This tends to happen during colder months with the likelihood of floods happening in December. Acqua alta coincides with high tide and usually lasts a few hours. Pack waterproof shoes if visiting Venice in the winter, and pick-up dry route maps at tourist offices. Located 8 km 4. Treviso Airport is a relatively small airport that is becoming increasingly busy due to its popularity among discount airlines. On the mainland, this airport is about 31 km 19 mi from Venice. Note that it is very expensive to park your car at Piazzale Roma or Tronchetto.
It may be wise to park further away and use public transportation into Venice proper. Visiting Venice is now super easy when you book with Flixbus! Buy your Flixbus bus tickets ahead at unbeatable prices for fast and last minute travel. With connections in 28 European countries and over destinations , you can sit back and relax knowing that Flixbus will get you there in time. Discover the smartest and cheapest way to travel — book on Flixbus now and hit the road!
Built on an archipelago island chain , Venice is formed by canals in a shallow lagoon. This will save you a lot of money if you intend to use the vaporetto for more than three trips. There are other inclusive travel options like the Venice City Pass to be considered. Venice People Mover monorail is a wheelchair-accessible, cable-operated public transit system that connects Tronchetto island with Piazzale Roma. Gondola , a classical Venetian boat, is mostly used for scenic purposes rather than transportation.
These can be quite expensive to ride. Traghetto is a gondola service that locals use to cross the Grand Canal and is far cheaper than hiring a private gondola. Walking in Venice is the simplest means to get from point A to point B. However, it is easy to get lost in a maze of alleys even for those savvy navigators. Allot extra time if you need to be somewhere on a set schedule. Venezia Santa Lucia is on the west side of Venice. Venezia Mestre is on the mainland between the boroughs of Mestre and Marghera. Venice is well-connected with the domestic train network, including trains to Florence 1h53 , Milan 2h13 , Rome 3h33 , and Naples 4h In the event of an emergency dial to contact Carabinieri domestic policing duties or to contact the police.
The most prevalent crime against tourists, in most urban areas, is pickpocketing. Keep your valuables close and be aware of your surroundings. Areas such as Basilica di San Marco can get very crowded. Swimming in the waterways is strictly forbidden. Water in the canals maybe mixed with sewage— gross!
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Swimmers that are caught are heavily fined and can be banned from the town. Beware of acqua alta which results in heavy flooding on walkways. Street vendors may try to sell you counterfeit designer bags or belts. Buyers and sellers alike are subject to heavy fines when it comes to this knock-off couture. Get insurance! Even if you are only going on a short trip, you should always travel with insurance. Maybe you met an Italian friend, who has a friend with a place to crash in Venezia.
Venice is not exactly known for a cuisine of its own, but it is characterized by the seafood-rich lagoon it sits upon. One local trademark is cuttlefish and its ink, served in various manners. Enjoy a hearty, quality meal in a family-run Trattoria , a casual Italian eatery with low prices, to stay on a backpacker budget while learning about local culture from your server. Avoid eating near any major sights in Venezia, so as to dodge the insanely high coperto , a fee for sitting at a cafe or restaurant. Save money by standing! Ultimately, the easiest way to eat in Venice on a budget is to visit local produce and fish markets.
Walk around eating frittura mista , fried seafood mix, to eat like a local. Contrary to popular belief, supermarkets are available on the islands. For a full list and description of popular Italian dishes, checkout our Backpacking Italy Travel Guide. Popular drinks include Spritz Campari or Aperol mixed with Prosecco and seltzer , Veneto grappa , and Bellinis white peach juice mixed with Prosecco that were invented in Venice. Oh, and you would be silly to visit Venice and not indulge in gelato and tiramisu , just saying….
Producing more whites than reds, this region is home to Prosecco and Soave wines. In fact, wine gets its name ombra , meaning shade, for the act of hiding in the shade with a drink during lunch. Happy Hour is the way to drink in Venice, as the late night party scene is — not actually — all the rage. Prosecco goes down surprisingly easy and at little cost during happy hour.
Primarily, Campo Santa Margherita in the Dorsoduro district is where you can find good bars. Erbaria , on the West side of the Rialto Bridge, is the other area worth checking out for nightlife. Expect bars to be open until 2 am. Get your copy here. It is here that he becomes obsessed with a young boy and is drawn down a ruinous path before he succumbs to the plague.
