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This module focuses on biases against social groups, which social psychologists sort into emotional prejudices , mental stereotypes , and behavioral discrimination. For example, sometimes people have a negative, emotional reaction to a social group prejudice without knowing even the most superficial reasons to dislike them stereotypes. Next, we will discuss late 20th century biases that affected our parents and still linger today.

However, as much as we now collectively believe this, not too far back in our history, this ideal of equality was an unpracticed sentiment. Of all the countries in the world, only a few have equality in their constitution, and those who do, originally defined it for a select group of people. At the time, old-fashioned biases were simple: people openly put down those not from their own group. So where did they get those ideas, assuming that most of them had never met anyone from Turkey? For example, organizations that preach contempt for other races and praise for their own is an example of a blatant bias.

And scarily, these blatant biases tend to run in packs: People who openly hate one outgroup also hate many others. To illustrate this pattern, we turn to two personality scales next. For example, someone high in SDO would likely be upset if someone from an outgroup moved into his or her neighborhood. For example, researchers have found that those who score higher on SDO are usually lower than average on tolerance, empathy, altruism, and community orientation. In general, those high in SDO have a strong belief in work ethic—that hard work always pays off and leisure is a waste of time.

People higher on SDO tend to choose and thrive in occupations that maintain existing group hierarchies police, prosecutors, business , compared to those lower in SDO, who tend to pick more equalizing occupations social work, public defense, psychology. The point is that SDO—a preference for inequality as normal and natural—also predicts endorsing the superiority of certain groups: men, native-born residents, heterosexuals, and believers in the dominant religion.

This means seeing women, minorities, homosexuals, and non-believers as inferior. Understandably, the first list of groups tend to score higher on SDO, while the second group tends to score lower. For example, the SDO gender difference men higher, women lower appears all over the world.

At its heart, SDO rests on a fundamental belief that the world is tough and competitive with only a limited number of resources. Thus, those high in SDO see groups as battling each other for these resources, with winners at the top of the social hierarchy and losers at the bottom see Table 1. That is, RWA endorses respect for obedience and authority in the service of group conformity Altemeyer, Those high in RWA may equally dislike the outgroup member moving into the neighborhood but for different reasons.

RWA respects group unity over individual preferences, wanting to maintain group values in the face of differing opinions. Despite its name, though, RWA is not necessarily limited to people on the right conservatives. Like SDO, there does appear to be an association between this personality scale i. Sam Sommers addresses this and related questions in his blog. Here is some similar analysis. Racial microaggressions - The article describes what is meant by a microaggression. Here is a blog entry responding to the article. Does inducing empathy towards minority groups reduce prejudice?

If the participant anticipates then interacting with a minority group member his dislike actually increases. If he anticipates interacting with an ingroup member then prejudice is reduced. A person of color on The Bachelor TV show? I played with my kids many years ago. A giant Confederate flag - The Sons of the Confederate Veterans plan to build and fly a large Confederate flag the length of a semi-trailer truck in Hillsborough County, Florida.

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Institutional racism in the U. Focusing on studies that span several decades, the brief demonstrates how research from the social and behavioral sciences serves as a resource to understand the relationship between race and the criminal justice system. In contrast to models which predict greater persuasive impact of members of ingroups, White participants were more convinced by persuasive appeals delivered by a Black interaction partner than by a White interaction partner. A bigot? School segregation - "Lost learning, forgotten promises" from the Center for American Progress examines the consequences of school segregation, the consequences of integration, and the current status of both.

The Wonderlic test, stereotype threat and the law - "The Wonderlic is a twelve-minute, fifty-question exam designed to assess aptitude for learning a job and adapting to solve problems. Sometimes it is viewed as an IQ test of prospective professional football players. This paper looks at whether stereotype threat is in play when players take the test, and it examines some of the legal implications of this process.

The European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia - "The primary task of the European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia EUMC is to provide the Community and its Member States with objective, reliable and comparable information and data on racism, xenophobia, islamophobia and anti-Semitism at the European level in order to help the EU and its Member States to establish measures or formulate courses actions against racism and xenophobia.

