Manual Jacques Cartier: 1st Voyage (Jacques Cartier: Brave Explorers Every Child Should Know)

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Here is Cartier's literal description of " the great and very deep bay. The latitude too of " the great and very deepe gulfe" is said to be 48 30', which is that of the middle of Port au Port Bay. No action of Cartier, we think, bears truer witness to his stoutness of heart than his course at this particular point. For five weeks he had traversed the desolate coast of Labra- dor, meeting with nothing to inspire him with the hope of a successful issue of his mission.

Yet through storm and darkness he pressed bravely on, and launching out into the unknown waters, committed his frail vessels to the fury of the tempest. For a week they were at the mercy of the winds and waves, enveloped all the while in a thick mist, which prevented them from taking observations or as- certaining where they were. At length, on the 24th June, they caught sight of land which they named Cape St. John in honour of the day. Misled by Hakluyt who, following Ramusio, heads this portion of his narrative, " of the Hand called S.

Iohn, n some writers have supposed this cape to have been on 43 Prince Edward Island, but in the light of what follows,, nothing can be more clear than that Cape St. John is Cape Anguille in Newfoundland. Cartier tells us that he caught a glimpse of this ' Hand ' through darkness and fog He, then sailed west-north-west until he found himself seventeen and a half leagues distant therefrom. The two former relations are not infre- quently astray in their directions and distances about here. Then the wind turned and they were driven fifteen leagues to the south-east, where they came upon the Bird Rocks, two of which Cartier accurately describes, as being "as- steepe and upright as any wall.

Five leagues to the westward he came to a small island, upon which was conferred the name of Brion's Island, rille de Bryon, R. This name it still retains, though on many maps it is erron- eously spelt Byron. They sailed among the Magdalen Islands, which they found fertile and pleasant " one of their fields is more worth than all the New land. At Brion's Island they saw numbers of walruses, of which they appear to have had no previous knowledge. At this stage of the voyage, Cartier seems first to have surmised the fact of Newfoundland being an island, for he says : " As farre as I could gather and comprehend, I thinke that there be some passage betweene Newfoundland and Brions land.

The Ed. From this point until they reach Allezay we are in difficul- ties again. The account is certainly most perplexing. We, have to thank Mr. Ganong for the suggestion that the cape of red land is a point to the south of Entry Island, and also that the cape four leagues therefrom R. Upon these suppositions, the two small islands before one comes to the first cape, would probably be the Andromache rocks, and the view of the low lands would be between Grindstone and Allright Islands.

Allezay, de- scribed as being "very high and pointed," was, we think, Deadman's Island, which is represented on Bayfieid's charts just as Cartier describes it a sharp ridge, about feet high. De Costa appears to be of opinion that Allezay was on Prince Edward Island, which only shows that that gentleman can have bestowed very little attention upon the subject.

Prince Edward Island, as is well known, lies low ; North Cape and East Point, its two extremities, are neither of them much over twenty-five feet high, and to speak of any land on the north shore of that island as " being high and pointed" is simply absurd. The following is from Haklnyt, and we make the quotation at some length, because we give to it an interpretation dif- ferent from the one it generally bears : ' ' Wee sailed Westward, untill Tuesday morning at Sunne rising, being the last of the nioneth, without any sight or knowledge of any lande, except in the evening toward Sunne set, that wee discovered a lande which seemed to he two Hands, that were beyond us West south west, about nine or tenne leagues.

All the next day till the next morning at Sunne rising wee sailed Westward about fourtie leagues, and by the way we perceived that the land we had seene like Hands, was firrne land, lying South south east, and North north west to a very good Cape of land called Cape Orleans. Al the said land is low and plaine, and the fairest that may possibly be seene, full of goodly medowes and trees. True it is that we could finde no nai borough there, because it is all full of shelves and sands. We with our boats went on shore in many places, and among the rest wee entred into a goodly river, une belle ripuiere, R.

We had no other notice of the said wild men: for the wind came from the sea, and so beat us against the shore, that wee were constrained to retire ourselves with our boates to ward our ships. Lunarios Bay R. Sainct 46 Limaire and with our boats we went to the Cape toward the North, and found the shore so shallow, that for the space of a league from land there was but a fathome of water.

We hold, on the contrary, that the land which first appeared to him like two islands, was either the higher land in the interior of Piince Edward Island, which is seen by ships coming down from the Magdalen Islands a considerable time before the low lying coast comes into view ; or possibly two of the larger sandhills lying off Richmond Bay. We judge the River of Boats to have been Kildare River, 18 or it may have been the Narrows, which at that time probably flowed through the Sand Hills.

