would not be the same. A few people laughed, a few people cried.
Most people were silent. I remembered the line from the Hindu scripture, the Bhagavad Gita ; Vishnu is trying to persuade the Prince that he should do his duty and, to impress him, takes on his multi-armed form and says, 'Now I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds.
Ralph Waldo Emerson, remarked the following after his first study of the Gita , and thereafter frequently quoted the text in his journals and letters, particularly the "work with inner renunciation" idea in his writings on man's quest for spiritual energy: . I owed — my friend and I owed — a magnificent day to the Bhagavad Geeta. It was the first of books; it was as if an empire spoke to us, nothing small or unworthy, but large, serene, consistent, the voice of an old intelligence which in another age and climate had pondered and thus disposed of the same questions which exercise us.
The Gita presents its teaching in the context of a war where the warrior Arjuna is in inner crisis about whether he should renounce and abandon the battlefield, or fight and kill. He is advised by Krishna to do his sva-dharma , a term that has been variously interpreted. According to the Indologist Paul Hacker, the contextual meaning in the Gita is the "dharma of a particular varna". To render it in English for non-Hindus for its better understanding, one must ask what is the sva-dharma for the non-Hindus? The Lord, states Chatterjee, created millions and millions of people, and he did not ordain dharma only for Indians [Hindus] and "make all the others dharma-less", for "are not the non-Hindus also his children"?
According to Chatterjee, the Krishna's religion of Gita is "not so narrow-minded".
The Gita has been cited and criticized as a Hindu text that supports varna-dharma and the caste system. Ambedkar , born in a Dalit family and the principal architect of the Constitution of India, criticized the text for its stance on caste and for "defending certain dogmas of religion on philosophical grounds". To Ambedkar, states Klausen, it is a text of "mostly barbaric, religious particularisms" offering "a defence of the kshatriya duty to make war and kill, the assertion that varna derives from birth rather than worth or aptitude, and the injunction to perform karma " neither perfunctorily nor egotistically.
Nadkarni and Zelliot present the opposite view, citing early Bhakti saints of the Krishna-tradition such as the 13th-century Dnyaneshwar. For Dnyaneshwar, people err when they see themselves distinct from each other and Krishna, and these distinctions vanish as soon as they accept, understand and enter with love unto Krishna.
According to Swami Vivekananda, sva-dharma in the Gita does not mean "caste duty", rather it means the duty that comes with one's life situation mother, father, husband, wife or profession soldier, judge, teacher, doctor. For Vivekananda, the Gita was an egalitarian scripture that rejected caste and other hierarchies because of its verses such as For seeing the Lord as the same everywhere present, he does not destroy the Self by the Self, and thus he goes to the highest goal. Aurobindo modernises the concept of dharma and svabhava by internalising it, away from the social order and its duties towards one's personal capacities, which leads to a radical individualism,  "finding the fulfilment of the purpose of existence in the individual alone.
Gandhi's view differed from Aurobindo's view. According to Jacqueline Hirst , the universalist neo-Hindu interpretations of dharma in the Gita is modernism, though any study of pre-modern distant foreign cultures is inherently subject to suspicions about "control of knowledge" and bias on the various sides. Krishna is presented as a teacher who "drives Arjuna and the reader beyond initial preconceptions". The Gita is a cohesively knit pedagogic text, not a list of norms. Novel interpretations of the Gita , along with apologetics on it, have been a part of the modern era revisionism and renewal movements within Hinduism.
Vivekananda's works contained numerous references to the Gita , such as his lectures on the four yogas — Bhakti, Jnana, Karma, and Raja. According to Ronald Neufeldt, it was the Theosophical Society that dedicated much attention and energy to the allegorical interpretation of the Gita , along with religious texts from around the world, after and given H. Blavatsky, Subba Rao and Anne Besant writings. These late 19th-century theosophical writings called the Gita as a "path of true spirituality" and "teaching nothing more than the basis of every system of philosophy and scientific endeavor", triumphing over other "Samkhya paths" of Hinduism that "have degenerated into superstition and demoralized India by leading people away from practical action".