Ruling on segregation in prison - interesting story about the U. Facts on different U. It includes background readings on the origins and roles of race, a discussion guide, classroom activities check out "For Teachers" , and other resources. The book is designed to further one of the goals of the President's Initiative on Race: To educate Americans about the facts surrounding the issue of race in America. Whiteness Studies - some interesting articles and resources related to Whiteness Studies.

Segregation in U. Cities - Census Scope provides "charts, data, and rankings on segregation in cities and metropolitan areas" from the U. The Balch Institute for Ethnic Studies - claims to be "the nation's only museum, library, and archive dedicated to collecting and interpreting materials reflecting our nation's multicultural heritage". Mortgage Lending Discrimination - from the U. Black students with disabilities lose 77 more days to suspensions than their White counterparts. Why are Black students punished more often than White students?

Black soldiers are punished disproportionately in the U. But I think studies like this one give an even more revealing picture of what minorities face every day of their lives. You can certainly talk about the shootings in your class, but I think all our students should discuss this study to understand the causes and consequences of modern racism. Black girls, as young as five, are seen as less innocent than white girls - according to this study from Georgetown's Law Center on poverty and inequality.

Police: Blacks not wanted in suburban U. The story of Black, female scientists in the movie Hidden Figures. That is what this study found. Blacks don't believe we will ever have racial equality. Weapon bias shows up even when viewing a 5-year old.

Our Racist Heart? | Βιβλία Public

Two Americas - a cartoon. Bias against men with Black-sounding names - In this study men with Black-sounding names such as Jamal or DeShawn were expected to be physically larger, more violent, and more dangerous than men with more White-sounding names such as Wyatt, Garrett, or Connor. Which is the most educated group in America? See the interesting stats. Department of Justice recently released its report on the Ferguson, Missouri Police Department and its municipal court system. The second link is to the report itself.

LeBron James: Protecting his sons from police misconduct - Here's what he tells his sons. Black or African-American? Does it matter? Young Blacks 21 times more likely to be shot dead by cops than White youth Whites support harsher laws if think more Blacks in prison - "Informing the white public that the percentage of black Americans in prison is far greater than the percentage of white people behind bars may not spur support for reform.

Instead, it might actually generate support for the policies — such as stop-and-frisk and three-strikes laws — that created the situation. Anti-slavery collection - "The Antislavery Collection contains several hundred printed pamphlets and books pertaining to slavery and antislavery in New England, The holdings include speeches, sermons, proceedings and other publications of organizations such as the American Anti-Slavery Society and the American Colonization Society, and a small number of pro-slavery tracts.

Another segregated prom - Here is video of the prom. Simply adding his endorsement significantly changed support for the issue. South Africa has first Black "Idol" - Despite the fact that the majority of South Africa's population is Black, this is the first time in eight seasons that a Black contestant has won their version of American Idol. Read why. If you don't like Blacks, you don't like Obama's dog - Blog entry describes some interesting research that teased out racial animosity towards Barack Obama and how it affected attitudes towards other issues, including the President's dog.

It's got its own Wikipedia page. The campus Republicans, who expect to go forward with their 'Increase Diversity Bake Sale' on Tuesday, say the event is meant to mock an effort by the student government to drum up support for SB, a bill to let the University of California and the California State University consider ethnicity in student admissions. How much anti-White bias is there? Many more Blacks jailed proportionately in England and Wales than U.

Ethnic cleansing in America? Today, these communities remain virtually all white. Using the N-word and hate crimes - Very interesting article about the question of whether a white using the N-word toward a black is automatically the sign of racial animus. It begins with a very interesting court case on this subject.

Chris Rock's new documentary "Good Hair" - This looks to be a fascinating take on Black women and their pursuit of straight hair. This essay provides some good insights about it. Racial disparities in emergency room length of stay - "Sick or injured African-American patients wait about an hour longer than patients of other races before being transferred to an inpatient hospital bed following emergency room visits, according to a new national study published in the journal Academic Emergency Medicine.