Long term travel is awesome. Giving back is awesome too. Backpackers can spend long periods of time volunteering in an awesome place without spending any money. Meaningful life and travel experiences are rooted in stepping out of your comfort zone and into the world of a purposeful project. World Packers opens the doors for work opportunities in hostels, homestays, NGOs and eco-projects around the world. Traveling in Venice long-term? Keen to make some cash when you are not exploring the city? Teaching English online is a great way to earn a consistent income—from anywhere in the world with a good internet connection.
Check out this detailed article for everything you need to know to start teaching English online. In addition to giving you the qualifications to teach English online, TEFL courses open up a huge range of opportunities and you can find teaching work all over the world. To find out more about TEFL courses and how you can teach English around the world, read my in-depth report on teaching English abroad.
Whether you are keen to teach English online or looking to take your teaching game a step further by finding a job teaching English in a foreign country, getting your TEFL certificate is absolutely a step in the right direction. Mass-farming of cows etc leads to the rainforest being cut down — which is obviously a huge problem. Recently, my gear-venture, Active Roots has started to sell water bottles. Need more guidance? Some of the links in this post are affiliate links. Your support helps me keep the site going. If S2S predictions are to be used effectively, it is important that, along with science advances, an effort is made to develop, communicate and apply these forecasts appropriately.
In this study, the emerging operational S2S forecasts are presented to the wider weather and climate applications community by undertaking the first comprehensive review of sectoral applications of S2S predictions, including public health, disaster preparedness, water management, energy and agriculture. The value of applications-relevant S2S predictions is explored, and the opportunities and challenges facing their uptake are highlighted. While S2S forecasting is at a relatively early stage of development, it is concluded that it presents a significant new window of opportunity that can be explored for application-ready capabilities that could allow many sectors the opportunity to systematically plan on a new time horizon.
Environ Behav , 48 10 , Exposure to natural environments can have calming and stress-reducing effects on humans. Moreover, previous studies suggest that these benefits may be greater in areas with higher species richness. Our study took advantage of a "natural experiment" to examine people's behavioral, physiological, and psychological reactions to increases in levels of marine biota in a large aquarium exhibit during three stages of restocking: Unstocked, Partially stocked, and Fully stocked. We found that increased biota levels were associated with longer spontaneous viewing of the exhibit, greater reductions in heart rate, greater increases in self-reported mood, and higher interest.
We suggest that higher biota levels, even in managed settings, may be associated with important well-being and health benefits, particularly for individuals not able to access the natural analogues of managed environments. Here we provide findings of an international research project investigating the health and wellbeing impacts of policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in urban environments. The methodology involved modelling the impact of adopted urban climate-change mitigation transport, buildings and energy policy scenarios, usually for the year and comparing them with business as usual BAU scenarios where policies had not been adopted.
Carbon dioxide emissions, health impacting exposures air pollution, noise and physical activity , health cardiovascular, respiratory, cancer and leukaemia and wellbeing including noise related wellbeing, overall wellbeing, economic wellbeing and inequalities were modelled. The scenarios were developed from corresponding known levels in and pre-existing exposure response functions.
Additionally there were literature reviews, three longitudinal observational studies and two cross sectional surveys. Firstly introduction of electric cars may confer some small health benefits but it would be unwise for a city to invest in electric vehicles unless their power generation fuel mix generates fewer emissions than petrol and diesel. Second, adopting policies to reduce private car use may have benefits for carbon dioxide reduction and positive health impacts through reduced noise and increased physical activity.
Third, the benefits of carbon dioxide reduction from increasing housing efficiency are likely to be minor and co-benefits for health and wellbeing are dependent on good air exchange. Fourthly, although heating dwellings by in-home biomass burning may reduce carbon dioxide emissions, consequences for health and wellbeing were negative with the technology in use in the cities studied.
The health and wellbeing impacts varied and were often limited reflecting existing relatively high quality of life and environmental standards in most of the participating cities; the greatest potential for future health benefit occurs in less developed or developing countries. Recreational physical activity in natural environments and implications for health: a population based cross-sectional study in England.
