Likewise Revolution should never allow itself to become institutionalized in a new order. Criticism and satire are not effective in themselves, he added. They change nothing. Power will not yield to truth, but only to the pressure that will follow widespread recognition of the truth. Nothing on earth is greater than the German name. This was obviously a way of making her opposition to anti-Semitism public. In he was found dead, along with his latest mistress, a girl of seventeen, at Mayerling, his hunting lodge.
What actually happened at Mayerling is still the subject of much speculation and many books. He, however, renounced his succession rights in favor of his son, Franz Ferdinand, who was assassinated in at Sarajevo. According to the economic line of thought he inspired, everyone owns the product of his or her labour, but everything found in nature, above all land, belongs equally to all humanity. George supported state ownership of telegraphic communications and municipal ownership of the water supply. He was strongly opposed to private monopolies. His most famous work, Progress and Poverty , deals with inequality and the cyclic nature of industrial economies and proposes possible remedies.
A well known speaker and public figure, George ran for Mayor of New York City in and came in second, ahead of the Republican candidate, Theodore Roosevelt. Stirner is usually seen as one of the founders of anarchism. He was also an influence on modern existentialism. His writing style and mode of argumentation were distinctive and disconcerting. He relied a good deal on word play and on exploiting words with related etymologies, since he claimed that language and rationality are themselves products of human culture that have come to constrain and oppress their creators.
Der Einzige und sein Eigentum ; English transl. The Ego and Its Own, was the most important statement of his radical philosophical views. He resigned two years later, however, because of disagreements with the administration. After three years as an untenured professor of art history at Heidelberg, he was appointed to the Chair of Art History in This brought him into close contact with the Wagner family and the Wagnerites. He emphasized instead the continued importance of Christian values and ideas.
This did not prevent Thode from living a high-profile social life. He and Daniela ultimately moved to a villa on the Lago di Garda in Italy where they maintained a lavish lifestyle. Between the late s and the s he wrote both the music and the libretti for over a dozen operas, none of them much performed now, though several have been recorded. He also wrote orchestral works and Lieder. He made his debut at Bayreuth as assistant conductor in , became associate conductor two years later, and in succeeded his mother as Artistic Director of the Festival.
This did not, of course, prevent the use of an occasional Jewish singer or musician when the success of the performances required it. The oldest son, referred to here as a Fascist in the late s, was Manfredi — It so alarmed the British, however, who read it as a challenge to their naval power, while at the same time alienating the French, that it had the effect of cementing the Entente between Britain and France against Germany. Abdul Aziz, whose attempts to modernize Morocco and whose personal extravagance and infatuation with Western luxury products had made him unpopular, was forced to abdicate in and yield power to his half-brother.
His dates of birth and death are uncertain: circa to circa In addition to constant skirmishes with the forces of the Sultan and incessant raids and cattle robberies resulting in not a few murders for which he was imprisoned at one point for several years in the dreaded dungeons of Mogador , Raisuli used kidnappings as an instrument in his struggle for power, financial resources, and recognition. Harris later described his captor as a handsome, chivalrous, well educated, and intelligent tribal chief with a keen sense of honour, even if he shrank from no act of violence.
Varley, some grandchildren, some tame pheasants, a demoiselle crane, and several monkeys. The kidnapping of Perdicaris caused an international incident. The Sultan was pressured by Britain, France, and the United States to intervene, but was powerless to do so. President Theodore Roosevelt then ordered four American warships with a detachment of Marines to Tangiers. Maclean had been authorized by the Sultan to negotiate a settlement of some outstanding issues with Raisuli in a remote place half way between Tangiers and Fez. The two swore an oath on the Koran to drive the foreign Christians out of Morocco.
Butterworth, ]. A heavily fictionalized film, The Wind and the Lion , in which Raisuli is played by Sean Connery, focuses on the Perdicaris kidnapping. Ion Perdicaris himself wrote an account of his kidnapping in the National Geographic Magazine in and in an autobiographical memoir, published in London in , The Hand of Fate reproduced in John Hughes, ed. He is situated in the context of the history of terrorism in Jeffrey D. Most of her elegantly and concisely written books appeared with leading publishers, such as Plon, Grasset, and Hachette in the s and s, when historical biographies that read like novels were in great vogue, but she continued to publish until the early s and several of her works were translated into English.
In , the publisher Plon put out a book by her about her uncle, Mon Oncle Taine, and in the same publisher brought out her charmingly written Ce Monde disparu: Souvenirs, the entire second half of which is devoted to the events and personalities of the years she and her husband spent in Morocco.
Of the great powers, Austria alone had no interests in a country where Germany, France, Great Britain, and Spain all had competing interests, and Madame Taillandier never mentions it. He then returned briefly to Berlin before being posted to Constantinople — , Athens — , Teheran — , Budapest, where he was Consul-General from to , Constantinople again , and Sofia In he was appointed British Minister in Tangiers, a position which he held for almost ten years and in which he finally got a chance to show his mettle as a diplomat.
He is quiet, steady, full of ready resource, not making difficulties, not delighting to put the other man into a hole. In he returned to London to be Permanent Under-Secretary to Edward Grey, the Foreign Secretary, in which capacity he did his best, against opposition from many liberals unfavorable to close association with the oppressive regime of the Czar, to promote a strong British-Russian-French alliance as a means of holding Germany in check.
He played an important part in the diplomatic negotiations and manoeverings that preceded the outbreak of the First World War, urging Grey to make it very clear to Germany that Britain would support France and Russia in the event of war. Nicolson was the subject of a fine biography — Sir Arthur Nicolson, Bart. He is mild and conciliatory.
The future is very uncertain in this country, and I should like our hands to be quite free and not to encourage these people to imagine that we were their sole support and advisers. I do not think this would be fair as they might expect more than we should probably perform. I am anxious to be on the most friendly terms and do what I can to help them, but not to strive for a specially predominant position. The consequences might be awkward. Basically, Nicolson had been told to give his French counterpart a free hand. Helping them to do so is decidedly not our business. But it could well be yours.
Taillandier defended the Revolution, claiming that it had resulted in the sweeping away of the Old Regime all over Europe. Taine replied that the way this occurred in England under the influence of Locke and in Germany under the influence of Stein was far preferable to the way it occurred in France under the influence of Rousseau.
This aristocrat was an adventurer, a prolific writer, a combative socialist, and a Scottish nationalist; he was the first ever avowed socialist to be elected to the British House of Commons, a founder of the Scottish Labour Party, and first President of the Scottish National Party. Probably he is best described as an anarchist, opposed to all authority. In countries like Morocco, where men still live under the tribal system, all government must be despotic; witness Algeria, Afghanistan, and Russian Tartary.
The unit is the tribe and not the individual, and what we understand by freedom and democracy would seem to them the grossest form of tyranny on earth. No doubt no man in all Morocco is secure in the enjoyment of his property; but then in order to be amenable to tyranny, one must be rich, and as most tribesmen own but a horse or two, a camel, perhaps a slave, some little patch of cultivated ground or olive garden, it is not generally on them the extortion of Government descends, but on the chief Sheikh, Kaid, or Governor, who, if he happens to be rich, can never sleep secure a single day.
Cedric Watts, a scholar who has studied Cunninghame Graham closely and written a substantial biography of him:. Robert Bontine Cunninghame Graham was born in and died in ; in the interim he became a celebrity, a notoriety, a living legend; and in the aftermath he has become, gradually, a forgotten figure, his achievements neglected. Hudson and Edward Garnett. He was born into the Scottish landed gentry […]; his ancestry was three-quarters Scottish, one quarter Spanish. During the subsequent years he frequently travelled in Central and South America, living among gauchos, llaneros and cattle-ranchers, making repeated attempts to prosper as a cattle-and horse-dealer — attempts which failed partly because of his youthful rashness, and partly because of Indian raids and the revolutionary upheavals in those regions.