A fascinating case of possible juror bias - Sam Sommers, in his always interesting blog, Science of Small Talk, relates a fascinating tale: "In November of , a Cape Cod jury returned a guilty verdict in the murder trial of Christopher McCowen. This was supposed to be the final chapter in a murder drama that had captured attention regionally and nationally. But within days of the verdict, three different jurors came forward with concerns about the jury's verdict as well as the process by which it was reached.

These concerns would serve as the impetus for an extraordinarily rare legal hearing in which the jurors from the case were called back to the courthouse more than one year after the verdict. One-by-one, they would take the stand and answer questions about what had transpired in the jury room. Specifically, the hearing examined whether particular jurors had made racially biased statements during deliberations, and, if they had, whether such statements had influenced the trial's outcome. Currently, there are three installments.

A fourth and final one is promised.

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  7. As you will read, Sam also appeared in court in this case as an expert witness. I love the first question he was asked as he describes it: "First question from Mr. O'Keefe during my cross-examination: "Doctor, do you mind if I ask you how old you are? Lots of possible uses for this well-told story in your course.

    Does living in a more "prejudiced" area correspond to a Black's wages? Blacks performed equally well on the test after the inauguration. Elimination of stereotype threat? The first link is to a New York Times article about the study. What does it mean to be "Black" today? Civil Rights Digital Library - This site from the University of Georgia Libraries provides a lot of articles, images, and videos from the civil rights era of the s and s.

    The Bubba effect - What percent of Americans will vote against Barack Obama just because of his race? Here are two interesting takes on that question. The first is a blog that also addresses some other interesting topics. Too black or not black enough? Kenya being redrawn by ethnicity - "Kenya used to be considered one of the most promising countries in Africa. Now it is in the throes of ethnically segregating itself.

    Ever since a deeply flawed election in December kicked off a wave of ethnic and political violence, hundreds of thousands of people have been violently driven from their homes and many are now resettling in ethnically homogenous zones. Even some of the packed slums in the capital, Nairobi, have split along ethnic lines. Many U. Whites associate Blacks with apes - A series of studies found "Americans subconsciously associate blacks with apes. Watson's racist comments - Nobel Laureate James Watson apparently made some comments suggesting that those of African descent are less intellectually endowed.

    For example, "In the newspaper interview, he said there was no reason to think that races which had grown up in separate geographical locations should have evolved identically. He went on to say that although he hoped everyone was equal, 'people who have to deal with black employees find this not true. When blacks observed subtle racism in the hiring process it later impaired their performance on a Stroop test, and more so than the observance of more blatant racism.

    Whites on the other hand were more impaired after observing the blatant racism. The effects of Brown vs. The first link above provides two sets of such images that have circulated quite widely. Includes some good possible rationale for the captions, including the rationale provided by the photographers. For example, low-socioeconomic names by the author's measure included ones that had certain prefixes e.

    Resources related to it, including slave narratives, can be found at this site. Race and Place - This project presents the history of racial segregation laws Jim Crow laws in Charlottesville, Virginia. The Legacy of Blackface - "In a two-part report for The Tavis Smiley Show, producer Roy Hurst explores the roots of blackface minstrelry, and how the legacy of the act still haunts some forms of black popular entertainment today. As part of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study, designed to document the natural history of the disease, these men were told that they were being treated for 'bad blood.

    As reported by the New York Times on 26 July , the Tuskegee Syphilis Study was revealed as 'the longest nontherapeutic experiment on human beings in medical history. Historic Places of the Civil Rights Movement - travel to 41 different historic sites to learn about the role of each in the movement.

    Heavier Asian-Americans are seen as more Americans - Apparently since the stereotypes are that Asians are thin and Americans are heavy then heavy Asian-Americans must be more American! Attractive girl mimed Olympics ceremony song - You may have heard about this -- the young girl who sang a song as part of the Olympics was not deemed attractive enough to be on display, so a more attractive girl replaced her on stage and mimed the song.