Beyond greenspace: an ecological study of population general health and indicators of natural environment type and quality. Int J Health Geogr , 14 Abstract: Beyond greenspace: an ecological study of population general health and indicators of natural environment type and quality. Benefits potentially arise via several mechanisms including stress reduction, opportunity and motivation for physical activity, and reduced air pollution exposure. However, the evidence is mixed and sometimes inconclusive. One explanation may be that "greenspace" is typically treated as a homogenous environment type.
However, recent research has revealed that different types and qualities of natural environments may influence health and wellbeing to different extents. METHODS: This ecological study explores this issue further using data on land cover type, bird species richness, water quality and protected or designated status to create small-area environmental indicators across Great Britain. Models were adjusted for indicators of socio-economic deprivation and rurality, and also investigated effect modification by these contextual characteristics.
RESULTS: Positive associations were observed between good health prevalence and the density of the greenspace types, "broadleaf woodland", "arable and horticulture", "improved grassland", "saltwater" and "coastal", after adjusting for potential confounders. Inverse associations with bad health prevalence were observed for the same greenspace types, with the exception of "saltwater". Bird species richness an indicator of local biodiversity was only associated with good health prevalence.
Surface water quality, an indicator of general local environmental condition, was associated with good and bad health prevalence contrary to the manner expected, with poorer water quality associated with better population health. Opportunities exist to further integrate approaches from ecosystem services and public health perspectives to maximise opportunities to inform policies for health and environmental improvement and protection. Considerations for the development of shale gas in the United Kingdom.
Sci Total Environ , , Abstract: Considerations for the development of shale gas in the United Kingdom. The United States shale gas boom has precipitated global interest in the development of unconventional oil and gas resources.
Recently, government ministers in the United Kingdom started granting licenses that will enable companies to begin initial exploration for shale gas. Meanwhile, concern is increasing among the scientific community about the potential impacts of shale gas and other types of unconventional natural gas development UGD on human health and the environment.
Although significant data gaps remain, there has been a surge in the number of articles appearing in the scientific literature, nearly three-quarters of which has been published since the beginning of Here we explore these considerations and argue that shale gas development policies in the UK and elsewhere should be informed by empirical evidence generated on environmental, public health, and social risks. Additionally, policy decisions should take into account the measured effectiveness of harm reduction strategies as opposed to hypothetical scenarios and purported best practices that lack empirical support.
Environ Sci Technol , 49 14 , Healthy people with nature in mind. An up- stream solution, that of preventing climate change and associated adverse health effects, is a promising approach, which would create win-win-situations where both the environment and human health benefit. One such solution would be to apply methods of behaviour change to prompt pro-environmentalism, which in turn benefits health and wellbeing. A potential trigger for such automatic pro-environmental behaviour would be natural environments themselves.
Previous research has demonstrated that natural environments evoke specific psychological and physiological reactions, as demonstrated by self-reports, epidemiological studies, brain imaging techniques, and various biomarkers. This suggests that exposure to natural environments could have automatic behavioural effects, potentially in a pro-environmental direction, mediated by physiological reactions. Providing access and fostering exposure to natural environments could then serve as a public health tool, together with other measures, by mitigating climate change and achieving sustainable health in sustainable ecosystems.
However, before such actions are implemented basic research is required to elucidate the mechanisms involved, and applied investigations are needed to explore real world impacts and effect magnitudes. As environmental research is still not sufficiently integrated within medical or public health studies there is an urgent need to promote interdisciplinary methods and investigations in this critical field. Health risks posed by anthropogenic climate change are large, unevenly distributed, and unpredictable. To ameliorate negative impacts, pro-environmental behaviours should be fostered.
Potentially this could be achieved automatically through exposure to favourable natural environments, with an opportunity for cost-efficient nature-based solutions that provide benefits for both the environment and public health. Improving health and well-being independently of GDP: dividends of greener and prosocial economies.
Increases in gross domestic product GDP beyond a threshold of basic needs do not lead to further increases in well-being. An explanation is that material consumption MC also results in negative health externalities. We assess how these externalities influence six factors critical for well-being: i healthy food; ii active body; iii healthy mind; iv community links; v contact with nature; and vi attachment to possessions.
