Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Squashes and Their Relatives Cucurbits Cucurbita species are a collection of botanically related food crops that includes what are variously called squashes, pumpkins, vegetable marrows, and gourds. Among the first plants used by mankind, they have long been among the most widely distributed.
Most are extremely versatile, being used as fruits, vegetables, edible seeds, and oilseeds, as well as sources of fodder and fiber. Traditionally, cucurbits have been particularly important in the Americas. Together with corn and beans, they were a nutritional mainstay of pre-Columbian civilizations such as the Incas, Mayas, and Aztecs. Since Columbus' time, however, they have become popular throughout most of the world. Today, they are eaten by millions of people, but almost nowhere are they major crops. Moreover, for all their value to people, cucurbits are at least by comparison with the major grain crops much neglected by scientists.
This is unfortunate, because these plants, which typically are trailing vines with extensive roots and harsh often prickly leaves and stems, are well suited to the peasant or individual gardener. They have wide adaptability and are easily cultivated. Their needs are usually satisfied by moderate soil moisture, and once vigorous growth starts, they seldom need weeding. They are little bothered by insect pests or heat.
When judged by nutritional yield and labor required per hectare, they are among the most efficient of all crops. Fruits are the major cucurbit product. Immature fruits are eaten as green vegetables. Mature fruits are boiled or baked and are important sources of starchy and sugary foods.
The excellent keeping qualities of the ripe fruits of some species allows them to be stored for months- even years without special care. And, if cut in strips and dried in the sun or over coals, the flesh of others will also keep for years. Nutritionally, these fruits are excellent sources of vitamin A, vitamin C, iron, and potassium. They are low in sodium. In some species, the seeds are roasted and consumed as a snack and are often more prized than the flesh that surrounds them. The seeds can have protein and oil contents of percent.
Five richly Havored Andean cucurbits are discussed below. Its center of diversity lies in northern Argentina, Bolivia, southern Peru, and northern Chile, but by the s it had been spread northward throughout the warmer parts of the Inca realm. It is a winter-type4 squash and includes the table vegetable most often called "pumpkin," as well as many common vegetables called "squash.
Using this species, Chile and Peru have developed the most gigantic form of all commercial "pumpkins.
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This squash is noted for its rich diversity some authorities claim it has more forms than any other cultivated plant. In the main, the fruits are cylindrical, often bulbous, and have a central cavity filled with fibers and seeds. Some brightly colored, highly attractive varieties have become extremely popular specialty vegetables in the United States in recent years. This species Cucurbita moschata is apparently Mex- ican or Central American in origin. However, it must have been spread widely in prehistoric times because its center of diversity extends as 2 The common names of cucurbits are a muddle.
Names such as "pumpkin" and "squash" are used for different species in different countries. There are no internationally recognized common names for Cucurbita maxima, C. Popenoe far south as northern Colombia and Venezuela. Apparently, it was introduced to Peru as early as B. At the time of the Spanish colonization, the crookneck was abundant in northern South America and Central America. Highly esteemed varieties in the United States include such cultivars as Butternut and Cushaw. It is the chief canning "pumpkin" of the midwestern United States, eaten each year by millions of families in Thanksgiving pie.
It, too, is a winter-type squash. However, it is well adapted to the tropical lowlands where high temperatures and high humidity prevail. It is notably resistant to the pesky squash-vine borer.
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The seeds have a delightful, nutty flavor, and were probably the product for which this plant was initially domesticated. Early Florida settlers adopted it and called it the 'Seminole pumpkin. Indians in the Andes commonly grow this "import" from Mexico. In fact, this squash Cucurbita pcifolia'6 has become so popular in the Andes that it is grown more frequently there than in its native land.
So far, it is little known elsewhere. This species is another cool-climate but not frost-tolerant member of the genus Cucurbita and is the only perennial among commercial cucurbits. It is pest resistant and short-day flowering. In some places, the rampant, irrepressible vine runs wild, climbing trees and shrouding shrubs with its figlike leaves. Its elongated or globe-shaped fruits may weigh 11 kg even when not grown under forcing conditions and are white, green, or white and green striped.
It has white flesh and is the only squash with black seeds a white-seeded race also exists. The mature fruits are prized especially for desserts, usually cooked and served in sweet syrup. They are also fed to domestic animals horses, cattle, and sheep during the dry season. No fruit anywhere keeps as well as these. Mature, they are commonly stored kept dry, but without any other special care for two years, and yet their flesh remains fresh and actually gets sweeter with age.
They are eaten boiled or in preserves. Immature ones can pass for zucchini in looks and in recipes. Especially delicious and nutritious is a pudding made by simmering this squash with milk and cinnamon. The seeds are baked and eaten like peanuts and are greatly appre- ciated. They have an unusually high concentration of oleic acid, the prime ingredient in olive oil. Achocha9 Cyclanthera pedata is not a true squash, but it belongs to the same family, Cucurbitaceae. It, too, is common in the Andes. The fruits are small "gourds" cm long, with Hattened sides and soft spines.
Pale green with darker green veins, they have a spongy interior containing up to a dozen seeds. Some immature achochas look and taste like tiny cucumbers, for which they are fair substitutes in many culinary uses. They are never 6 This species is known by several names in the Andes for instance, zambo Ecuador , Vitoria Colombia , and lacayote Peru.