    Th e examined trends do not support popular claims that Asian Americans are enjoying unprecedented, collective or universal academic success in U. Attitudes between citizens of neighboring Asian countries - A survey from the Pew Research Center - "There is a good deal of dislike, if not outright hostility, in how the publics of major Asian countries view their neighbors. The deepest divides exist between traditional rivals - roughly seven-in-ten Japanese express an unfavorable view of China and an equal number of Chinese dislike Japan.

    Similarly, most Indians have an unfavorable view of Pakistan and most Pakistanis hold negative views about India. In addition to comparisons of characters by race and gender, this study takes a unique approach by comparing roles portrayed by monoracial versus multiracial APIA actors. Korematsu lost his landmark Supreme Court case in , but never his indignation and resolve.

    American Latino heritage - "Since the age of exploration, Latino peoples have played a profoundly important role in American history, contributing to and shaping the rich heritage of the United States in many ways for some years.

    How deeply rooted biases affect how police enforce the law

    Explore their stories and their legacy by visiting the units of the National Park System and places listed in the National Register of Historic Places, most of which are designated as National Historic Landmarks, throughout the nation featured in this itinerary. The increasing proportion of Latinos in the U. Immigration issue - Here's a lot of background information, polling data, etc.

    Pew Hispanic Center - The Center provides a large number of reports, surveys and links related to Hispanic life and impact in the U. India's first transgender TV host - "Her forthcoming show, called 'Yours, Rose,' will be a venue to debate all kinds of socially taboo topics. Widows in India flock to city to die - Sad story of how, "ostracized by society, thousands of India's widows flock to the holy city of Vrindavan waiting to die.

    Some Americans can distinguish between terrorists and Muslims - according to this study. Mapping Islamophobia - a fascinating site that maps out incidents of Islamophobia as well as incidents of Muslim-American communities countering Islamophobia. Islamophobia ingrained in U. Muslims are internalizing Islamophobia - according to this report from the Institute for Social Policy and Understanding.

    I'm waiting for a presidential candidate to suggest just building a wall around the city. Muslim parents worry about giving children Muslim-sounding names - I wonder how many non-Muslim, non-Arab American parents have named their child Muhammed? Illridewithyou - A very positive response to potential anti-Muslim reaction to the hostage situation in Australia -- non-Muslims tweeted messages under the hashtag "I'll ride with you" to indicate that Muslims should not be afraid to take public transportation. Muslims still aren't Americans - good essay describing a continuing strong bias against Muslims in the U.

    Double standard for Muslims in America? Silencing Muslims - A Muslim writer talks about his experiences. Police chiefs originally said the film, called The Third Jihad and promoting an image of American Muslims as radicalized, had been mistakenly screened 'a couple of times. Florida Family Association attacks Muslim TV show - Here is the website of the organization that is one of the primary instigators of the withdrawal of some advertisers from the TV show All-American Muslim.

    The site states, "The show profiles only Muslims that appear to be ordinary folks while excluding many Islamic believers whose agenda poses a clear and present danger to liberties and traditional values that the majority of Americans cherish. Not surprisingly, a lot of the press about his comments only provides certain snippets. It is always worthwhile to read or hear the entire conversation.

    So, the first link above is to a transcript of the entire segment. Are Williams' words bigoted? Here is an essay on the topic by Glenn Greenwald. Merkel: Multicultural society has failed - That is the German Chancellor claiming that attempts to build a multicultural society in Germany have not worked. French pass ban on facial veils - "The French Senate on Tuesday overwhelmingly passed a bill banning the burqa-style Islamic veil on public streets and other places, a measure that affects less than 2, women but that has been widely seen as a symbolic defense of French values.