We entirely agree with Mr. Ganong in believing that Cartier could have had no knowledge of the fact of Prince Edward Island being an island, and that by the bay of St. Lunario he means Kouchibouguac bay extended indefinitely into the strait which separates the western portion of Prince Edward Island from New Brunswick. They consisted of stone axes, arrow heads, spear points, and the like. Coming into possession ot the writer's father, they were by him presented to the British Museum, or to some kindred institution in London.

We have frequently heard. The cape first sighted by him on that day was probably Point Sapin, and the one seven or eight leagues to the north-east, Cape Escuminac. The bay ' fashioned triangle-wise, very deep,' in respect of its exten- sion into the land was Miramichi bay.

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The description he gives of this bay seems to preclude any doubt upon this point. Crossing to the north side they entered St. Martin's creek la couche sainct Martin, R. The wide expanse of water sparkling in the sunshine the sloping shores, rich in the beauty of their summer garb the uplands clothed in the deep green of the primeval forest, -crowned towards the north and west by the, high hills, seem- ingly placed there by nature as if to shut out the fogs and storms of the northern coast from which they had just NOTE To be strictly accurate, therefore, it is necessary to -say that it was at the port of Brest now known under the nu.

The place within the limits of the Dominion first touched at by him was, in our opinion, at or near Kildare river'in Prince County, Prince Edward Island, three days before reaching Port Daniel namely on the 1st July by a happy coincidence the day on which, years afterwards, the Dominion of Canada was formed. Nor K have the colours of the picture faded with the lapse of time.

The noble prospect which gratified the St. Malo mariner and his companions remains to-day a source of delight to many who, like him, have come from far to dwell upon its loveliness. Near the spot where Cartier having explored the bay in his boats, and thus satisfied himself of the non existence of a passage such as he was in search of turned his boat's head in order to go back to his ships, is a tongue of land on which now stands the Inch Arran Hotel, where, in sum- mer, are gathered many visitors frorr- " the Countreys of Canada, Hochelaga, and Saguenay," who come down periodi- cally to breathe the fresh air, and bathe in the glorious blue water which rolls in almost to their feet.

Many are the changes which have taken place in the years that have elapsed since Jacques Cartier first looked out upon this beautiful bay, but among them, the frequenta- tion by the Canadian people of it as a summer resort cannot be enumerated, for its reputation as such was even then established. True, it may be, that the tourists differed as regards the objects of their visit from those of the present day, with whom freedom from the ordinary cares of life is the chief desideratum.

We gather also from the accounts we have of the sixteenth century visitors that bathing dresses were then unknown but let Cartier tell his own story. No one acquainted with the locality will fail to recognize in the following description, Tracadieche inlet, at Carleton, county of Bonaventure, P. We perceived that this people might very easily be converted to our Religion. They goe from place to place. They live onely with fishing. Charmed as he must have been with the baie des Chaleurs, Cartier did not suffer himself to overlook for a moment the supreme object of his voyage to find a north- west passage to the Indies.

Being convinced that there was no outlet to this bay, he hoisted sail and proceeded in a north-easterly direction along the coast, until he came to Perce, where, between White Head, called by him le cap de Pratto probably after Du Prat, the Chancellor of the French King and Bonaventure Island, he cast anchor for the night. The weather becoming bad again, they sought shelter in Gaspd Bay, where one of their ships lost an 4 50 anchor. The storm increasing in violence compelled them to go farther up the bay into a good harbour which they had discovered by means of their boats.

Here, in Gaspe Basin, they remained ten days. In this place they met with more Indians a band of some two hundred who were engaged in mackerel fishing. They had come from the interior, and differed both in appearance and language, so Cartier tells us, from any Indians he had yet seen agreeing, however, in two respects their lack of this world's goods, and their desire for commerce with white men. It is difficult, in view of the readiness with which all the Indians whom Cartier encountered came to his ships and mingled with the French, to avoid the conviction that they had seen and trafficked with white men before.

We do not put much faith in the tradition that, prior to the days of Cartier, the Spaniards had entered the baie des Chaleurs, and that finding neither gold nor silver, had exclaimed in their disappointment "Aca Nada"- "Nothing here" from which expression it is averred the word 'Canada' is derived. This story may or may not be true. We, however, have never seen a vestige of proof brought to support it, and are rather inclined to ascribe it to Spanish jealousy of French discovery.