His Liberalism was nominal: he was attentive to the left-wing ideas of H. His experiences as a convict did nothing to diminish his campaigning ardour: in he helped to found the Scottish Labour Party, becoming its President, with Keir Hardie as Secretary. At demonstrations on behalf of the dockers and in the campaign for the eight-hour day he appeared alongside Kropotkin, Engels, H.
It is also the case that in his chivalrous impetuosity, in his concern for the underdog, and in his contempt for so much that passed for modern progress he could be seen as quixotically anachronistic. Many of the causes for which he fought so zealously were eventually to succeed. Yet, in his lifetime, he was regarded as a master. The texture may be thin, but it is wiry; […] he always has an eye for the telling detail.
She turned out to be more practical, realistic, and consistent than Graham, but she could well have recognized some of her own impulses in the rage and indignation, the anti-bourgeois stance, and — not least — the chivalrous concern for the oppressed and downtrodden of the leftist Scottish aristocrat. He continued to travel in and write about many areas of the Middle East, but Tangiers, where he occupied a handsome villa, was his home for the next thirty-five years.
Though the interior of Morocco was largely closed to foreigners at the time, Harris was an intrepid and clever explorer and got to see and describe areas hitherto unvisited. In addition, as the correspondent of the London Times in Tangiers, an Arabic speaker, and the intimate of at least three of the ruling Sultans, he had many opportunities to observe every aspect of Moroccan life. After he was captured by the mountain chieftain Raisuli one day when he was out hunting, he not only succeeded in securing his own release — with the help, generously acknowledged, of Sir Arthur Nicolson, the British Minister in Tangiers — he won the respect of his captor, of whom he in turn wrote admiringly.
All his geese had to be swans. Edinburgh and London: W. Souvenirs [Paris: Plon, ], pp. Count Crenneville. In August, he was sent on an important special mission to Rome to support the ambassador and the embassy staff there in their efforts to delay for as long as possible an Italian declaration of war against Austria-Hungary.
As Governor of Livorno and Commander of the Imperial forces in Tuscany from about until , Crenneville was zealous in the execution of his assignment to root out revolutionary movements in the Duchy of Tuscany. After a period of study at the Vienna Handelsakademie commercial school , he took a job, at the age of seventeen, with a German bookseller in Cairo.
He boarded ship at Trieste then part of the Habsburg Empire for the five-day voyage to Alexandria, set out for Khartoum soon after his arrival in Cairo and began exploring, on his own, the mountainous Dar Nuba region of the Sudan. There he met Mehmet Emin Pasha, a. Gordon appointed him chief medical officer of the provinces and also sent him, on account of his language skills, on various diplomatic missions.
Slatin asked Emin Pasha to take him to meet Gordon, but in the meantime he was recalled to Austria to fulfill his required military service. However, he soon had to confront, as Governor, the rising power of the Mahdi, Muhammad Ahmed. Early in , the Arabs in southern Darfur rose in rebellion. Though victorious in over 20 engagements, Slatin kept losing ground, and as his followers attributed this to his being a Christian, he converted nominally, but publicly, to Islam in the hope of rallying his troops. In December Slatin surrendered, seeing it as his duty not to sacrifice lives unnecessarily in a hopeless cause.
On the death of the Mahdi the same year, Slatin remained as the prisoner of his successor, Khalifa Abdullahi. In fact, Slatin tried to maintain his contacts with the Khalifa and other Mahdists, even after he had regained his freedom, in the belief that for the purposes of intelligence-gathering and negotiating, these contacts could be useful. It was translated into French and Italian and became a Europe-wide bestseller.
Michael and St. Geoge by Queen Victoria in recognition of his services. He was a favourite and a frequent guest, at Windsor and Balmoral, of Queen Victoria, who had a portrait of him painted for her own collection by one of her personal portrait-painters, Heinrich von Angeli. He was also a guest at other European courts. Hence her surprise and delight at finding him modest and unassuming. He tried to limit Christian proselytizing and to reinforce tribal leadership and family bonds.
The outbreak of war between Great Britain and Austria-Hungary in was particularly painful for him. His entire career had been in the service of the British monarchy. Now he had to give up his position and separate from some of his closest friends. He and Wingate were especially close, worked together in the administration of the Sudan, and had complete trust in one another. He took no active part in the war but instead headed the Prisoners-of-War section of the Austrian Red Cross, which allowed him to intervene on behalf of British prisoners-of-war, and he is said to have been involved in attempts to work out a separate peace between Great Britain and France on the one hand and Austria-Hungary on the other.
In , he was a member of the Austrian delegation that negotiated the peace treaty between the new Republic of Austria and the victorious allied powers. In recognition of his having secured food supplies for the starving population of Vienna in , he was made an honorary citizen of Vienna. After the death, in , of his wife, Baroness Alice von Ramberg, whom he had married in and by whom he had a daughter, he moved to Merano, formerly in Austria, but Italian since the end of the war. In June , a couple of months before his own death following a cancer operation in Vienna, he and his daughter, Anne-Marie, were received by King George V in London.
It is said to be the largest such bank in Europe, with about 3, employees. The founder of the modern banking business of Sal. In the first half of the nineteenth century Simon and Abraham identified themselves as Jews and sought to advance the cause of Jewish emancipation. Twenty years later Abraham helped to fund the construction of a handsome new synagogue in Cologne.
Along with a third brother, Dagobert originally David, — , the brothers also supported general cultural and philanthropic ventures in Cologne. Max von Oppenheim was the son of Albert. Max, however, had developed a keen interest in the Islamic world and dreamed of devoting his life to the study of the peoples and cultures of the Middle East and North Africa. After he obtained a law degree in , his father permitted him to undertake a journey to the Orient.
In the winter of — he accompanied an uncle to Athens, Smyrna and Constantinople. In he spent six months in Morocco in what he describes as a Forschungsreise [research trip], and he learned Arabic. He himself recounts the subsequent development of his career in the first volume of his book on the Bedouins:. In I was able to begin pursuing my scholarly activities in the Orient on a larger scale.
At the end of the trip I stopped for some months in Cairo, where I lodged in an Arab house in the native quarter. Here I lived exactly as the local Muslims did in order to develop my fluency in the Arabic language and to study thoroughly the spirit of Islam and the customs and manners of the native inhabitants. My plan was to prepare myself in this way for further expeditions that would lead me into the Eastern part of the Arab world. In the Spring of , my path led to Damascus. From here I set out on my first truly major research trip in the Near East.
This is laid out in the second volume of the aforementioned book. In the course of this expedition I came to love the wild, unconstrained life of the sons of the desert. By sharing their way of life in the saddle and in the tent, I acquired ever greater knowledge of their ways. They felt that I was well disposed towards them and that I understood their customs and peculiarities. Hence, they were also well disposed towards me and readily answered any question I put to them. I made an expedition into the interior, in the course of which I acquired an extensive tract of land in Usambara, which was later turned into plantations by the Rheinische Handel-Plantagen-Gesellschaft, which here successfully cultivated first the coffee bean, and then, after the coffee worm made its appearance, sisal — until this flourishing plantation was lost to Germany as a consequence of the World War.