    Is this pro-women or anti-women? As the jury was sworn in, one juror indicated he might believe a Muslim would more likely break the law under certain circumstances. Al-Turki's lawyer asked if he could probe further, but the judge said no. The jury convicted and Al-Turki was sentenced to 28 years in prison. Anti-mosque protests across the U. Americans prejudiced towards Muslims, Jews - "A poll about Americans' views on Islam concludes that the strongest predictor of prejudice against Muslims is whether a person holds similar feelings about Jews.

    Students sent home for wearing "Islam is of the devil" shirts - Read the story and watch some fascinating video of and year old students explaining why they wore the shirts to school. Rachel Ray a terrorist? Muslim integration - a series of seven papers addressing issues related to Muslim integration in Europe and the U.

    But how many of you have even heard of the comments made Fox's John Gibson? Why does one get enormous attention and the other get ignored? Talk amongst yourselves. Six Muslim clerics removed from plane - You probably heard about this one. Lots of good social psych elements involved. In fact, do you remember in grade school when the teacher would write "Happy Thanksgiving" or something on the board and then give you 30 minutes to come up with as many words out of those letters as you could?

    Well, give your students this story later in the semester and ask them to see how many concepts they can apply. Muslim civil rights in the U. Arabs in the United States - a report from the U. These scholars are members of the Study of Islam section at the American Academy of Religion, the largest international organization responsible for the academic study of religion. It will be monitoring faculty and academic institutions to see how they handle Middle Eastern and Islamic issues. It plans to do so because there is a problem.

    The "problem," according to this website is that "American scholars of the Middle East, to varying degrees, reject the views of most Americans and the enduring policies of the U. Here is a more detailed description of the results. Japanese-American internment - Another exhibit, "Exploring the Japanese American internment through film and the Internet," exploring Constitution" - excellent multimedia-rich site that explores the period of Japanese internment with images, music, text and first-person accounts - produced by Smithsonian, it contains over artifacts that can be browsed.

    Center for Jewish History - The Center provides a huge, digital collection of photos, manuscripts, oral histories, and more. Preventing genocide - The U. Memorial Holocaust Museum has put together a good set of resources on genocide including a description of countries that are at risk today.

    Violent neo-Nazi group - A report from the Anti-Defamation League: "Volksfront, a virulently racist and anti-Semitic group comprised mostly of neo-Nazi skinheads, is growing in prominence in the United States and internationally, with chapters in Canada, Spain, Australia Germany and Portugal. Holocaust Memorial Museum that tells the story of Jewish refugees who escaped with the help of a Dutch businessman and a Japanese diplomat. Kristallnacht exhibition - From the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, this online exhibition "Kristallnacht: The November pogroms" describes the destruction and intimidation from that "night of broken glass.

    The Holocaust Martyrs' Holocaust links - extensive set of links to Holocaust memorials, museums and other resources. Native women in America are 10 times more likely to be murdered. American Indians in Children's Literature - This is a blog that follows and comments on "indigenous peoples in children's and young adult books, the school curriculum, popular culture, and society.

    Here is an essay about it. Here is some video of an Aboriginal adult recalling his experience as a child. Native American mascots in schools and sports - Sam Sommers provides some good commentary on related events and research on the question of whether the use of Native American mascots is harmful or helpful. Native Americans' portrayal in the media - The Reading Red Report is a "content analysis of general-audience newspapers in circulation areas with high percentages of Native Americans.

    Famous Native American speech - This speech, delivered by Wampsutta in , apparently sparked the convening of the National Day of Mourning. Read about both here. Gender-based Prejudice. Saudi women defy driving ban - The first link is to the story about dozens of women defying the ban. Here is a Saudi activist's satirical song about the situation. Should adult males be allowed to sit next to unattended children on planes? Afghan school girls poisoned - "More than schoolgirls and three teachers have been poisoned in the second attack in as many months blamed on conservative radicals in the country's north, Afghan police and education officials said on Wednesday.

    The attack occurred in Takhar province where police said that radicals opposed to education of women and girls had used an unidentified toxic powder to contaminate the air in classrooms. Scores of students were left unconscious. Corrective rape - "A year-old who was stabbed to death in South Africa is the victim of "corrective rape," gay rights activists said Thursday, a crime where men attack lesbians in an attempt to reverse their sexual orientation. However, a quick glance at the cover reveals that their selections seem to be particularly homogenous: all of the picks are attractive, thin, white, and female.