But we think it not improbable that these savages had seen and traded with the Basque and Breton fishermen, whom we know to have frequented North American waters before the time of Cariier. From the sequel we learn that the Indians met with at Gaspe were of the same tribe as those whom the French found, the following year, at Stadacone. Their extreme poverty struck Cartier, who says of them " these men may very 51 well and truely be called Wilde, because there is no poorer people in the world, for I thinke all that they had together, besides their boates and nets was not worth five souce.

This agreement having been amicably come to, and solemnly ratified by a bounteous repast, the Indians were presented with a few trifles and dis- missed to their boats in high good humour, signifying that they would not meddle with the cross. On the 25th July Cartier departed from his anchorage in the Basin, and doubling Cape Gaspe caught sight of the south shore of the Island of Anticosti which, with the Gaspe coast, seemed as they looked westward to form a land-locked bay.

They therefore sailed east-north-east. On the 2yth they touched at a point to which thdy gave no name, but which was probably South Point on Anticosti Island. They then sailed eastward until they came to another cape where the land began to turn northward, according to Hakluyt the R. Lays R. It was probably Heath Point. Following the land northward and north-westward, they reached another cape which they called Cap de hftmorancy. Judging from this circum- stance we should say that Cap de Memorancy was Bear Head.

Sailing westward, on the Saturday following, being the ist of August, they sighted the Mingan mountains on the north shore of the St. For five days they kept along the Anticosti coast, greatly retarded by contrary winds and 58 currents. On one occasion they nearly grounded. At length, the tide leaguing iuelf with these adverse forces, the ships could make no- further progress. Landing ten or twelve men at North Point, this party made their way along the shore westward on foot, until finding the coast began to trend south-west, they returned to their ships, which they found to have been carried more than four leagues to lee- ward of the place where they had left them.

He certainly does not seem to have had any idea that he had almost circumnavigated an island. This much indeed he did know that, under more favourable conditions of wind and weather, a western course was still before him. But the season was advancing. Storms were gathering, and the question presented itself : should they proceed, or return to France, with the view of following up their discovery next year. If they pushed on, one thing was most prob" able they would have to winter amid snow and ice in a boundless wilderness.

They "had been now four months struggling with the winds and waves, and were ill prepared to withstand the rigours of a long cold season. Summoning his officers and men about him, Cartier discussed the situ- ation with them. After consultation they unanimously NOTE Perhaps no portion of Cartier's narrative is so perplexing as is that in which he records his course about the Island of Anticosti.

We know that after leaving Gasp6 he sailed east-noi th-east, and we find him on his homeward voyage off Natashquan Point, but the account of his course in the interval is most obscure. We can only say that we have given what seems to us to be the least unsatisfactory explanation of it, for which, in a measure, we are under obli- gations to Mr. Accordingly, they turned their vessels' prows homeward, first naming that part of the Gulf between the north- western portion of the Island of Anticosti and the mainland, l le destroy t Saint Pierre] and profiting by a fair wind, made rapid progress on their way, stopping at Natashquan Point at the solicitation of a band of Indians, whose chief, Thiennot, standing on the summit of the cliff, invited a friendly con- ference.

Cartier, always courteous, complied with his request, and further, immortalized the chief by giving his name to the cape, which it bears on some maps to this day. These Indians came to the ships as freely, says Cartier, "as if they had bene Frenchmen.

Impelled by strong westerly winds the ships were driven over to the coast of Newfoundland. Thence they crossed to the Labrador shore, arriving at Blanc Sablon on the Qth August, where they remained until after the i5th, when, having duly celebrated the festival of the Assumption of Our Blessed Lady, they departed for home, experiencing some rough weather by the way, and entered the port of St. Malo on the 5th of September. Discovery of Anticosti. Cordiality of reception by the Indians Visit to the town. HE expedition, while not directly successful as re- gards its primary object, was by no means barren of result, and gave promise of better things next year.

Cartier lost no time in laying a full report of his adventures before the King, who was greatly pleased therewith, as also were the high nobles of the Court, particularly the Vice- Admiral, Charles de Mouy, at whose humble request Car- tier was appointed Captain and Pilot General, and invested with large powers to pursue the discoveries upon which he 56 had, as yet, barely entered.