In the Gita , Krishna persuades Arjuna to wage war where the enemy includes some of his own relatives and friends. In light of the Ahimsa non-violence teachings in Hindu scriptures, the Gita has been criticized as violating the Ahmisa value, or alternatively, as supporting political violence. During the freedom movement in India, Hindus considered active "burning and drowning of British goods" which technically illegal under the colonial laws, were viewed as a moral and just-war for the sake of liberty and righteous values of the type Gita discusses.
Mahatma Gandhi credited his commitment for ahimsa to the Gita. For Gandhi, the Gita is teaching that people should fight for justice and righteous values, that they should never meekly suffer injustice to avoid a war. According to the Indologist Ananya Vajpeyi, the Gita does not elaborate on the means or stages of war, nor on ahimsa , except for stating that " ahimsa is virtuous and characterizes an awakened, steadfast, ethical man" in verses such as Gandhian ahimsa is in fact "the essence of the entire Gita ", according to Vajpeyi.
Instead, it is teaching peace and discussing one's duty to examine what is right and then act with pure intentions, when one's faces difficult and repugnant choices. Philip Glass retold the story of Gandhi's early development as an activist in South Africa through the text of the Gita in the opera Satyagraha The entire libretto of the opera consists of sayings from the Gita sung in the original Sanskrit. In Douglas Cuomo's Arjuna's dilemma , the philosophical dilemma faced by Arjuna is dramatised in operatic form with a blend of Indian and Western music styles.
The Sanskrit film, Bhagavad Gita , directed by G. Steven Pressfield acknowledges that the Gita was his inspiration, the golfer character in his novel is Arjuna, the caddie is Krishna, states Rosen. The movie, however, uses the plot but glosses over the teachings unlike the novel. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A scripture of the Hindus in Sanskrit verses. For other uses, see Bhagavad Gita disambiguation. For other uses, see Gita disambiguation. Krishna and Arjuna at Kurukshetra , c.
Other scriptures. Bhagavad Gita Agamas. Ramayana Mahabharata. Shastras and sutras.
Chronology of Hindu texts. See also: Smarta Tradition. Face pages of chapters 1, 2 and 3 of historic Bhagavad Gita manuscripts. Top: Bengali script ; Bottom: Gurmukhi script.
Selfless service It is not those who lack energy nor those who refrain from action, but those who work without expecting reward who attain the goal of meditation, Theirs is true renunciation. Bhagavad Gita and related commentary literature exists in numerous Indian languages. Chapter 11 of the Gita refers to Krishna as Vishvarupa above. This is an idea found in the Rigveda. Main article: Karma yoga. Main article: Bhakti yoga.
How a Gita recitation sounds? Verse 2. On motives. On meditation. Main article: Jnana yoga. Main article: Dharma. Main article: Moksha. Cover pages of early Gita translations. Main article: Influence of Bhagavad Gita. The Indologist Franklin Edgerton was among the early scholars and a translator of the Gita who believed that the Gita was a later composition that was inserted into the epic, at a much later date, by a creative poet of great intellectual power intimately aware of emotional and spiritual aspects of human existence.
Further, he states that the Mahabharata has numerous such interpolations and inserting the Gita would not be unusual. This text, states Fitzgerald, must have been integral to the earliest version of the epic. Further, states Basham, the verses that discuss Gita's "motiveless action" doctrine was probably authored by someone else and these constitute the most important ethical teaching of the text. Fragments of this early text have survived into the modern era.
The Gita attempts to present a harmonious, universalist answer, state Deutsch and Dalvi. Bhagavad Gita is a part of this recollection.
Arjuna's chariot is the body. The blind king Dhritarashtra is the mind under the spell of ignorance, and his hundred sons are man's numerous evil tendencies. The battle, a perennial one, is between the power of good and the power of evil. The warrior who listens to the advice of the Lord speaking from within will triumph in this battle and attain the Highest Good.