    Why are there so few female chess champions? When players were unaware of the sex of opponent control condition , females played approximately as well as males. When the gender stereotype was activated experimental condition , women showed a drastic performance drop, but only when they were aware that they were playing against a male opponent. When they falsely believed to be playing against a woman, they performed as well as their male opponents. In addition, our findings suggest that women show lower chess-specific self-esteem and a weaker promotion focus, which are predictive of poorer chess performance.

    Women earn less than men - Here's the report from the American Association of University Women that has made the news in the U. It finds that "just one year out of college, women working full time already earn less than their male colleagues, even when they work in the same field. Ten years after graduation, the pay gap widens.

    Violence against girls - A report from the 51st U. Commission on the Status of Women -- it includes separate reports on violence against schoolgirls, violence against child domestic workers, and violence against girls in conflict with the law. Stereotype threat -- women and math -This press release describes some interesting research. Here are some materials related to the research.

    Barriers to women's advancement in the workplace - From Catalyst, here is the executive summary of "Different cultures, similar perceptions: Stereotyping of Western European business leaders," and the full report. One of these, a new University of Michigan study shows, is "face-ism"—a tendency to emphasize women's bodies rather than their faces. A focus on economic issues quantitatively illustrates how same-sex couples are discriminated against by not being allowed to access the benefits, protections, and responsibilities only granted through equal access to civil marriage.

    Consisting of a preamble and 30 articles, it defines what constitutes discrimination against women and sets up an agenda for national action to end such discrimination.

    An Exploration of Unconscious Prejudice in Everyday Life, 1st Edition

    Sexual Orientation-based Prejudice. Austria legalizes same-sex marriage - I guess since Australia just did, and Austria is next alphabetically…. The response to India's recriminalization of homosexual behavior - The first link is to the India court's ruling, and here is some response to it. Germany votes to legalize same-sex marriage. Court in Taiwan rules in favor of same-sex marriage - could be first such approval in Asia.

    Africa and homosexuality - Is Africa being "plunged" into a "new era of hate crimes," and is the Christian right playing a role in that? This article focuses on Uganda's anti-homosexuality bill and similar activity in other African countries. The first gay marriage in Latin America - "Two Argentinians will this week become the first gay couple in Latin America to get married, following a three-year campaign that pitted politician against politician, overturned laws and angered millions of Catholics.

    It is an unexpected move in a country that is still one of the most conservative in Europe and where homosexuality was illegal until After a long legal battle, the Arab island country of Bahrain finally recognized Rabie, 34, as a man. Rabie was born an intersexual, with anatomy that is characteristically both male and female. This link is to another recent example. Role models for coming out - good, brief essay about the value of role models to help teens deal with sexual identity.

    Sources of attitudes towards same-sex marriage. How is their world different? The father of "homophobia" - a brief essay about Dr. George Weinberg who coined the term "homophobia," and who recently died. How schools help promote anti-LGBT beliefs and attitudes. Apparently, the Orlando shooter's father said his son had recently been disgusted by seeing two men kissing. Here is an essay about how "two men kissing is still a stunning, terrifying sight.

    The myth of Black homophobia. The fascinating story of identical twins Diversity in human sexuality - The first link is to a "new report on sexual orientation from the Academy of Science of South Africa. It gets the important facts exactly right methinks. And it speaks to pertinent issues in African countries, and also to controversies here in the USA. Two women embracing on a train platform - This picture has gone viral with a very interesting take. APA says homosexuality is not abnormal - A good overview of recent U. Inclusion confusion - Different organizations include different groups and use different names.

    How does one decide what label s to use? Athletes are coming out - The first link is to article about Willamette's Connor Mertens coming out as bisexual. Here is an excellent commentary from a local news person about Sam's coming out. First openly gay athlete in a major U. Other retired players have come out before, but he is the first active player. In a male team sport, that is.