Francis, who now seems to have caught the full ardour of maritime adventure, caused three ships to be armed, equipped and provisioned for fifteen months. Malo," full com- mand of the expedition and clothed him with ample powers with the limitation that the voyage was to be one of fifteen months, he was given carte-blanche, both as re- gards the equipment of the vessels and the choice of his men, and was commanded to follow up and complete the discoveries of the previous voyage.

The date of the com- mission indicates the favourable impression which Cartier must have made upon the King, for on its receipt he had not been home two months from the first voyage. The preparations were made at St. Malo as before, and were completed about the middle of May, On the i6th of that month, being Whitsunday, each member of the expedition, by command of the Captain, devoutly confessed his sins, and having received the Holy Eucharist, entered the chancel of the cathedral church of St. See appendix D.

M lo in , in wiiich capacity he took an oath of fidelity to Francis I. This action is eminently characteristic of Jacques Cartier, the record of whose life is one long witness to his deeply religious spirit. Whatever he did, he always prefaced his action by an invocation of the Divine aid. Whatever of good befel him, he hastened to ascribe to the ' Giver of all good gifts. On the Wednesday following, being the igth May, the three vessels weighed anchor and departed on their course.

Malo, Cartier's brother-in- law, and for mate, Guillaume le Marie, also of St. It is in the British Museum The date is Karnusio's version in Italian and Hakluyt's in English are. These manuscripts while app;rently written by the same hand,. In this work we have closely adhered to the Brief Rec. The roll of seamen, or a portion of it, is preserved among the archives of St. Malo r see appendix E. On it are seventy-four names. Adding thereto the names of the three gentlemen we have given above, also that of Jehan Gouion, who accompanied the ex- pedition from Stadacone to Hochelaga, also the name of Philippes Rougemont who, we are told, died of scurvy during the winter of , and the names of the Indian interpreters, Taignoagny and Domagaya, who played such an important part in the expedition, we arrive at a total of eighty-one 24 names known to us of the persons 25 who sailed out of St.

Malo on the ipth May, The weather, favourable at the outset of the voyage, soon turned bad, and in mid-ocean, the ships, driven by tempes- tuous gales, lost sight of one another on the 25th June. On the yth July, the Grande Hermine which, owing probably to her superior size, seems to have fared better than the others, reached Funk Island, where they took on board a supply of birds.

Leaving next day, they proceeded to the NOTE We have given only those names mentioned in the Brief Recit. Ac- cording to the version of Jartier's voyages, published under the auspices of the L. R nor Hakluyt warrant this statement. This person is alluded to only once in the Brief Recit and in the following terms :'' Voyat ce, le ca,ppi- taine enuoya son serviteur uccompaigne de lehan poullet.

The Eli or ot the Society's publication has followed Lescarbot, who h is inserted this name in his version of Cartier's narrative. Again, the paper on Jacques Cartier in the Proceedings of the L. None of these persons, however, are mentioned in the B. R or in Hakluyt. De Goyelle i-s mentioned by Charlevoix. Shea's Edition Vol. We say persons, because Cartier himself tells us that when they were attacked by scurvy, his company numbered , and we know that did not include the interpreters who had destrted to Donnacona.

They then sailed in company along the coast west ward, noting among other places, Meccatina Islands, to which they gave the name of St. William Islands les ysles Said Guillaume, B. On the ist August they sought refuge in a haven which they named St. Nicholas, where they set up a cross and remained until the yth of the month.

This port was in all liklihood Pashasheebu Bay, and must not be confounded with the present harbour of St. Nicholas which lies several hundreds of miles farther on. Advancing westward, on the roth August they entered Pillage Bay, 26 to which they gave the name of St. Lawrence Bay la baye Sainct Laurens, B. Genevieve, and spent two days exploring among the Mingan Islands.

Called also la bate Sainte Genevidve. Plamondon, Missionary to Labrador, says : - "j'ai 6te frappe de la ressemblance de la baie Sainte-Genevidve avec la baie Saint-Laurent, decrite par Jacques Cartier. J'ai reconnu ia montagne faite comme un tas de Die : on la nomine auj urd'hui Tete de la perdrix. J'ai vu la grande lie comme un cap de terre qui s'avance plus hors que les autres.

One should have thought that the French would have hailed this announcement with joy, and would have lost no time in following up the great discovery they had made. But we see here a remarkable illustration of the tenacity with which all the navigators of that period clung to the idea of a north-west passage. The desire to find a water way north-west to the east, seemed to overshadow everything else, and this door which was now open to them led south- west and to fresh water, not north-west and to the sea.