If environmentally sustainable consumption ESC were increasingly substituted for MC, thus improving well-being and stocks of natural and social capital, and sustainable behaviours involving non-material consumption SBs-NMC became more prevalent, then well-being would increase regardless of levels of GDP.
Public Health , , Full text. Thomas F, Depledge M The current study examined potential psycho-physiological benefits from exercising in simulated natural environments among a sample of post-menopausal women using a laboratory based protocol. Participants cycled on a stationary exercise bike for 15 min while facing either a blank wall Control or while watching one of three videos: Urban Grey , Countryside Green , Coast Blue.
Blood pressure, heart rate and affective responses were measured pre-post. Heart rate, affect, perceived exertion and time perception were also measured at 5, 10 and 15 min during exercise. Experience evaluation was measured at the end. Replicating most earlier findings, affective, but not physiological, outcomes were more positive for exercise in the simulated Green and, for the first time, Blue environment, compared to Control.
Moreover, only the simulated Blue environment was associated with shorter perceived exercise duration than Control and participants were most willing to repeat exercise in the Blue setting. The current research extended earlier work by exploring the effects of "blue exercise" and by using a demographic with relatively low average levels of physical activity. That this sample of postmenopausal women were most willing to repeat a bout of exercise in a simulated Blue environment may be important for physical activity promotion in this cohort.
Biodiversity, cultural pathways, and human health: a framework. Trends in Ecology and Evolution , 29 4 , Abstract: Biodiversity, cultural pathways, and human health: a framework. Direct contact with biodiversity is culturally important in a range of contexts. Many people even join conservation organisations to protect biodiversity that they will never encounter first-hand.
Despite this, we have little idea how biodiversity affects people's well-being and health through these cultural pathways. Human health is sensitive to apparently trivial psychological stimuli, negatively affected by the risk of environmental degradation, and positively affected by contact with natural spaces. This suggests that well-being and health should be affected by biodiversity change, but few studies have begun to explore these relationships. Here, we develop a framework for linking biodiversity change with human cultural values, well-being, and health.
We argue that better understanding these relations might be profoundly important for biodiversity conservation and public health. Coastal proximity and physical activity. Is the coast an underappreciated public health resource?. Preventive Medicine , 69 , Data mashups: potential contribution to decision support on climate change and health.
Abstract: Data mashups: potential contribution to decision support on climate change and health. Linking environmental, socioeconomic and health datasets provides new insights into the potential associations between climate change and human health and wellbeing, and underpins the development of decision support tools that will promote resilience to climate change, and thus enable more effective adaptation.
This paper outlines the challenges and opportunities presented by advances in data collection, storage, analysis, and access, particularly focusing on "data mashups". These data mashups are integrations of different types and sources of data, frequently using open application programming interfaces and data sources, to produce enriched results that were not necessarily the original reason for assembling the raw source data.
As an illustration of this potential, this paper describes a recently funded initiative to create such a facility in the UK for use in decision support around climate change and health, and provides examples of suitable sources of data and the purposes to which they can be directed, particularly for policy makers and public health decision makers. Do preferences for waterscapes persist in inclement weather conditions and extend to sub-aquatic scenes?. Landscape Research 39 , Exploring the potential of large vertebrates as early warning sentinels of threats to marine ecosystems, human health and wellbeing.
Marine Environmental Research , , Mar Environ Res , , Extended impacts of climate change on health and wellbeing. Environmental Science and Technology Washington , 48 2 , Monitoring the impacts of litter will be considered further in At that time, the strategy will be discussed in the context of the Mediterranean Sea, providing information on constraints, protocols, existing harm and research needed to support monitoring efforts. The definition of targets and acceptable levels of harm must take all factors into account, whether entanglement, ingestion, the transport and release of pollutants, the transport of alien species and socio-economic impacts.
It must also reflect on the practical deployment of "ingestion" measures The analysis of existing data will reveal the potential and suitability of some higher trophic level organisms fish, turtles, birds and mammals for monitoring the adverse effects of litter. Sea turtles appear to be useful indicator species, but the definition of an ecological quality objective is still needed, as well as research on alternative potential indicator species.