As he began to become too strong, however, Khedive Ismail enticed him to Cairo where he detained him in a beautiful palace, that was like a gilded cage. From Zuber Pasha, I obtained extraordinarily interesting information about one of his former generals named Rabeh, who had refused to capitulate to the Egyptians and had moved westwards from the Nile valley with a large number of his former soldiers and their families. Back in Germany, I wrote up a report on this, as well as on other things I had learned in Cairo about the area around Lake Chad and about the Muslim order of the Senussi, which was of great importance not only from a religious but also from a political standpoint.
This report led the Foreign Office to ask me, in the context of our rivalry with France and England, to lead a German expedition into the hinterland of the Cameroons in order to acquire the area up to Lake Chad for Germany. In the competition involving France, England and Germany the aforementioned Rabeh had moved faster than the European powers. Starting out from the Egyptian Sudan he had led his army from victory to victory, like a black Napoleon, and had seized all the lands south of Wadai [a former kingdom situated between Lake Chad and Darfur] together with the large kingdoms of Bagirmi and Bornu.
Still, his reign was of short duration. He fell in a battle with the French and the empire he founded collapsed. When his lands were divided up by the European colonial powers, my expedition, which was all ready to go, became part of the bargaining process. From then on I was employed by the Foreign Office and attached to our diplomatic legation in Cairo. From there I was in a position to observe closely all the affairs of the Islamic world.
No place was better for this than Cairo. The Egyptian Press, published in the Arabic of the Koran, was of decisive importance for the entire Islamic world from the Atlantic to China. Whereas in Turkey Sultan Abdul Hamid wielded absolute power and did not tolerate the free expression of opinion in the newspapers, Cairo was the resort of all Muslim political refugees, especially those from the Ottoman Empire.
But I also managed to establish excellent relations with Sultan Abdul Hamid […] [who] asked me to call on him whenever I was in Constantinople, which I regularly did. It is not surprising therefore that the scholar was approached by Georg von Siemens, the Director of the Deutsche Bank, about prospecting and giving advice on the best route for the Berlin-to-Baghdad railway on the stretch between Aleppo and Mosul.
Though the German Foreign Office would not allow Oppenheim to accept this commission openly, for fear that the participation of a Foreign Office agent in the project would be viewed with displeasure and suspicion by the British, the scholar was able to give Siemens the requested advice privately. It seems, moreover, that Oppenheim and his scholarly associates sometimes lodged in the same buildings as the engineers of the Berlin-to-Baghdad railway.
He had even re-affirmed his friendship with the Ottoman Sultan after an Turkish massacre of Christian Armenians had shocked most of Europe. A year earlier, shortly before a projected visit of the Kaiser to Constantinople, the scholar had sent a memorandum to Berlin from Cairo, dated 5 July, , in which he reported on pan-Islamic movements in the Middle East and suggested that jihad or Muslim holy war could be a mighty weapon if Muslims could actually be made ready and willing to engage in it.
Were jihad proclaimed, he wrote, volunteers and money from all over the Islamic world would arrive for the Sultan, as happened in his —78 war against Russia. Since Germany, of all the Christian nations, was considered by Muslims to be their best friend, according to Oppenheim, the message of the memorandum was clear: prepare to use the Sultan to call for jihad in the colonial territories of potential enemies.
The so-called Senussi revolt turned out to be a serious challenge to the Allied war effort. As Oppenheim himself recalled in the Introduction to his book on the Bedouins, he had submitted a memorandum to the German Foreign Office in the s on the Sanussi brotherhood, and the military leader of the revolt, Jaafar Pasha al-Askari, a Kurd from Mesopotamia and a former Ottoman army officer, had been trained in Germany.
On the outbreak of war, however, he was summoned to Berlin by the Kaiser to head the newly created Oriental News Department at the Foreign Ministry, for which a dozen German academics had been recruited, and the aim of which was to spread propaganda among Muslims. Among other measures, he initiated and oversaw the production of thousands of propaganda leaflets and booklets for distribution in Muslim countries, started a film company to produce newsreels and other short propaganda movies, and created a network of 70 reading halls Nachrichtensaale in major population centres where his guidelines for jihad were to be communicated and spread.
He took up the excavations at Tel-Halaf again and published accounts of the findings, of which he had to give half over to the Syrian authorities. To house and exhibit his share of them he established the Tel-Halaf Museum in Berlin in and at the same time set up a Foundation, the Max-Freiherr von Oppenheim Stiftung, to promote research into all aspects of the societies and cultures of the Near East, from prehistoric times to the present. The Foundation had a library of 40, books and a large collection of Islamic manuscripts and artefacts.
Perhaps he was too useful to them. In Oppenheim made a further final expedition into the Middle East. Oppenheim was apparently willing to go to great lengths to ensure his survival, if that is how we are to interpret his active participation in propagandizing for the Third Reich. In the Foreword, the author thanks the Deutsche Forschungsgesellschaft for financially supporting the publication of his work. In July he sent a shortened version of it to the German Foreign Office.
As France had by then been neutralized, the revised plan focused on provoking uprisings against the British in Iraq and Saudi Arabia, blocking the Suez Canal, and fomenting revolution in India. He recommended co-operation with the Palestinian leader Mohammed Amin al-Husseini, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem from to , the setting up of a Palestinian state under al-Husseini, and the expulsion of all Jews who had not been residents of Palestine before the outbreak of war.
He moved to Dresden, where he survived the massive destruction of the city. His Tel-Halaf Museum in Berlin was also destroyed in a bombing raid, however. What remained of the collection was subsequently moved to Cologne. One cannot help wondering what she may have known, later still, of the last stage of his extraordinary career. Oppenheim, Jr. Geschichte einer Bank und einer Familie [Munich: Piper, ], pp. A lamb, representing the lamb or ram that was sacrificed in place of Isaac, is traditionally slaughtered on the day of the festival. The topic was in the air at the time.
He made this explanation quietly and nonchalantly, as though it had been quite the most ordinary matter in the world. If we can stir the Mohammedans up against the English and Russians, we can force them to make peace. Soon afterward the Sheik-ul-Islam published his proclamation, summoning the whole Moslem world to arise and massacre their Christian oppressors. The Ikdam, the Turkish newspaper which had passed into German ownership, was constantly inciting the masses.
A gleam of hope has appeared. All Mohammedans, young and old, men, women and children, must fulfil their duty so that the gleam may not fade away, but give light to us for ever. How many great things can be accomplished by the arms of vigorous men, by the aid of others, of women and children! We shall all have to fight with all our strength, with all our soul, with teeth and nails, with all the sinews of our bodies and of our spirits.
If we do it, the deliverance of the subjected Mohammedan kingdoms is assured… Allah is our aid and the Prophet is our support. It was a lengthy document […] full of quotations from the Koran, and its style was frenzied in its appeal to racial and religious hatred. It described a detailed plan of operations for the assassination and extermination of all Christians — except those of German nationality. For if you consider this but a little, you will weep long. You will behold a bewildering state of affairs which will cause the tear to fall and the fire of grief to blaze.
You see the great country of India, which contains hundreds of millions of Moslems, fallen, because of religious divisions and weaknesses into the grasp of the enemies of God, the infidel English. You see forty millions of Moslems in Java shackled by the chains of captivity and of affliction under the rule of the Dutch.
We cannot enumerate the insults we have received at the hands of these nations who desire totally to destroy Islam and drive all Mohammedans off the face of the earth. This tyranny has passed all endurable limits; the cup of our oppression is full to overflowing. The world of Islam sinks down and goes backward, and the Christian world goes forward and is more and more exalted.