Lawrence his gulfe, because he would know, if between the lands toward the North any passage might be discovered. After a few days NOTE According to Charlevoix, the old Indian name of this Island was Natiscotec. The name ' Anticosti ' seems to have been given by the English. The Montagnais Indians call it. Hakluyt eajs: "At the furthest bounds of these lowe lauds, thaifc 61 spent in a fruitless endeavour to find the mythical outlet to- the north-west, they abandoned the attempt, and returned to their ships at the Bay of Seven Islands where they were constrained by bad weather to remain until the 24th of the month, upon which day they proceeded on their way, cal- ling at the harbour of Bic, which Carder declares to be " of small accompt.

John the Baptist. On the ist of September they reached the Saguenay and entered within its gloomy portals. In this river they met with four boats full of Indians, apparently belonging to the same tribe as did the interpreters, for the latter having introduced, first themselves and afterwards the Frenchmen to the savages, explained matters at some length, and pre- sumably to the satisfaction of all parties. Emerging from the Saguenay on the following morning, the little fleet proceeded leisurely on its way, stopping over night at Hare Island so named on the return trip.

They were immensely taken with the white whales they saw dis- porting themselves in the St. Lawrence, of which Cartier gives rather a minute description, adding that " the people coiitaine about ten leagues, there is a river of fresh water, that with such swiftnesse runneth into the sea, that for the space of one league within it, the water is as fresh as any fount-line water.

Edward Cayley, B. The next day, being]the eve of the festival of the Nativity of Our Lady, 29 they departed on their course up the river, having first celebrated Divine Service "Apres auoir ouy la Messe"B. As this is generally supposed to have been the occasion of the celebration of the first Mass in Canada of which we have particular knowledge, it may be well that we should leave Cartier and his companions for a few moments in their sail towards the Island of Orleans, whilst we pursue the interesting enquiry as to when and by whom was the Holy Sacrifice first offered in our land.

Or, to put the same NOTE This was the 7th September, according to the present Roman Calendar, the festival of the Nativity of the B. If any did accompany him, then unquestionably the first Mass of which there is any record, said in that part of Canada which everyone has in mind when asking the question, was offered by one of them at Isle aux Coudres on Tuesday, the yth September, If we enlarge the meaning of the word Canada to its present signification, then, always assuming the presence of priests, the first Mass said on the mainland was celebrated at the port of Brest on the nth June of the preceding year.

Let us now devote ourselves for a short time to an examination of this interesting question. The chief reason for thinking that priests accompanied the expedition are 1. When the Indians at Stadacone' vainly endeavoured to dissuade Cartier from ascending the river to Hochelaga, they asked him, in reply to his statement that their god was a cheat, ' had he ' Cartier 'spoken with Jesus'?

To which he answered Vno, but that his Priests had, and that he had tolde them they should have faire weather. Without directly affirming the contrary, we submit that, like most questions, this one has two sides, and that it is one upon which it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to arrive at a definite conclusion for on the other hand it may be urged i. Cartier inferentially states that there were no priests with him.

When they had returned in safety from Hochelaga, they profited by the occasion to point out to the Indians that their god Cudragny was an impostor, and that when he pro- phesied the dire calamities which would befall them on the way to Hochelaga, he evidently knew nothing about it and then they went on to explain to them the Christian doctrine of the one true God, and told them how this great God had commanded all men to believe on him and be bap- tised.

Beyond the instances we have given, there is no allusion whatever to any minister of religion in Cartier's voyages, though the opportunities for mention are very many. When at Gaspe, on the occasion of the first voyage, they set up a cross and knelt around it, it was Cartier who ex- plained to the savages the import of the sacred sign. When they went up to Hochelaga, Cartier is careful to tell us who of the gentlemen accompanied him, but he makes no men- tion of any priest, though we think it in the last degree un- likely that, had there been priests in the expedition, he would have departed with half his force on this unknown and perilous journey, without one of them going with him.

When they reached Hochelaga, it was Cartier who collected the Indians around him, to listen to the Gospel which he read.

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When the ships' crews were attacked by scurvy at Stadacone and they had recourse to the Divine assistance, it was ' Our Captain" 1 who caused the statue to be set up and ordered the procession to be organized. The Brief Bec. Faillon infers from the fact of the, writer of the B. He thinks that Cartier judged the savages to be not properly disposed to receive the Sacra ment of Baptism, and that when he says "there was no one to teach them our beliefe and religion," he meant that there was no priest who understood the lan- guage of the Indians sufficiently well to impart instruction to them.