Marine Environmental Research. Oceans and Human Health: a rising tide of challenges and opportunities for Europe. Mar Environ Res , 99 , Abstract: Oceans and Human Health: a rising tide of challenges and opportunities for Europe. The European Marine Board recently published a position paper on linking oceans and human health as a strategic research priority for Europe. With this position paper as a reference, the March Cornwall Oceans and Human Health Workshop brought together key scientists, policy makers, funders, business, and non governmental organisations from Europe and the US to review the recent interdisciplinary and cutting edge research in oceans and human health specifically the growing evidence of the impacts of oceans and seas on human health and wellbeing and the effects of humans on the oceans.
These impacts are a complex mixture of negative influences e. Integrated approaches across disciplines, institutions, and nations in science and policy are needed to protect both the oceans and human health and wellbeing now and in the future. Reply to 'A note of caution about the excess winter deaths measure'. Nature Climate Change , 4 8.
The Lancet , , Trends in Ecology and Evolution , 28 1 , This paper presents the findings of our fourth annual horizon-scanning exercise, which aims to identify topics that increasingly may affect conservation of biological diversity. The 15 issues were identified via an iterative, transferable process by a team of professional horizon scanners, researchers, practitioners, and a journalist. The 15 topics include the commercial use of antimicrobial peptides, thorium-fuelled nuclear power, and undersea oil production.
Changing views of the interconnections between the oceans and human health in Europe.
Microb Ecol , 65 4 , Abstract: Changing views of the interconnections between the oceans and human health in Europe. Early steps in the emergence of the discipline of "Oceans and Human Health" are charted in the USA and discussed in relation to past and present marine environment and human health research activities in Europe.
Differences in terminology are considered, as well as differences in circumstances related to the various seas of Europe and the intensity of human coastal activity and impact. Opportunities to progress interdisciplinary research are described, and the value of horizon scanning for the early identification of emerging issues is highlighted.
The challenges facing researchers and policymakers addressing oceans and human health issues are outlined and some suggestions offered regarding how further progress in research and training into both the risks and benefits of Oceans and Human Health might be made on both sides of the Atlantic. Coastal proximity, health and well-being: Results from a longitudinal panel survey. Abstract: Coastal proximity, health and well-being: Results from a longitudinal panel survey. Abstract Analysis of English census data revealed a positive association between self-reported health and living near the coast.
However that analysis was based on cross-sectional data and was unable to control for potential selection effects e. In the current study we have used English panel data to explore the relationship between the proximity to the coast and indicators of generic and mental health for the same individuals over time. This allowed us to control for both time-invariant factors such as personality and compare the strength of any relationship to that of other relationships e.
In support of cross-sectional analysis, individuals reported significantly better general health and lower levels of mental distress when living nearer the coast, controlling for both individual e. No coastal effect on life satisfaction was found.
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Although individual level coastal proximity effects for general health and mental distress were small, their cumulative impact at the community level may be meaningful for policy makers. Feelings of restoration from recent nature visits. Journal of Environmental Psychology , 35 , Abstract: Feelings of restoration from recent nature visits. Exposure to natural environments can help restore depleted emotional and cognitive resources. However, investigation of the relative impacts of different natural environments among large samples is limited.
Using data from respondents drawn from Natural England's Monitoring Engagement with the Natural Environment survey , we investigated feelings of restoration calm, relaxed, revitalized and refreshed recalled by individuals after visits to different natural environments within the last week. Controlling for demographic and visit characteristics we found that of the broad environmental categories, coastal visits were associated with the most restoration and town and urban parks with the least.
Urban playing fields were associated with the least restoration. Restoration was positively associated with visit duration a potential dose-response effect , and visits with children were associated with less restoration than visits alone. There was little evidence that different activities e. The data may improve our understanding of the "cultural eco-system services" provided by different natural environments and help decision makers keen to invest scare resources in those environments most associated with psychological benefits. High urinary tungsten concentration is associated with stroke in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey PLoS One , 8 Abstract: High urinary tungsten concentration is associated with stroke in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Currently, the toxicology of tungsten is poorly understood, but mounting evidence suggests that both the elemental metal and its alloys have cytotoxic effects.
METHODS: We investigated associations using crude and adjusted logistic regression models in a cohort of adults years with reported stroke diagnoses and reported diagnoses of CVD. We also stratified our data to characterize associations in a subset of younger individuals years.