The Moslems are enslaved and the infidels are the great rulers. This is all because the Moslems have abandoned the plan set forth in the Koran and ignored the Holy War which it commands. This holy war has now become a sacred duty. Know ye that the blood of infidels in the Islamic lands may be shed with impunity. Behold we have delivered them unto your hands and given you supreme power over them. And let every Moslem, in whatever part of the world he may be, swear a solemn oath to kill at least three or four of the infidels who rule over him, for they are the enemies of God and of the faith.
Let every Moslem know that his reward for doing so shall be doubled by the God who created heaven and earth. A Moslem who does this shall be saved from the terrors of the day of Judgment, of the resurrection of the dead. First, the individual war, which consists of the individual personal deed. This may be carried on with cutting, killing instruments, […] like the slaying of the English chief of police in India, and like the killing of one of the officials arriving in Mecca by Abi Busir may God be pleased with him.
The most useful are those organized and operating in secret. The Germans and Austrians, in short, are excluded. Snouk Hurgronje versus C. He himself served for many years in Egypt, with ever widening responsibilities, as head of the Camel Corps section of the Egyptian Coastguard Administration. In addition, he supervised various building projects, including the construction of a new harbor for the sponge-fishing fleet and a new mosque in Mersa Matruh. He understands and admires the Bedouins among whom he lives and he also demonstrates great respect and affection for the 20 or so officers who served under him, both Egyptian and European, as well as for his men, many of whom came from the Sudan.
One of them in particular must surely have greatly pleased her if she heard him tell it:. He kept completely to himself, and I was not particularly curious about his earlier life. He traded in a small way with the Bedouins, was interested in cultivating barley, and made unfired bricks from a mixture of clay, mud, marl, and sand. With these he was able to build a better kind of hut. After a few months the chief of police in Alexandria sent me a telegram inquiring whether I had a dangerous French anarchist named E. I replied that E. Yes, I was told, but the French consulate wants him extradited from Egypt, because, besides being an anarchist, he is a deserter.
I sent for E. I asked him why. He had come to Mersa Matruh in the hope that the Egyptian government would be less brutal than the French one. I promised him that I would protect him and that I would give him secret warning if he was about to be extradited so that he could go into hiding for a while. Thanks to my intervening with the various authorities, he was given permission to stay on in Matruh after he had promised me that he would not make anarchist propaganda.
Whereupon he simply expressed his honest regret that a decent man like myself was not an anarchist and he made a sincere effort to convert me. He gave me the anarchist pamphlets he had smuggled into the country and, according to the terms of our agreement, could no longer distribute, and asked me to read them. But in putting together the various kinds of earth and soil to make his bricks, he had demonstrated that he was a professional. So I appointed him my architect for the construction of the many buildings the Coast Guard had to put up and later I was able to get him a good job with a big company in Cairo.
Then he asked me for a letter of recommendation to the head of the municipality of Alexandria. When E. He replied emphatically that he hoped not. I then said that he was in that case the more honourable of the two of us, because I would be willing to lie twice in order to save my life. In general, while a posting to Beirut was assuredly anything but a great prize, the Levant was not unimportant to Austria at the time.
Efforts were being made to promote trade with the region and Austria also had an interest in protecting the local Christians. Arthur C. Sadik Pasha fought in the Crimean War on the Ottoman side. Adam Enver returned to Poland and had a career there as a military officer. After graduating from the prestigious Ecole militaire de Saint-Cyr in Muzzafar entered the cavalry corps of the Ottoman army.
In he became a military aide to Sultan Abdul Aziz and accompanied him on his European tour of He fought in the war against Russia, became an aide to Abdul Hamid II, and served as a member of the military reforms and military inspection committees. In his name came up as a surprise candidate for the governorship of Mount Lebanon. Though his rivals, high officials in the Ottoman Foreign Ministry, were much better known in diplomatic circles, the failure of the parties concerned to agree on any other person than Muzzafar, determined the final choice, and in the autumn of he was appointed governor of Mount Lebanon for a term of five years with the rank of mushir field marshal.
His own sons held posts in the Ottoman Foreign Ministry. He led a following of poor newcomers to the Don region, mostly peasants escaping from serfdom, on a number of successful pillaging expeditions in the lower Volga region and on the shores of the Caspian Sea. As he passed through the lower Volga cities of Astrakhan and Tsaritsyn, hundreds of townsmen, fugitive peasants, and even regular soldiers flocked to his standard. They were defeated, however, when they besieged the town of Simbirsk.
Stenka Razin fled to the Don region, but he was betrayed soon after by another Cossack leader, captured, delivered to Moscow in an iron cage, and executed on June 6, He had been seconded to Constantinople in as head of a German military mission requested by the Sultan for the purpose of reorganizing the Ottoman army after its defeat in the Russo-Turkish War of — Goltz spent twelve years in Turkey and appears to have carried out his mission with some success, for in the Greco-Turkish war of the Turkish army advanced to the gates of Athens and was halted only when Czar Nicolas II threatened to attack the Ottomans from eastern Anatolia unless the campaign was stopped.
In return for his services Goltz was given the title of Pasha and in just before his return to Germany, the rank of Mushir field-marshal in the Ottoman army. He was in Turkey again several times between and before being sent back to Constantinople, as special adviser to the Sultan, soon after Turkey entered World War I on the side of the Central Powers. The Ambassador in Constantinople from until was Adolf, Freiherr Marschall von Bieberstein — and he was succeeded, from until , by Hans, Freiherr von Wangenheim — It is, of course, possible that he was there on a shorter visit at the time, but I have not been able to verify this.
Alternatively, she is indeed referring to Goltz but, because of the major role he played in German-Ottoman relations, mistakenly remembers him as the Ambassador. Marschall had taken a strongly imperialist position in general European politics. After the ill-conceived Jameson raid on the Transvaal Republic, he was responsible, according to Kaiser Wilhelm II himself, for drafting the telegram in which the Kaiser congratulated President Kruger and assured him that a free republic of the Transvaal was a major German interest. Marschall also advocated a strong naval policy for Germany — another position that was sure to be read as provocative by the British.
Sources: Neue deutsche Biographie, vol. They demanded re-establishment of the constitutional monarchy set up under the short-lived constitution. The movement grew out of secret societies of progressive university students and military cadets that had been driven underground, along with all other forms of political dissent, after the constitution was annulled by Sultan Abdul Hamid II in In a first congress of Ottoman advocates of reform was held in Paris, a second five years later in In the Young Turk Revolution successfully reversed the suspension of the constitution and reinstituted a parliament, thus initiating the so-called Second Constitutional Era in the Ottoman Empire.
In power, the Young Turks were keen nationalists, eager to exploit German interest in Turkey for their own ends but resistant to German efforts to turn Turkey into a client state. Many members of his family had served in the Austro-Hungarian diplomatic corps. It is not clear how he came to occupy the position he held in Constantinople.
The recently refurbished Fire Brigade Museum in present-day Istanbul bears his name. This is not quite accurate, but close enough. Born in , Weitz was first employed in the retail trade but soon gave it up for journalism. He found work in his native Regensburg, then in Vienna; then, on the outbreak of the Serbo — Bulgarian War in , he went under his own steam to Belgrade and was hired as a correspondent by the London Daily News and the Vossische Zeitung.
His reports were often subject to censorship by the Serbian authorities and on one occasion he was expelled from the country. He had the most intimate personal knowledge of Turkish affairs, and he was the confidant and adviser of the German Embassy. His duties there were actually semi-diplomatic. Weitz had really been one of the most successful agencies in the German penetration of Turkey; it was common talk that he knew every important man in the Turkish Empire, the best way to approach him, and his price.