Nor is it reasonable to suppose that a man of such deeply religious feelings, as we know to have ani- mated Cartier, should never once have alluded in the most distant manner except to deny their presence to those who, if they had been in the company, must have been, in the dreary winter spent on the St. Charles, almost incessantly employed in ministering to the sick and dying, and in per- forming the last sad offices of religion over the bodies of their comrades.

We should surely have heard something of that heroism which so distinguishes the Catholic priest- hood on similar occasions something about the adminis- tration of the last Sacraments something of that solemn Requiem which the church is wont to sing over the bodies of those who die in her faith. There is not one syllable to be found of anything of the kind. How different from the subsequent relations of the explorers of New France, on every page of which does the priesthood stand forth, ever preaching the gospel, administering the Sacraments, tending the dying, caring for the dead.

Champlain distinctly says of the Recollets, who said Mass at Rivieres des Prairies on the 24th June, , that they were the first to celebrate Mass in this country. Champlain's words are " car c'estoient les premiers qui y ont celebr6 la Saincte Messe. At the foot of page 67 But, it may be asked, and with some reason, how is this negative view to be reconciled with the arguments brought for the presence of priests?

As regards the third in the order we have stated them, we think it has but little force. For it has never before been maintained that what we may term meteorological gifts are any part of the attributes of a Christian priest. When Cartier informed the savages that the ministers of Jesus had promised fair weather for the voyage to Hochelaga, we do not take it to imply that he sought for a moment to bring the priesthood into competition with the Indian bogey.

We think that in saying what he did, he either meant to silence the forebodings of the Indians, or had reference to the solemn benediction bestowed upon his company a short time before in the -Cathedral Church of St. The presence of the prefix ' Dom ' to two of the names on Carder's register is a more serious matter. We under- stand that this prefix is a distinguishing mark employed to indicate religious of the Benedictine and Carthusian orders, and its presence here is, we confess, something we cannot satisfactorily explain. The position of the names on the roll certainly does not lead one to suppose that they were those of the chaplains of the expedition.

Instead of being placed among those of the oflicers, at the head of the list, where one would naturally expect them to be, we find them far down on the roll the fifty-fourth and fifty- filth on a list of seventy-four, between a common seaman and one of the ship's carpenters. See appendix E. La messe dicte 6 celebree" Brief Rerit. We can only say that this is but a bald statement of the fact, unaccompanied by any reflections such as would naturally suggest themselves to a Christian reflections which, it seems to us, would certainly be present to Carder's mind on the occasion of his assisting at the first offering of the Holy Sacrifice in New France.

For in Carrier's estima- tion the Mass was a great action, the greatest action that could be on earth. That he who was always so careful to note the most trivial incident in any way associated with religion who was diligent in recording the raising of a wooden cross in telling us of its size and decorations in dwelling upon the attendant ceremonies and the effect produced on the savages thereby, should have passed over with the barest mention, the occasion of the first lifting up in Canada of the Divine Victim Himself, under the visible tokens which he has ordained, is a supposition which our mind finds it difficult to entertain.

We had rather believe that 'Dom' is a misrendering of the word in the original ; see appendix E. Faillon says that, such a practice was unknown in France among Catholics, yet we find Cartier himself, whose Catholicity no one will question, read- ing from the Gospel and Office Books of the Church, and offering public prayer at Hochelagu. Lescarbot did the same thing at Port Royal in , when the priests of the expedition had all succumbed to the scurvy.

It is true that there was a suspicion of his orthodoxy, but his comrades were Catholics and the expedition was a Catholic one. Speaking with some reserve we may say that the same thing is not unknown to-day in the remote arishes of Lower Canada, where Mass cannot be said regularly. We confess we cannot see anything uncatholic in the practice, but rather the reverse. That our conclusions are indeterminate we readily admit, but the fault lies with the historian who tells us in one breath that Mass was said, and in the next that he was un- accompanied by those who alone could have said it.

We shall be satisfied if we have succeeded in showing that 1'abbe Faillon and others are not justified in asserting that the question does not admit of doubt. To return to our friends Their devotions being ended, they continued their voyage till they came to the Island of Orleans, on the north side of which they cast anchor.