In the Andes it is also widely called "caihua. Vietmeyer crunchy, however. The prisoner was issued two sheets, but when she spread one sheet across the front of the bars to block out the video camera, the second sheet was taken away from her. When she wanted to take a shower, she had to call the guard to turn on the water; there was no shower curtain, and the video system covered the shower area.
Carrito de compra
The night jailer was Clarence Alligood, formerly a farmer and truck driver. He was 62 years old, 5 feet 8 inches and pounds. The Alligood family is one of the oldest in Beaufort County. Four Alligood brothers came here in the eighteenhundreds and spread their seed so broadly that there are Alligoods throughout the region who are related only in the most distant way.
Alligood at the Goodyear Tire garage. In the 81 days of their acquaintance, the jailer did the inmate a number of favors. He would bring her sandwiches late at night, and he would let her use the telephone in his office at odd hours. And in the early hours of the 82d day he was dead. In the week Joan Little was at large, it was generally believed in the black community that if she was found, she would be killed.
Sheriff Davis claims credit for averting the application of the outlaw statute. As for Joan, according to those who have taken up her cause, she hid in fear of her life when she heard that Alligood, who was still alive when she escaped from the jail, had succumbed to his wounds.
Joan Little's nightgown lay on the floor, her brassiere hung from the cell door. Under the body was a torn woman's kerchief. The Beaufort County medical examiner, Dr. Harry M. Carpenter, whose autopsy showed that the fatal wound was in Alligood's heart, identified sperm on the jailer's leg. The medical examiner was willing to appear before the grand jury to elaborate on this evidence of sexual activity just before the killing, but the jurors declined to call him.
Her attorneys said she would state that the slaying was in selfdefense. W ashington, N. Its streets are clean and newly adorned with shrubbery and seats for the hot summer days. It's a friendly little town, if it has no reason to be otherwise. The Chamber of Commerce puts out an attractive pamphlet with a picture of the new waterfront park that has replaced a row of sagging warehouses, and toward the back of the booklet are detachable applications for industries interested in locating in Beaufort County.
We like to live and let live. First, there was shock and confusion. Then, as various forces began to coalesce around the case, Little Washington grew alarmed.
When Judge Larkins ordered integration I was madder than hell, like a lot of people. I didn't wish him any harm, but if Judge Larkins had gotten in an accident and left this earth, I wouldn't have cried. We white people didn't like it. We were sitting here thinking we were offering equal education, but we weren't. We've had less trouble now than when we were totally segregated.
That's because we had good leadership, and we've got dad burn good young people. Stout and courteous and outgoing, his tie loosened as he goes about the daily affairs of his wholesale hardware business, Mayor Max Roebuck seems completely sincere as he offers that assessment of the school desegregation order issued by Judge John D. Larkins Jr. This is an opportunity for them. I don't like it, but they'd be foolish not to take advantage of it. The Sept. When the march was called, a group in Wilmington, N.
The group never showed up.
The sheriff likes to point out that he received 90 per cent of the black vote in his recent election, and that two of the three people he has hired are black, including Beaufort County's only black field deputy. I don't really care how much they write about the story, but I am distressed when a writer comes to town with his story all written, and all he wants from us is a dateline, a few names to tag to his badgrammar quotes, and a picture or two of our slums. Louis Randolph is an undertaker and the only black on the City Council, elected to that post in December, , with more votes than any other candidate, including Mayor Roebuck.
It's progressed as much as any small Southern town around. There was a time when blacks could only work in the saw mills, on the farms, or in the kitchen. But the area has industrialized, and over 50 per cent of the workers in most industries are black. We've got people in supervisory positions, and we've got tellers in all the banks. We've got black policemen. And there has been a slumclearance program cited for superior achievement by the Department of Housing and Urban Development in Washington, D.
Yet the color line still cuts Little Washington in half. We've got to see to it that things are right in our own town. The point is that Joan Little is here. During intermission at a dance, the lights would be turned down and young men would march in carrying flaming torches. If the white woman was idealized, the black woman was sensualized. In relations with Negro women, the psychic strain may be less. If this theory holds, then Joan Little in the Beaufort County jail, late at night, as the only female prisoner, is the epitome of the unprotected woman.
It's completely accepted. And so, for many of the whites in Washington, N. Didn't she work at that discotheque in Jacksonville? She'd lost that years ago. The traditional white perception of black morals is at work.
Inn at Little Washington
They ain't no nigger gal that's pure after she's reached fo'teen years ol. Not everyone in the white community sees it quite that way, of course, particularly among the women. In the Cinderella Beauty Salon and the Adams Soda Shop, when the women talk about it, there is no disagreement in the abstract that any woman is justified in defending herself against an attacker any way she can including a black girl suppasedly incapable of being raped? Golden Frinks, 55, is an organizer for the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in eastern North Carolina, a section of the state that is distinctly more conservative than the central piedmont section with its universities and urban centers.
Frinks speaks proudly of his arrests and 71 terms in jail since the early nineteensixties. With black power you raise that fist, open it up, and there's nothing inside. With green power, you open the fist, and you've got something. Frinks and the S. But the Joan Little movement has slipped away from his control.