The association between tungsten and stroke in the young age category was still evident OR: 2. Individuals with higher urinary tungsten concentrations have double the odds of reported stroke. We hypothesize that the pathological pathway resulting from tungsten exposure may involve oxidative stress.
Mainstreaming carbon management in healthcare systems: a bottom-up modeling approach. Environ Sci Technol , 47 2 , Abstract: Mainstreaming carbon management in healthcare systems: a bottom-up modeling approach. Increasing greenhouse gas emissions threaten human health and the environment. In response, healthcare managers face significant challenges in balancing operational decisions about patient care with carbon mitigation targets.
We explore a bottom-up modeling framework to aid in the decision-making for both carbon and cost in healthcare, using data from a case study in Cornwall, UK. A model was built and run for secondary healthcare, specifically outpatient clinics, theater lists, beds, and diagnostic facilities. Five scenarios were tested: business-as-usual; service expansion; site closure; water temperature reduction; and theater optimization. We consider bottom-up models important tools in the process of estimating and modeling the carbon footprint of healthcare. For the carbon reduction targets of the healthcare sector to be met, the use of these bottom-up models in decision making and forward planning is pivotal.
The oceans and coastal seas provide mankind with many benefits including food for around a third of the global population, the air that we breathe and our climate system which enables habitation of much of the planet. However, the converse is that generation of natural events such as hurricanes, severe storms and tsunamis can have devastating impacts on coastal populations, while pollution of the seas by pathogens and toxic waste can cause illness and death in humans and animals.
Harmful effects from biogenic toxins produced by algal blooms HABs and from the pathogens associated with microbial pollution are also a health hazard in seafood and from direct contact with water. The overall global burden of human disease caused by sewage pollution of coastal waters has been estimated at 4 million lost person-years annually.
Finally, the impacts of all of these issues will be exacerbated by climate change. A holistic systems approach is needed. It must consider whole ecosystems, and their sustainability, such as integrated coastal zone management, is necessary to address the highly interconnected scientific challenges of increased human population pressure, pollution and over-exploitation of food and other resources as drivers of adverse ecological, social and economic impacts.
There is also an urgent and critical requirement for effective and integrated public health solutions to be developed through the formulation of politically and environmentally meaningful policies. Nevertheless, relevant key policy issues for governments worldwide include the reduction of the burden of disease including the early detection of emerging pathogens and other threats and improving the quality of the global environment.
Failure to effectively address these issues will impact adversely on efforts to alleviate poverty, sustain the availability of environmental goods and services and improve health and social and economic stability; and thus, will impinge on many policy decisions, both nationally and internationally. Knowledge exchange KE will be a key element of any ensuing research. KE will facilitate the integration of biological, medical, epidemiological, social and economic disciplines, as well as the emergence of synergies between seemingly unconnected areas of science and socio-economic issues, and will help to leverage knowledge transfer across the European Union EU and beyond.
An integrated interdisciplinary systems approach is an effective way to bring together the appropriate groups of scientists, social scientists, economists, industry and other stakeholders with the policy formulators in order to address the complexities of interfacial problems in the area of environment and human health. The Marine Board of the European Science Foundation Working Group on "Oceans and Human Health" has been charged with developing a position paper on this topic with a view to identifying the scientific, social and economic challenges and making recommendations to the EU on policy-relevant research and development activities in this arena.
This paper includes the background to health-related issues linked to the coastal environment and highlights the main arguments for an ecosystem-based whole systems approach. Paradigmatic approaches to studying environment and human health: Forgotten implications for interdisciplinary research. Environmental Science and Policy , 25 , Abstract: Paradigmatic approaches to studying environment and human health: Forgotten implications for interdisciplinary research. In this paper, we briefly review the role of interdisciplinary research, and emphasise that it is not only our discipline and methods, but our research paradigms, that shape the way that we work.
We summarise three key research paradigms — positivism, postpositivism and interpretivism — with an example of how each might approach a given environment-health research issue. We recognise that a comprehensive interrogation of research approaches and philosophies would require far greater length than is available in a journal paper. We summarise three key research paradigms - positivism, postpositivism and interpretivism - with an example of how each might approach a given environment-health research issue.