In an article in the Frankfurter Zeitung he explained why Turkish officialdom was in two minds about the settlement of the Jews and in the end tried to halt it. Oxford: Oxford University Press, ] pp. It is highly likely that the Dresdner Bank had contributed significantly to German commercial penetration of Turkey.
In , an affiliate, the Deutsche Orientbank, was founded. A rather large portrait of him painted the following year by Max Liebermann presently in the Berlin Stadtmuseum , shows a solid member of the cultivated German upper bourgeoisie, in a relaxed but imposing, almost Bismarckian pose. In he was arrested by the S. The present-day Dresdner Bank runs a program for promoting the study of banking history to which it has given the name of Eugen Gutmann. For years the small, rather elegant stationnaire S.
Loreley — she was and a half feet long and 27 and a half feet wide — was the only ship of the Imperial German Navy permanently deployed in the Mediterranean. Built on the Clyde in , she had been purchased from her first owner by the German Navy in to replace an older Loreley and was used chiefly for ceremonial functions.
The son of the engineer and archaeologist Carl Humann, who discovered the Pergamon altar while building roads in Anatolia, Hans Humann was born in Smyrna and spent the first twelve years of his life in Turkey. On account of the long periods of time he spent in Turkey, his attachment to the country, his complete command of the Turkish language, and his exceptionally close friendship with the Turkish War Minister, Enver Pasha, with whom as an infant he had shared a wet-nurse, he was sometimes considered more Turkish than the Turks.
It was an outstanding position of extraordinary influence. Certainly what we know of him and of her would make her dislike of him seem almost inevitable. I think that they are entirely justified. The weaker nation must succumb. Stinnes set him up as one of the editors of the widely read Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung, in the pages of which he advocated a return to the monarchy and justified the Armenian massacres. Another of his friends at that time was Franz von Papen. Dadrian, The History of the Armenian Genocide, 6 th ed.
Innovative and expressive female dancers were much in vogue at the time. The best remembered of the dancers of this time is, of course, San Francisco-born Isadora Duncan, who spent her entire career in Europe. The foundation stone was laid by the King of Prussia, as the newly proclaimed Kaiser Wilhelm I, on September 16, The central figure of Germania in the massive and busy composition holds the recovered crown of the Empire in one hand and the Imperial sword in the other.
It is not surprising that Victor de Crenneville thought it ugly. It is. In addition, its message can hardly have appealed to an Austrian diplomat whose father had been a Field Commander at the time of the Austro-Prussian War of and had been honoured for his many services to the Habsburg Emperor. Victor de Crenneville was lucky that, unlike the Austrian aristocrat, the patriotic German tourists gathered there did not, apparently, know French. The poem he recited was by the French Romantic poet Alfred de Musset — Sie sollen ihn nicht haben, Den freien deutschen Rhein.
As is well known, Jews often took the name of the cities they came from Frankfurt or Frankfurter, Hamburg or Hamburger, Wiener, etc. It may well be, therefore, that most Pribams or Pribrams were Jewish or of Jewish origin. Alfred Francis Pribram, for instance, was twelve years younger than the Count. He proved to be a good manager but was known as a domestic tyrant, strict with his wife and children and particularly harsh toward house servants and peasant labourers.
A son and one of his brothers even tried to persuade him to leave the estate during the First World War, when there was a good deal of local peasant unrest, since his very presence, they thought, was enough to cause trouble. Even Leo and his wife separated after the end of the First World War. His career was typical of the sons of the local German landowners. He attended the German Gymnasium, completed his military service with the Russian army as a cavalry reserve officer, got his training in estate management from his father on his property at Woiseck, and in , the year of his marriage, bought the nearby estate of Eigstfer from his father.
That is where he brought his young Viennese bride. He appears to have been strong-willed, resolute and authoritarian. The best thing in such times is absolute monarchy. According to his wife at least, his interests were largely confined to farming, horses, dogs, and the hunt. To begin with, he seems to have been very good-looking. It is also likely that at the age of twenty-seven, he was not without charm and was not yet as gruff and domineering as his father.
He had studied with Stockhausen and Clara Schumann, who sometimes accompanied him in his recitals. According to the writer of his obituary in the British journal Music and Letters:. But his apprehension at those moments of silence was quite unfounded, for presently the whole audience rose as one man to give him an ovation, all the more impressive after that silent tribute of appreciation and recognition.
This is how the same author describes the occasion:. Brahms looked surprised, and smiled; but went to the piano. In he emigrated to England and began a busy and much appreciated career there as a teacher, which ended only with his own death in In and then again in , however, he had returned to the family estate in Estonia to run summer courses. It is hard to imagine that there was no talk in the family about this extraordinarily successful member. He, on his side, cannot at that time have been as devoid of imagination or as narrow-minded as he appears in the memoir.
Otherwise, it is hard to conceive why he, on his side, was attracted to her. Her rank alone was not likely to impress the German Junker class he came from in Estonia, and her religion was no recommendation either. She may well, in writing it, have sought, at some level, to make her decision not to go back to him seem justifiable and in a way inevitable. These occurred everywhere and frequently. Source: Ernest O. Note that Russian, not Estonian or German, is the language of officialdom. Harden had been an admirer and strong supporter of Bismarck, whom Wilhelm had forced to resign in Many other prominent, high-placed advisers and military men were involved in the Eulenberg scandal, which led to a series of libel cases and which assumed something of the dimensions in Germany of the Dreyfus affair in France.
Harden and Die Zukunft did follow an independent line that was often critical of official policy. The paper was also open to innovation in the arts and published informed and favorable articles on modern writers and dramatists. Harden, however, frequently shifted position; the one constant appears to have been his nationalism. Harden was seriously injured, retired from journalism, and in moved to Switzerland, where a few years later he died.
It was manufactured in Europe by companies in Belgium and Sweden. As of , Browning pistols were in use not only in various armies and police forces, including the Imperial Russian police, but in the civilian population also. The work is a classic of erotic literature and has been frequently republished, both in the original German and in English and French translations — most recently in English in , in French in and in German in Dvornikov and S.
Sokolov, published in Moscow in and attempted to russify the University, by imposing Russian as the language of instruction. The bookstore she found there was obviously accustomed to a German-speaking clientele. What she does not mention is that the Marseillaise, the song of the French Revolution, was strictly forbidden in the Russian Empire and that any playing or singing of it could result in deportation to Siberia.
It is unlikely that Hermynia did not know this [at the time of writing up the episode], for Viktor must have explained his action to her after the event at least. He let himself be bought out of his inheritance and lived as a private scholar. He gave up the idea of an academic career, the czarist regime having instituted instruction in Russian, instead of German, at Dorpat.
His special field of study was ichtyology, and as a scientist he undertook research chiefly on the relation of water characteristics, climate, and other factors and on their impact on the populations of different species of fish — a very modern area of research. On 24 December, he was shot by Bolsheviks in the garden of his home. Er wurde am Dezember von Bolschewiki im Garten seines Hauses erschossen.
Despite his prolific output, when he was at last offered a chair in , it was at the Berlin Handelshochschule or School of Commerce. Even in some of his early books, however e. Though there was some ambivalence in his relation to National Socialism, there were many elements in his thinking that were entirely compatible with it as in his Deutscher Sozialismus of , for instance and he continued to teach in Berlin until he died in His work was popular, sentimental, easy to read, and superficial.
La bonne Souffrance tells the story, in prose, of his return to the Roman Catholic Church. Perhaps anything in French was assumed to be indecent in the milieu she is describing. Strongly nationalist and rightwing in tone, many of his novels revolve around army officers. He also wrote a few plays and during the First World War turned out patriotic books and articles.