On going ashore they were met by many Indians, who at first fought shy, but upon the interpreters going forward and proclaiming themselves to be Taignoagny and Domag- aya, their fears were quieted, and they began to flock in numbers about the ships, bringing with them corn and fruits which must have been very acceptable to the voyagers. The next day, the Indian chief, whose name was Donna- cona, paid a visit of state to the ships, coining with twelve boats, from one of which, lying out in the stream, he made a long oration. The interpreters then replied, informing Donnacona of their adventures how they had been over 70 the big water and been well treated by the French.

This seems to have greatly gratified the old chief, who there- upon went on board the captain's ship, and made his ac- knowledgments according to the custom of the country. Notwithstanding the positive statement of Cartier that Stadacone was the abode of Donnacona "and of our two men we tooke in our first voyage," Mr.

Hawkins in his " Picture of Quebec," thinks it improbable that these inter- preters could have been personally known to the inhabi- tants of Stadacone on this occasion, and he conjectures that the names Taignoagny and Domagaya were not proper to these individuals prior to their meeting with Jacques Cartier at Gaspe', but rather had reference to their subse- quent adventures, and were intended to indicate a marvellous event in their lives, such for instance as one who had been to a foreign land, inhabited by white people, whence he had returned in safety.

It is, however, expressly laid down in Cartier's Relation that the Indians met with at Gaspe differed in every respect from. Lawrence during the fishing season. It is worthy of note too, that the recep- tion of the interpreters by the Saguenay Indians was not nearly so cordial as that which awaited them at the Island of Orleans. On the former occasion, one of the interpre- ters told the savages his name "and then took acquaintance of them, whereupon they came to us. But the meeting at the Island of Orleans a few days afterwards was of a different character, and the demonstrations of joy which there greeted them, to our mind indicate a previous fellow- ship.

We shall see how, a few days later, Donnacona presents Cartier with some children, one of whom Taig- noagny told the captain, after the ceremony, was his own brother. Of course Taignoagny might have been lying, for he afterwards developed into a thorough-paced rogue, or as Hakluyt puts it, 'a craftie knave,' and standing by itself, this circumstance would not be entitled to much weight, but taken in connection with subsequent events in which Taig- noagny and Domagaya played a leading part, it does seem to us that these men formerly had their abode at Stadacone, with whose people and surroundings they seemed perfectly familiar.

Jacque Cartier Explorers Canada

Cartier had not been many hours in this neighbourhood before he made up his mind that its natural advantages 72 were such as to render it the most acceptable spot he could select as the base of his operations. He therefore, after a short reconnoitre with his boats, determined upon bringing the ships from the lower end of the Island of Orleans to what is now the harbour of Quebec, which he named Holy Cross, saincte Croix, B. No one who knows the locality can wonder at the encomiums which Cartier bestowed upon this " goodly and pleasant sound," or at his appreciation of the noble view here presented to his gaze.

On the 1 6th of the month he caused his two largest ships to go up into the St. Charles, to which he extended the name already bestowed upon the basin, leaving FEmerillon out in the stream in order to be in readiness to proceed to Hochelaga. The spot where Cartier moored his vessels and where the fort was afterwards built, is generally believed to have been at the confluence of the little river Lairet with the St.

Charles, on the left bank of the former. Charles, was Stadacone, the residence of chief Donnacona and his 'Court,' which Cartier describes as being a place of some size, tolerably well built and provisioned. The surrounding country is stated to have been very fertile, and the savages were evidently not wholly ignorant of the art of cultivation, for while we are told that " they are men of no great labour," we are also informed that "they digge their grounds with certaine peeces of wood, as bigge as halfe a sword," and again, it is stated that " they pulled up the trees to till and labour the.

See appendix F. The exact situation of Stadacone is not known. It was certainly built on that portion ot the site of Quebec which faces the St. Charles, and was from half a league to a league distant from the point where the Lairet falls into that river M. Ferland thinks it probable that "Stadacone etait situe dans 1'espace compris entre la rue de la Fabrique et le cOteau de S;inte-Genevieve pres de la cote d'Abraham," and we have the highest possible opinion of the extent and accuracy of M.