    Social Dominance Orientation

    Women have come out before, but that doesn't count. Interesting to see how stories like these were reported in the past. Homophobia Twitter tracker - Someone created software that tracks how often terms like "faggot," "dyke," and "so gay" are used on Twitter. The word "faggot" is used nearly one million times a month. Promulgating false information about gays - Among a few of Tennessee state senator Stacey Campfield's comments about gays: "Most people realize that AIDS came from the homosexual community — it was one guy screwing a monkey, if I recall correctly, and then having sex with men.

    It was an airline pilot, if I recall. Nurture allows what nature endows. And it's their nature, their truth! The two resumes were very similar in terms of the applicant's qualifications, but one resume for each opening mentioned that the applicant had been part of a gay organization in college. The results showed that applicants without the gay signal had an However, gay applicants had only a 7.

    That difference amounts to a 40 percent higher chance of the heterosexual applicant getting a call. Elmhurst College first in U. How many gays and lesbians are there? However, I would suggest there is an anchoring effect. The scale is skewed so much towards the higher responses that it is not surprising that participants apparently overestimated the number. More prejudice when gay men reveal orientation early in interaction - When males but not females heard a male in an interview reveal that he is gay early in a set of questions rather than later in the set of questions the male participant "reported more frustration at having to meet the man, more negative expectations for how the meeting would go, and more negative prejudice towards gay people generally.

    Here is a report describing reaction to his posts. Here is a video from Anderson Cooper's TV show in which he apparently gets the board member to resign.

    Here is a story about the ruling by a judge that the teen's rights were violated, but that the prom was still canceled. A re-test of the participants' attitudes towards homosexuality showed that those in the Alien-Nation group were more able to take the perspective of homosexuals, than were the control participants, and this in turn was associated with more empathy towards people who are homosexual, a greater tendency to think of homosexuals and heterosexuals as all belonging to the same category being human and ultimately to more positive attitudes towards people who are homosexual.

    The Alien condition participants' attitudes also remained more positive compared with controls at one week follow-up. Sex reassignment cases - The first transgender example: "Through reconstructive surgeries, electrolysis, laser procedures and voice lessons, Henry Joseph became Jennifer Elizabeth, known as Jenny.

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    She is a practicing family physician in Nashua, New Hampshire. But that ruling was overturned by the Georgia State Supreme Court. But there is no evidence that any member of the gay and lesbian community has engaged in inappropriate conduct in the presence of the children or that the children would be adversely affected by being exposed to members of that community, he said.

    The threat of gay marriage - View the anti-gay ad "The Gathering Storm" and read some analysis of it. Football soccer stars "to tackle homophobia with video" - If anyone in the UK ever sees this video I would love to hear about it. Or, if it ever appears online could you pass along the link? In all, 66 of the U.

    More than 70 U. Here is some discussion of whether or not there was a gay Bradley effect in the California Proposition 8 vote. Banning transgender discrimination - Michigan governor "adds gender identity to a list of other prohibited grounds for discrimination that includes religion, race, color, national origin, age, sex, sexual orientation, height, weight, marital status, politics, disability or genetic information. Here is a research article on the hair whorl.

    Here is an article looking at the genetic bases of homosexuality. Soy makes you gay! Read all about it. Male homosexuality tied to older brothers? Beyond Lisping - "The following article, written for a general audience, is about code switching, gay speech styles, and speech characteristics including lisping.

    Bullying - "From teasing to torment: New national report on school bullying" is a report from the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network. Same-sex marriage book - Very interesting story involving social psychologist David Myers' new book "What God has joined together? A Christian case for gay marriage," his college, Hope College, and a controversy at the school.

    Knowing Dave a little bit, I believe he brings the perfect character and temperament to step into such a minefield. I think his estimate of 10 years mentioned in the article is quite optimistic, but as one of the front people for making this argument he will definitely move the discussion forward in a productive manner. It will be interesting to follow the response to his book. Includes a timeline and other resources. Also included were American Samoa, Puerto Rico, and Tanzania -- cultures that have traditionally been thought of as fat-positive.