All of these novels, like the many that followed, went through numerous editions and most were translated into other languages — French, English, Dutch, Finnish. Like those of Stratz, his novels went through numerous editions 24 editions of Die Wiskottens, for instance, between and and some were translated into other languages. Politically, he was also, like Stratz, a rightwing nationalist. His next important play, Die Weber , a dramatization of an uprising of Silesian weavers against their exploiter, in the heyday of the putting-out system, was one of the first dramas in which a collective hero replaced the usual individual hero.
Stanislavsky directed the production of this work in Moscow. Die versunkene Glocke was an enactment of the inner conflict in the life of an artist between the artistic aspiration that isolates him from his immediate human community, and the instinctive human solidarity that unites him with it. It combines naturalism and symbolism.
Hauptmann continued to write plays about 35 in all into the s, along with novels and novellas. Though the Third Reich refused to allow him to receive the Schiller Prize, for which he was repeatedly recommended, nothing was done to prevent a complete seventeen-volume edition of his works from appearing in Both Hauptmann himself and the regime seem to have been content for him to be regarded as the grand old man of German letters.
It was located on 27 Bolshaya Konyushennaya Street, close to Nevski Prospekt, the great central avenue of the former Russian capital, in the building of the Demoute Hotel, which had been founded by a French immigrant in the s and where Pushkin stayed in on his first visit to St. Petersburg and then again many times between and Other literary figures who stayed at the Demoute include the dramatist Griboyedov, the Polish national poet Adam Mickiewicz, and the great Russian liberal writers Turgenev and Alexander Herzen. In the entrance hall of the Myedvyed restaurant in the hotel, there was a large stuffed bear carrying a tray in its front paws.
The restaurant itself had two very large dining rooms with and tables and 29 private dining rooms; there was a staff of , and an orchestra of 24 musicians. One of the dinners held there — in honour of the great actress M. Savina — had over 1, guests. Another dinner honoured the popular actress Vera Komissarzhevskaya — , the co-founder, with Meyerhold, of a new company promoting symbolist theater; yet another, in , marked the fifth anniversary of the great art nouveau journal Teatr i iskusstvo Theatre and Art ; and, in , a celebration was held to honour A.
Suvorin — , the conservative editor of the newspaper Novoye vremya and the publisher of Chekhov. The Myedvyed, in short, was one of the largest and most distinguished venues in the Russian capital. Petersburg: Avrora, ], pp. Petersburg: Posokh, ] pp. Petersburg to which many residents of the former Russian capital resorted in the summer.
It was founded around when Peter the Great had a mill for linen later paper manufacture established on the site. The plans were then expanded and a grander palace was built a little further inland. At first it was conceived as a purely advisory organ, but later in the year the Czar agreed to endow the Duma with legislative and oversight powers, and to provide for broad participation in it. The Duma, it seemed, was to be the lower house of a Russian parliament, the State Council of Imperial Russia the upper house.
Before it had even come into existence, therefore, the Duma was deprived of real executive power. Moreover, the Czar had the right to dismiss it and call new elections whenever he wished. The elections for the First Duma April-June returned a significant bloc of moderate socialists and liberals who demanded further reforms. Within ten weeks it was dissolved. The Second Duma February—June did not last much longer.
The Social Democrats and Social Revolutionaries elected a large number of deputies. This resulted in major conflicts both within the Duma between the Left and the Right and with the Czar. On June 1, Prime Minister Pyotr Stolypin accused the Social Democrats of conspiring with members of the armed forces to prepare an uprising and demanded that the Duma exclude 55 Social Democratic deputies and strip 16 of them of parliamentary immunity. When this ultimatum was rejected by the Duma, it was dissolved by order of the Czar the so-called Coup of June 7.
Using emergency powers, Prime Minister Stolypin changed the electoral law and gave greater electoral weight to the votes of landowners and owners of city properties. This ensured that the Third Duma — would be dominated by gentry, landowners and businessmen. Petersburg from to Until it came out five times a week; thereafter it was a daily and from on there were morning and evening editions. In a weekly illustrated supplement was added. Suvorin in , it acquired a reputation as a servile supporter of the government. It was generally looked down on by the liberal intelligentsia of the early twentieth century and despised by the Bolsheviks.
He spent time at the embassies in London and Paris before being appointed Ambassador to Russia in and Foreign Minister in He was intelligent, industrious, and charming, without being in the least domineering or ambitious. He had withdrawn from his post in St. He was truly glad to be relieved of the burden of office in In one letter Keller was killed in the course of the fighting.
Joseph T. Peter J. Potichnyj, Introduction by Michael M. A weekly, Sport im Bild was launched in Berlin in in response to a growing interest in sports and games in Germany, acquired by Rudolf Mosse, the Jewish publisher of the Berliner Tageblatt newspaper in , and shut down by the Nazis, because of its Jewish ownership in His novel Station am Horizont Station on the Horizon, not published separately until , was serialized in Sport im Bild in Like the latter, Die Woche was generously illustrated and aimed at a mass market.
Lovell in New York, continues: As pleasingly exemplified in many instances wherein the serious ones of this earth, carefully exasperated, have been prettily spurred on to unseemliness and indiscretion while overcome by an undue sense of right. The publishing history of this collection of jabs and counter-jabs contributed to its notoriety. Whistler had entrusted an American journalist in London by the name of Sheridan Ford with the task of collecting and arranging the material. He then decided to publish it and copyright it himself.
Ford, who claimed that Whistler had given him publication rights, made repeated attempts, in London, New York, Antwerp, and Paris, to bring the book out, but in each case publication was stopped in the nick of time, so that in the end it was Whistler himself who oversaw and benefitted from the publication. This publication saga was itself well publicised in Britain, America, and Continental Europe.
Source: E. Lippincott Company, ]. The second of these was successful. The king was not killed in the attack, but he was injured. Kravchinski, — , son of an army doctor, had a brief military career, reaching the rank of second lieutenant in the artillery by the age of In , moved by the misery of the Russian peasantry, he resigned his commission and joined the Narodniki, well-intentioned Russians of the upper classes, who aimed to bring socialist ideas to the peasants.
His activities resulted in his arrest in , but he was released shortly afterwards and went to the Balkans to take part in the Bosnian uprising against the Ottomans. He also participated around this time in the insurrection that the Italian anarchist Enrico Malatesta had incited in the province of Benevento, south of Rome.
In , back in Russia, he was involved in the assassination, on the streets of St. Petersburg, of the head of the Russian secret police and had to flee Russia, eventually settling in England where he set up the Friends of Russian Freedom and its print organ, the Russian Free Press.
Always close in his political position to anarchists like Bakunin and Kropotkin, he gradually abandoned his earlier support for terrorist acts as an effective instrument of political change. His first book, La Russia sottoterranea: profili e bozzetti rivoluzionari dal vero Milan, was written in Italian and published in English translation as Underground Russia: Revolutionary Profiles and Sketches from Life He was admitted to the elite pazhski korpus — a combined military school and court institution reserved for boys of high nobility.
He went back to Russia with a large quantity of prohibited socialist pamphlets, which he proceeded to rewrite in Russian in terms intelligible to the uneducated. For his pains, he was arrested and imprisoned in the notorious Peter and Paul fortress, from which, however, he escaped in Returning to Switzerland, he established ties to the Jura Federation, a federalist and anarchist section of the IWA that had been expelled from that organization in but was still strong among the watchmaker artisans of French-speaking Switzerland.