That is a view which the general character and the actual language of the epic does not justify and, if pressed, would turn the straightforward philosophical language of the Gita into a constant, laborious and somewhat puerile mystification But there is this much of truth in the view, that the setting of the doctrine though not symbolical, is certainly typical.
Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. Tilak and Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi as notable commentators see: Gambhirananda , p. Tilak and Gandhi and their use to inspire the independence movement see: Sargeant , p. In the literature, the quote usually appears in the form shatterer of worlds, because this was the form in which it first appeared in print, in Time magazine on November 8, Robert Neil Minor ed.
Modern Indian Interpreters of the Bhagavad Gita. State University of New York Press. Nadkarni , pp. Robinson Jacob Neusner ed. Westminster John Knox Press. Retrieved 16 May Bhagavad-Gita: The Song of God. Signet Clasic. Peeters Publishers. Asian Humanities Press. The Essence of Bhagavad Gita. Academic Publishers. Understanding Asian Philosophy. Northwestern University Press. Gopinatha Rao Elements of Hindu Iconography.
Motilal Banarsidass. Robert L. Brown ed. Ganesh: Studies of an Asian God. Williams Handbook of Hindu Mythology.
Bhagavad Gita Chapter 2 by Sunandaji
Oxford University Press. Accomplishing all that would require a human who lived several thousand years, so scholars do place the story of his achievements as those of one man in the area of mythology. They refer to Vyasa as a mythical or symbolic author of the Mahabharata. Advaita Ashram. The Bhagavad Gita, Part 2. Harvard University Press. Fitzgerald Journal of the American Academy of Religion. The Origins and Development of Classical Hinduism.
Notes sur la Bhagavadgita. Librairie Orientaliste Paul Geuthner. Hinduism and the Religious Arts. Lochtefeld The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Volume 1.
Bhagavad Gita Chapter 2
The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc. Bloomsbury Publishing. Bhagavad Gita — The Song of God. New American Library. Cambridge University Press. Moral Passion and Christian Ethics. Philosophy East and West. University of Hawai'i Press. Framarin A descriptive catalogue of the Sanskrit manuscripts in the Adyar Library.
All purposes that are served by the small pond can at once be served by the great reservoirs of water. Similarly, all the purposes of the Vedas can be served to one who knows the purpose behind them. You have a right to perform your prescribed duty, but you are not entitled to the fruits of action. Never consider yourself to be the cause of the results of your activities, and never be attached to not doing your duty. Be steadfast in yoga, O Arjuna. Perform your duty and abandon all attachment to success or failure. Such evenness of mind is called yoga.
O Dhananjaya, rid yourself of all fruitive activities by devotional service, and surrender fully to that consciousness. Those who want to enjoy the fruits of their work are misers. A man engaged in devotional service rids himself of both good and bad actions even in this life. Therefore strive for yoga, O Arjuna, which is the art of all work. The wise, engaged in devotional service, take refuge in the Lord, and free themselves from the cycle of birth and death by renouncing the fruits of action in the material world.
In this way they can attain that state beyond all miseries. When your intelligence has passed out of the dense forest of delusion, you shall become indifferent to all that has been heard and all that is to be heard. When your mind is no longer disturbed by the flowery language of the Vedas, and when it remains fixed in the trance of self-realization, then you will have attained the Divine consciousness. Arjuna said: What are the symptoms of one whose consciousness is thus merged in Transcendence?
How does he speak, and what is his language? How does he sit, and how does he walk? The Blessed Lord said: O Partha, when a man gives up all varieties of sense desire which arise from mental concoction, and when his mind finds satisfaction in the self alone, then he is said to be in pure transcendental consciousness. One who is not disturbed in spite of the threefold miseries, who is not elated when there is happiness, and who is free from attachment, fear and anger, is called a sage of steady mind.