Plastic litter in the sea. Marine Environmental Research , 92 , Abstract: Plastic litter in the sea. On June a workshop at the University of Siena Italy was organized to review current knowledge and to clarify what is known, and what remains to be investigated, concerning plastic litter in the sea. Here we report a number of statements relevant to policymakers and scientists that was overwhelming agreement from the participants.
Many might view this as already providing sufficient grounds for policy action. At the very least, this early warning of the problems that lie ahead should be taken seriously, and serve as a stimulus for further research. Mar Environ Res , 92 , Potential changes in disease patterns and pharmaceutical use in response to climate change.
Abstract: Potential changes in disease patterns and pharmaceutical use in response to climate change. As climate change alters environmental conditions, the incidence and global patterns of human diseases are changing. These modifications to disease profiles and the effects upon human pharmaceutical usage are discussed.
Climate-related environmental changes are associated with a rise in the incidence of chronic diseases already prevalent in the Northern Hemisphere, for example, cardiovascular disease and mental illness, leading to greater use of associated heavily used Western medications. Sufferers of respiratory diseases may exhibit exacerbated symptoms due to altered environmental conditions e. Respiratory, water-borne, and food-borne toxicants and infections, including those that are vector borne, may become more common in Western countries, central and eastern Asia, and across North America.
As new disease threats emerge, substantially higher pharmaceutical use appears inevitable, especially of pharmaceuticals not commonly employed at present e. The use of medications for the treatment of general symptoms e. These developments need to be viewed in the context of other major environmental changes e. To identify, prevent, mitigate, and adapt to potential threats, one needs to be aware of the major factors underlying changes in the use of pharmaceuticals and their subsequent release, deliberately or unintentionally, into the environment.
This review explores the likely consequences of climate change upon the use of medical pharmaceuticals in the Northern Hemisphere. Would you be happier living in a greener urban area? Psychol Sci , 24 6 , Abstract: Would you be happier living in a greener urban area?
Urbanization is a potential threat to mental health and well-being. Cross-sectional evidence suggests that living closer to urban green spaces, such as parks, is associated with lower mental distress. However, earlier research was unable to control for time-invariant heterogeneity e. The current research advances the field by using panel data from over 10, individuals to explore the relation between urban green space and well-being indexed by ratings of life satisfaction and between urban green space and mental distress indexed by General Health Questionnaire scores for the same people over time.
Controlling for individual and regional covariates, we found that, on average, individuals have both lower mental distress and higher well-being when living in urban areas with more green space. Although effects at the individual level were small, the potential cumulative benefit at the community level highlights the importance of policies to protect and promote urban green spaces for well-being.
Trends in Ecology and Evolution , 27 1 , Our aim in conducting annual horizon scans is to identify issues that, although currently receiving little attention, may be of increasing importance to the conservation of biological diversity in the future. The 15 issues presented here were identified by a diverse team of 22 experts in horizon scanning, and conservation science and its application. Methods for identifying and refining issues were the same as in two previous annual scans and are widely transferable to other disciplines. The issues highlight potential changes in climate, technology and human behaviour.
Examples include warming of the deep sea, increased cultivation of perennial grains, burning of Arctic tundra, and the development of nuclear batteries and hydrokinetic in-stream turbines. Does living by the coast improve health and wellbeing?. Environmental Science and Policy. The Innovation Union: a perfect means to confused ends?.
Environmental Science and Policy , 16 , Abstract: The Innovation Union: a perfect means to confused ends? In this commentary we argue that innovation is a means, not an end in itself. Innovation is only desirable to the extent that it improves human health and well-being and contributes to environmental, social, and economic sustainability.
If innovation is merely focussed on bringing more products to markets and delivering economic growth in the short term, as is currently the trend in the European Union and many OECD countries, it is unclear how it differs from the dominant pre-crisis approach which, notwithstanding its positive effects on living standards, led to unsustainable resource use, crippling biodiversity loss, and increasing greenhouse gas emissions.
As the future European research, development and innovation policies are being defined, we should not miss an historic opportunity to concentrate on improving human health, well-being and quality of life, and to embark on a more ecologically, socially and economically sustainable path. Given the scale and irreversibility of our damaging effects on the environment and on the well-being of current and future generations, we call for these aspects to be urgently represented in European innovation discourses, policies, and actions.