In , after the assassination of Czar Alexander II — which Kropotkin justified on the grounds that an explosion is more effective than a vote in inciting the workers to revolution — he was expelled from Switzerland. He settled for a time in France but was arrested there in on account of his membership of the IWA. Released in , he moved to England, living in various suburbs of London and associating with English-speaking socialists like the writer and artist William Morris and the playwright George Bernard Shaw. The Bolsheviks, in his view, had shown how the revolution was not to be made, i.
Though his fame has been eclipsed by that of his great-nephew of the same name the late United States ambassador to the Soviet Union and world-renowned diplomat George Frost Kennan , the earlier Kennan also had a considerable influence on Western views of Russia. Growing up in Norwalk, Ohio, he was drawn like many in his generation to the West, in his case, to Alaska, which Russia was in the process of selling to the United States, and from where he crossed over into Siberia.
Putnam, ; London: Sampson Low, On his return from Siberia he pursued a career as a journalist, working as an Associated Press reporter in Washington, D. In , he went back to Siberia in the company of an artist friend from Boston, George Frost, having been commissioned by Century magazine to travel around and write up whatever he could find out about the penal settlements in Siberia, the revolutionaries who had been exiled and imprisoned there, their treatment, and, in general, Russian government policy with regard to political dissidents.
Osgood, McIlvaine, this work was immediately translated into French and German and was cited by Tolstoi himself — whom Kennan twice interviewed. SUMMARY Much of western translation theory from Cicero to the twentieth century centred on the recurring debate as to whether translations should be literal word-for-word or free sense-for-sense , a diad that is famously discussed by St Jerome in his translation of the Bible into Latin. Controversy over the translation of the Bible was central to translation theory in the west for over a thousand years.
Early theorists tended to be translators who presented a justification for their approach in a preface to the translation, often paying little attention to or not having access to what others before them had said. Recently, there has been increased interest in the west in Chinese discourse on translation, centred on the translation of Buddhist sutras and the position of Yan Fu.
English is particularly well-served with Classe , France , and the five-volume Oxford History of Literary Translation in English Braden et al. Readers are recommended to follow their specific interests regarding country, period, cultures and languages.
Delisle and Woodsworth and Baker ed. Kelly is especially strong on the Latin tradition and Rener is a fascinating exploration on the concept of language and translation from Classical times to Tytler. Chan and Cheung look at the influence of Yan Fu on twentieth-century writers on translation. This and other Asian traditions are discussed in Hung and Wakabayashi and the papers in Hermans a, b cover a range of non-western thought on translation.
Pym may also be useful as a presentation of investiga- tive methods in translation history. Discussion and research points 1 Find recent reviews of translations in the press in your own languages. What kinds of comments are made about the translation itself? How far is the vocabulary used similar to that described in this chapter? Why, then, do you think that the vocabulary of that earlier period often continues to be used in reviews of translation, in comments by teachers and examiners, and in writings by literary translators themselves?
How far are the criteria still centred on the theoretical concepts discussed in this chapter? How closely does it resemble the writings discussed in this chapter? Compare the varied papers in Hermans a, b. What elements discussed in this chapter may help to explain its origin? How do you imagine he would have set about doing this?
What issues does it raise for the literary translator? Why do you think this is? If they do, what function do they serve, and what kind of language do they use to describe the translation? Theoretical criticisms of equivalence and the tertium comparationis. Key texts Bassnett, S. Koller, W. Chesterman, in A. Newmark, P. Nida, E. The new debate revolved around certain key linguistic issues. Jakobson goes on to examine key issues of this type of translation, notably linguistic meaning and equivalence.
Jakobson follows the relation set out by Saussure between the signifier the spoken and written signal and the signified the concept signified. Jakobson stresses that it is possible to understand what is signified by a word even if we have never seen or experienced the concept or thing in real life. Examples he gives are ambrosia and nectar, words which modern readers will have read in Greek myths even if they have never come across the substances in real life; these contrast with cheese, which they almost certainly have encountered first hand.
Jakobson then moves on to consider the thorny problem of equivalence in meaning between words in different languages. In Russian, that would be tvarok and not syr. While one might quibble that the English cheese only really covers the realm of cottage cheese by the addition of the pre-modifier cottage, the general principle of interlinguistic difference between terms and semantic fields is established. Thus translation involves two equivalent messages in two different codes. Thus, Russian can still express the full semantic meaning of cheese even if it breaks it down into two separate concepts.
Examples of differences are easy to find. They occur at: the level of gender: e. These examples illustrate differences between languages, but they are still concepts that can be rendered inter- lingually. His theory took concrete form in two major works in the s: Toward a Science of Translating Nida a and the co-authored The Theory and Practice of Translation Nida and Taber The title of the first book is significant; Nida attempts to move translation Bible translation in his case into a more scientific era by incorporating recent work in linguistics. A series of techniques, adapted from work in linguistics, is presented as an aid for the translator in determining the meaning of different linguistic items.
Tech- niques to determine referential and emotive meaning focus on analysing the structure of words and differentiating similar words in related lexical fields. These include hierarchical structuring, which differentiates series of words according to their level for instance, the superordinate animal and its hyponyms goat, dog, cow, etc. The latter seek to identify and discriminate specific features of a range of related words.
The results can be plotted visually to assist in making an overall comparison. One example Nida a: 84—5 is the plotting of relationship terms grand- mother, mother, cousin, etc. Such results are useful for a translator working with languages that have very different kinship terms.
Another technique is semantic structure analysis in which Nida p. Spirit thus does not always have a religious significance. Even or perhaps especially when it does, as in the term Holy Spirit, its emotive or connotative value varies according to the target culture Nida a: Above all, Nida p. Thus, the Hebrew idiom bene Chuppah lit. In general, techniques of semantic structure analysis are proposed as a means of clarifying ambiguities, elucidating obscure passages and identifying cultural differences.
They may serve as a point of comparison between different languages and cultures. The structure relations described in this model are held by Chomsky to be a universal feature of human language. The most basic of such structures are kernel sentences, which are simple, active, declarative sentences that require the minimum of transformation. This three-stage system of translation analysis, transfer and restructuring is presented in Figure 3. Kernels are to be obtained from the ST surface structure by a reductive process of back-transformation Nida a: 63—9.
An example of this transfer process is the verse from John in Box 3. The two examples of literary transfer are different stylistically, notably in syntax, the first being more formal and archaic. Box 3. These are defined by Nida as follows: 1 Formal equivalence: Formal equivalence focuses attention on the message itself, in both form and content.
One is concerned that the message in the receptor language should match as closely as possible the different elements in the source language. For Nida, the success of the translation depends above all on achieving equivalent response. His introduction of the concepts of formal and dynamic equivalence was crucial in intro- ducing a receptor-based or reader-based orientation to translation theory.
How can a text possibly have the same effect and elicit the same response in two different cultures and times? Indeed, the whole question of equivalence inevitably entails subjective judgement from the translator or analyst. It is interesting that the debate continued into the s in leading translation journals.
The focus in these papers is notably on the impossibility of achieving equivalent effect when meaning is bound up in form, for example the effect of word order in Chinese and English, especially in literary works Qian Hu —6. While the techniques for the analysis of meaning and for transforming kernels into TT surface structures are carried out in a systematic fashion, it remains debatable whether a translator follows these procedures in practice. Semantic translation attempts to render, as closely as the semantic and syntactic structures of the second language allow, the exact contextual meaning of the original.