Ferland's knowledge. The Indians, with the exception of Taignoagny and Dom- agaya, the former of whom especially from this time forth began to keep aloof from the French, manifested a lively interest in the bringing up and mooring of the ships, and on the following day Donnacona, attended by a retinue of five hundred persons, again visited Cartier, who received them with his habitual courtesy and presented them with some trifling gifts. On this occasion the interpreters who, from the moment of their arrival, had shown a disinclin- ation to accompany the French up to Hochelaga, informed Cartier that Donnacona was greatly grieved to hear of this intention on his part, and that he would not permit either of them to accompany the ships.

To which Cartier replied that he had been commanded by his King to undertake this journey, and that nothing should dissuade him from doing so. The Indians, greatly chagrined, left the ships, but returned next day bringing gifts, among which were included certain Indian children, whom Donnacona pre- sented to Cartier with much formality one of these being, as we have seen, Taignoagny's brother. The other was a niece of Donnacona. Thereupon a warm discussion arose between the two interpre- ters, by which the French saw that Taignoagny was traitor- ously inclined towards them.

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It is curious to note the strong disinclination the Indians showed to Cartier's proceeding farther on his way. The ostensible reasons which they urged against the journey were : 1. That the navigation was bad. That Hochelaga was a place of no importance. That the cold was so great there that, even if the French did survive the perils of the journey, they could not endure the climate. The real reason probably was a fear lest the white men might prefer the society at Hochelaga to theirs, and might not return in a hurry.

The Dawn of Canadian History: A Chronicle of Aboriginal Canada

We are strengthened in this opinion by the fact that their loudest protests against the visit to Hochelaga always occurred immediately after a distribution of presents, and were no doubt quickened by a fear lest there might not be enough of these to go round. Cartier complied and at a signal his artil- lery boomed forth, utterly confounding the affrighted savages who, thinking that the skies had fallen on them, led the Frenchmen in turn to fancy by their howlings that " Hell had broken loose. Law- rence.

When he arrived back in France, however, the minerals he brought were found to have no value. Cartier received no more royal commissions, and would remain at his estate in Saint-Malo for the rest of his life. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present. The story of North American exploration spans an entire millennium andinvolves a wide array of European powers and uniquely American characters.

Amerigo Vespucci was an Italian-born merchant and explorer who took part in early voyages to the New World on behalf of Spain around the late 15th century. By that time, the Vikings had established settlements in present-day North America as early as 1, A. The Northwest Passage is a famed sea route from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean through a group of sparsely populated Canadian islands known as the Arctic Archipelago. European explorers first began to search for the Northwest Passage in the fifteenth century, but Henry Hudson made his first voyage west from England in , when he was hired to find a shorter route to Asia from Europe through the Arctic Ocean.

After twice being turned back by ice, Hudson embarked on a third voyage—this time on behalf of the Dutch East India Company—in Though the exact details of his life and expeditions are the subject of debate, John Cabot or Giovanni Caboto, as he was known in Italian may have developed the idea of sailing westward to reach the riches of Asia while working for a Venetian merchant.

By the late s, he The explorer Christopher Columbus made four trips across the Atlantic Ocean from Spain: in , , and He was determined to find a direct water route west from Europe to Asia, but he never did. Instead, he accidentally stumbled upon the Americas. It is clear from his account that French and Portuguese fishermen had frequented these coasts for some time past.

It is altogether probable that western European fishermen had been fishing around Newfoundland well before even John Cabot's voyage of Cartier disliked the inhospitable look of the land on the south coast of Labrador and turned southward along the west coast of Newfoundland, crossed the Gulf of St. After exploring Anticosti Island in the St. Lawrence estuary but, because of bad weather, missing the St.

Almost at once he was recommissioned by Francis I for a more imposing expedition in , this time with three ships, including the Grande Hermine. Lawrence where he had left off the year before.


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Using information gained from natives, he went up the great river, nothing how the water turned gradually from salt to fresh, and arrived at the site of the Iroquois village of Stadacona modern Quebec City early in September Peter, and made the rest of his way to the native village of Hochelaga modern Montreal by longboat. From the top of this hill he could see the rapids, later to be called Lachine, that blocked further navigation westward.

Cartier spent the winter of back at Stadacona, where his men had built a primitive fort. It was a cold winter even by Canadian standards. From mid-November until mid-April Cartier's ships were icebound. Worse still was scurvy, brought on by absence of fresh fruit and vegetables-basically the lack of vitamin C. Of Cartier's men, only 10 were still well by February , and 25 men eventually died. The the native peoples had a remedy for scurvy which Cartier learned about just in time: an infusion made from the bark of white cedar which produced massive quantities of vitamin C and by which the men were quickly restored.