Re-balancing market focussed innovation and socially meaningful and responsible innovation i. We then discuss the importance of curiosity-driven research and of environment and health research as drivers of socially meaningful innovation in all its forms. The role of large marine vertebrates in the assessment of the quality of pelagic marine ecosystems. Marine Environmental Research , 77 , Abstract: The role of large marine vertebrates in the assessment of the quality of pelagic marine ecosystems.
The Marine Strategy Framework Directive MSFD establishing a framework for community action in the field of marine environmental policy has been developed and is being implemented, with the objective to deliver "Good Environmental Status" by A pragmatic way forward has been achieved through the development of 11 "qualitative descriptors". Particular attention was paid to the qualitative descriptors 8 contaminants and pollution effects and 10 marine litter.
The specific remit was to discuss the potential use of large marine vertebrates from large pelagic fish, sea turtles, sea birds and cetaceans in determining the environmental status of pelagic marine ecosystems. During the workshop it emerged that large pelagic fish may be especially useful for monitoring short- to medium-term changes in pelagic ecosystems, while cetaceans provided a more integrated view over the long-term.
A theme that strongly emerged was the broad recognition that biomarkers offer real potential for the determination of good ecological status detecting the "undesirable biological effects" indicator for descriptor 8. Are interventions to reduce the impact of arsenic contamination of groundwater on human health in developing countries effective?
Environmental Evidence , 1 , Can natural and virtual environments be used to promote improved human health and wellbeing?. Environ Sci Technol , 45 11 , Abstract: Can natural and virtual environments be used to promote improved human health and wellbeing? Exposure of individuals to natural environments, such as forests and coastlines, can promote stress reduction and assist in mental recovery following intensive cognitive activities. Settings as simple as hospital window views onto garden-like scenes can also be influential in reducing patients' postoperative recovery periods and analgesic requirements.
This paper reviews the evidence supporting the exploitation of these restorative natural environments in future healthcare strategies. The paper also describes early research addressing the development of multisensory, computer-generated restorative environments for the benefit of patients with a variety of psychologically related conditions including depression, attention deficit disorder, pain, and sleep deficit , who may be unable to access and experience real natural environments, such as those in hospices, military rehabilitation centers, and long-term care facilities.
The Table of Contents art is a virtual reconstruction of Wembury Bay, in the southwest of the UK, based on imported Digital Terrain Elevation Data DTED to provide the topography and a high-resolution aerial image to provide a template for the location of 3D building and vegetation models, rock features, and pathways. The 3D environment is rendered using the Unity 3 Game Development Tool and includes spatial sound effects waves, wind, birdsong, etc.
The Village Church of St. Werburgh can also be seen in this image. Does participating in physical activity in outdoor natural environments have a greater effect on physical and mental wellbeing than physical activity? Environmental Science and Technology. Does participating in physical activity in outdoor natural environments have a greater effect on physical and mental wellbeing than physical activity indoors? Environ Sci Technol , 45 5 , Abstract: Does participating in physical activity in outdoor natural environments have a greater effect on physical and mental wellbeing than physical activity indoors?
Our objective was to compare the effects on mental and physical wellbeing, health related quality of life and long-term adherence to physical activity, of participation in physical activity in natural environments compared with physical activity indoors. Internet searches of relevant Web sites, hand searches of relevant journals, and the reference lists of included papers and other review papers identified in the search were also searched for relevant information.
Controlled trials randomized and nonrandomized were included. To be eligible trials had to compare the effects of outdoor exercise initiatives with those conducted indoors and report on at least one physical or mental wellbeing outcome in adults or children. Screening of articles for inclusion, data extraction, and quality appraisal were performed by one reviewer and checked by a second with discrepancies resolved by discussion with a third if necessary. Due to the heterogeneity of identified studies a narrative synthesis was performed.
Eleven trials adults were included. Most participants 6 trials; adults were young students. Study entry criteria and methods were sparsely reported. All interventions consisted of a single episode of walking or running indoors with the same activity at a similar level conducted outdoors on a separate occasion. Already a subscriber or registered access user? Subscription Notification. We have noticed that there is an issue with your subscription billing details.
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