    People were asked if they agreed or disagreed with a series of statements about body size. Some statements were fat-negative 'Fat people are lazy' , others were fat-positive 'A big woman is a beautiful woman'. Weight discrimination - "Weight discrimination, especially against women, is increasing in U.

    Hiring obese applicants? Hunting and killing of albinos in Malawi in subsaharan Africa - Their bones are believed by some to have magical properties. Are the unemployed being discriminated against? A disability website - "Ouch! It has articles, blogs, a very busy messageboard and an award-winning downloadable radio show - The Ouch Podcast.

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    It's aimed at those with a stakehold in disability: family, friends, professionals and, rather importantly, disabled people themselves - without whom all this would be a bit meaningless. Here and here are more stories and experiences about the Act. The killing of albinos in Africa - A very disturbing story of how many albinos in Africa are being killed for their body parts to be sold to witch doctors because of their supposed special powers -- and I feel strange writing the word "albinos" to describe this group -- should it be capitalized? Is that an acceptable term to describe the group?

    Military develops new program to fight stigma of seeking psychological help - "'You're tough, and you go into the hospital when you receive a physical wound,' said Dr. Loree K. So why wouldn't you seek treatment when you've received a psychological wound? The stigma of mental illness - Article about a survey in Canada -- ""This year's report card shines a harsh, and frankly unflattering, light on the attitudes we Canadians have concerning mental health," said the group's president, Dr.

    Brian Day, in a release. Banning the feeding of the homeless - You heard me right. Discrimination against persons with disabilities - report from the U. Age-based Prejudice. The changing face of ageism - an excellent Observer article reviews the recent research on ageism. Stereotype threat for the elderly - Sam Sommers summarizes some interesting, research that found that year-olds only did worse than year-olds on a memory test when they were told it was a memory test rather than a test of language processing and verbal ability.

    Health and stereotypes of aging - "Young and middle-aged adults who endorse negative stereotypes about older people display high rates of strokes, heart attacks and other serious heart problems later in life, compared with aging peers who view the elderly in generally positive ways. More on singlism and the pressure to get married - Not in this article, but notice all the effort to get Susan Boyle hooked up? Ageism in America - This is a report from the International Longevity Center documenting and analyzing examples of discrimination based upon age.

    Will Starbucks racial bias training help? While the existence of such inequality will come as no surprise to many, the raw figures are startling and have already prompted wider media debate around the issue. Geoffrey Beattie, a one-time resident psychologist on the TV show Big Brother , and formerly Professor of Psychology at the University of Manchester, has written extensively on non-verbal communication, among other subjects. In Our Racist Heart? However, he expands the field to give a much broader account of the psychological processes which lie behind discriminatory practices more generally.

    The key argument is that, regardless of the liberal and open-minded attitudes we may consciously hold, we all have unconscious biases which can lead to prejudice in our interaction with other people. Beattie sets out the history of social psychological research on prejudice, before presenting some new experimental approaches designed to uncover the implicit preferences which underlie our everyday actions.

    Beattie has written extensively in the press, and in published memoirs, about his own life, including his post-war childhood in a Protestant working-class area of Belfast. Extracts from some of these earlier publications are reproduced in Part I of this book. The vividly descriptive narrative style and characterisation of this section will broaden the appeal of the book to general readers.

    In Part II Beattie delves further into the idea of an unconscious system of thinking and decision-making which operates independently of our conscious minds. He cites the work of pioneering social psychologists Leon Festinger, Gordon Allport, and Anthony Greenwald, who realised that people are often unwilling, for various reasons, to express their true feelings about people from other social groups.

    Many people recognise within themselves attitudes to race which make them very uncomfortable, even angry with their own feelings. Allport identified four strategies which people employ to deal with this sense of ambivalence: repression, denial, defence, and rationalisation, of which repression is the most common.