He who is without attachment, who does not rejoice when he obtains good, nor lament when he obtains evil, is firmly fixed in perfect knowledge. One who is able to withdraw his senses from sense objects, as the tortoise draws his limbs within the shell, is to be understood as truly situated in knowledge. The embodied soul may be restricted from sense enjoyment, though the taste for sense objects remains.
But, ceasing such engagements by experiencing a higher taste, he is fixed in consciousness. The senses are so strong and impetuous, O Arjuna, that they forcibly carry away the mind even of a man of discrimination who is endeavoring to control them. One who restrains his senses and fixes his consciousness upon Me is known as a man of steady intelligence.
While contemplating the objects of the senses, a person develops attachment for them, and from such attachment lust develops, and from lust anger arises. From anger, delusion arises, and from delusion bewilderment of memory. When memory is bewildered, intelligence is lost, and when intelligence is lost, one falls down again into the material pool. One who can control his senses by practicing the regulated principles of freedom can obtain the complete mercy of the Lord and thus become free from all attachment and aversion.
For one who is so situated in the Divine consciousness, the threefold miseries of material existence exist no longer; in such a happy state, one's intelligence soon becomes steady. One who is not in transcendental consciousness can have neither a controlled mind nor steady intelligence, without which there is no possibility of peace. And how can there be any happiness without peace? As a boat on the water is swept away by a strong wind, even one of the senses on which the mind focuses can carry away a man's intelligence.
Therefore, O mighty-armed, one whose senses are restrained from their objects is certainly of steady intelligence. What is night for all beings is the time of awakening for the self-controlled; and the time of awakening for all beings is night for the introspective sage. A person who is not disturbed by the incessant flow of desires—that enter like rivers into the ocean which is ever being filled but is always still—can alone achieve peace, and not the man who strives to satisfy such desires.
A person who has given up all desires for sense gratification, who lives free from desires, who has given up all sense of proprietorship and is devoid of false ego—he alone can attain real peace. That is the way of the spiritual and godly life, after attaining which a man is not bewildered. Being so situated, even at the hour of death, one can enter into the kingdom of God. We Respect Your Privacy! Copyright c by His Divine Grace A.
Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. Home Gallery. Observing the Armies on the Battlefield of Kuruksetra 2. Contents of the Gita Summarized 3. Karma-yoga 4. Transcendental Knowledge 5. Karma-yoga--Action in Krsna Consciousness 6. Sankhya-yoga 7. Knowledge of the Absolute 8. Attaining the Supreme 9. The Most Confidential Knowledge The Opulence of the Absolute The Universal Form Devotional Service Nature, the Enjoyer, and Consciousness The Yoga of the Supreme Person The Divine And Demoniac Natures The Divisions of Faith Conclusion--The Perfection of Renunciation.
Original Bhagavad-gita www. Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 2: Contents of the Gita Summarized In chapter two Arjuna accepts the position as a disciple of Lord Krishna after surrendering to Krishna he requests the Lord to instruct him in how to dispel his lamentation and grief. This chapter is a summary of the emtire Bhagavad-Gita. Many subjects are explained such as: karma yoga, jnana yoga, sankhya yoga, buddhi yoga and the atma which is the soul and the supersoul. Chapter 2, Verse 1 Sanjaya said: Seeing Arjuna full of compassion and very sorrowful, his eyes brimming with tears, Madhusudana, Krsna, spoke the following words.
Chapter 2, Verse 3 O son of Prtha, do not yield to this degrading impotence. Chapter 2, Verse 4 Arjuna said: O killer of Madhu [Krsna], how can I counterattack with arrows in battle men like Bhisma and Drona, who are worthy of my worship? Chapter 2, Verse 5 It is better to live in this world by begging than to live at the cost of the lives of great souls who are my teachers. Chapter 2, Verse 6 Nor do we know which is better—conquering them or being conquered by them. Chapter 2, Verse 7 Now I am confused about my duty and have lost all composure because of weakness.