An example would be a modern British English translation of Homer. The translator indeed any modern translator, no matter what the TL cannot possibly hope or expect to produce the same effect on the TT reader as the ST had on listeners in ancient Greece. Newmark p. Literal translation, on the other hand, as we saw in Chapter 2, means word-for-word in its extreme version and, even in its weaker form, sticks very closely to ST lexis and syntax. Newmark 39 This assertion can be related to what other theorists e. One of the difficulties encountered by translation studies in systematically following up advances in theory may indeed be partly attributable to the overabundance of terminology.
It should also be noted that in his more recent discourse e. Pedrola , Newmark forthcoming , he has emphasized the aesthetic principles of writing and an ethical and truth-seeking function for translation. The two terms can be differentiated as shown in Table 3. Thus, correspondence falls within the field of contrastive linguistics, which com- pares two language systems and describes differences and similarities contrastively.
Examples given by Koller are the identification of false friends and of signs of lexical, morphological and syntactic interference. Importantly, Koller p. However, the question still remains as to what exactly has to be equivalent. This is closely linked to work by Katharina Reiss see Chapter 5. Koller goes on to identify different types of equivalence in terms of their research foci. These are summarized in Table 3. Having described these types and the phenomena related to them, Koller then importantly highlights how this can aid the translator and what the role of translation theory is: With every text as a whole, and also with every segment of text, the translator who consciously makes such a choice must set up a hierarchy of values to be preserved in translation; from this he [sic] can derive a hierarchy of equivalence requirements for the text or segment in question.
This in turn must be preceded by a translationally relevant text analysis. Yet how this is to be done is open to debate. Koller himself b: —16 proposes a checklist for translationally relevant text analysis under the headings of: language function; content characteristics; language-stylistic characteristics; formal—aesthetic characteristics; pragmatic characteristics. Equivalence continues to be a central, if criticized, concept. As might be imagined, scholars working in non-linguistic translation studies have been especially critical of concept.
Bassnett summarizes the major problem as she sees it: Translation involves far more than replacement of lexical and grammatical items between languages. Once the translator moves away from close linguistic equiva- lence, the problems of determining the exact nature of the level of equivalence aimed for begin to emerge. Bassnett 34 Perhaps the biggest bone of contention in the comparison of a ST and a TT is the so-called tertium comparationis, an invariant against which two text segments can be measured to gauge variation.
The problem of the inevitable subjectivity that the invariant entails has been tackled by many scholars from a range of theoretical backgrounds. In Chapter 4, we discuss taxonomic linguistic approaches that have attempted to produce a comprehensive model of translation shift analysis.
Yet there is still a great deal of practically oriented writing on translation that continues a prescriptive discussion of equivalence. Translator training courses also, perhaps inevitably, have this focus: errors by the trainee translators tend to be corrected prescriptively according to a notion of equivalence held by the trainer.
For this reason, equivalence is an issue that will remain central to the practice of translation, even if it has been marginalized by some translation studies scholars. The first three extracts in Box 3. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. In this case, it is the NEB which goes furthest to explaining the concept in terms the modern reader would immediately understand.
Similarly, the NEB uses the term surface in place of the metaphorical face of KJV, a metaphor to be found in the original Hebrew paneem. The Hebrew original rwh refers to wind or breath, and metaphorically to spirit. The NAB retains the element of wind, but sees God as simply representing a superlative, hence the interpretation mighty.
Other possible translations are wind from God or breath of God, preserving both elements. On some occasions, for example in John 3 from the New Testament, the ST in that case Greek makes a play on the word pneuma, translated by KJV first as spirit and then wind. Yet the brief analysis in this case study suggests that the translation will vary according both to the interpretation of the translator e.
The means by which the TTs attempt to achieve equivalent effect also differ: the NEB spells out the links, including the choice of now at the start of verse 2, and explicates surface, watery deep, and Spirit of God; the NAB maintains a focus on the desolate wilder- ness, with formless wasteland and mighty wind, even if links are added with the conjunc- tions when and while.
This suggests that the KJV is most concerned with formal equivalence with the original, whereas the NEB and NAB are more oriented towards dynamic equiva- lence, making important adjustments for the receivers. There is no room for such adjustments or interpretation in legal documents, where the translation technique is invariably one of formal equivalence.
In law, all versions of the treaty stand as equally valid.
The goal of equivalent effect is also crucial in a legal text such as this. In order to function correctly, each text must stand for the same idea in each language and produce the same response. Otherwise, varied interpretations would give rise to legal confusion and potential loopholes. In this respect it is perhaps surprising that the French version of the treaty should contain a slightly different perspective. It would be interesting to compare longer stretches of the different texts to see whether, despite careful translation, any further segments present a different focus in meaning.
This Treaty marks a new stage in the process of creating an ever closer union among the peoples of Europe, in which decisions are taken as openly as possible and as closely as possible to the citizen. Discussion of case study The two series of texts given in Boxes 3. How does the translator ensure, however, that the effect will be the same on a Portuguese or British legal expert as it is on a French expert? When it comes to the translation of a religious text, such as the Bible, these questions multiply. It may, therefore, be more helpful to adopt his model not for the analysis of existing trans- lations where the focus is on identifying what the translator has done and what the effect is on the known audience but for the analysis of a ST that is to be translated.
The key terms are meaning and equivalence, discussed by Roman Jakobson in and crucially developed by Nida, whose books analyse meaning systematically and propose that a translation should aim for equivalent effect. In the next chapter, we look at other scholars who have incorporated linguistics into the study of translation. Extensive criticism is to be found in Larose and Qian Hu See also his own writing on context Nida For analyses of meaning, see Osgood et al.
For equivalence and correspondence, see Catford ; see also Chapter 4 , Kade , Ivir and Koller Discussion and research points 1 Follow up the forms of analysis of meaning in Nida and the further reading section. Try out some of these techniques on STs that you yourself have to translate. What are their advantages and disadvantages? In this chapter there has been space to summarize only a few of the main questions. Research more deeply the arguments around the issues and how the concepts have developed over the years see further reading section for initial references.
Why do you consider there has been such heated debate? How can the concepts be used in translator training today? Do you agree with Gentzler? Is this model tied to religious texts? How well does it work for other genres e. Hatim and Munday 41 treat formal equivalence as 'contextually motivated. Look at longer and more varied passages.
Can it be said that the versions have achieved dynamic or formal equivalence? What tertium comparationis are you using in making your judgements? Look also at other treaties e. What lines have they followed and what additions have they made to Nida's 'science of translating'? Vinay and Darbelnet : classical taxonomy of linguistic changes in translation. The problem of the subjectivity of the invariant that is used to compare ST and TT. Cognitive models seek to investigate and explain the processes of translation through observation. Key texts Catford, J. Bell, R. Fawcett, P. Gutt, E-A. Lederer, M.
Vinay, J. Sager, and M. Hamel, Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. The scope of this book necessarily restricts us to describing a small number of the best-known and most representative models. Because of the theoretical revisions that were incorporated into the later English version, references are made to that edition unless otherwise stated. Where appropriate, the original French terminology is also given. The two strategies comprise seven procedures, of which direct translation covers three: 1 Borrowing: The SL word is transferred directly to the TL.
This grouping 31—2; covers words such as the Russian rouble, datcha or, more recently, glasnost and perestroika, that are used in English and other languages to fill a semantic gap in the TL. In those cases where literal translation is not possible, Vinay and Darbelnet say that the strategy of oblique translation must be used. This covers a further four procedures: 4 Transposition and 94—9 : This is a change of one part of speech for another without changing the sense.
It can be: obligatory: e. Modulation at the level of message is subdivided pp. This category therefore covers a wide range of phenomena. There is also often a process of originally free modulations becoming fixed expressions. The use of equivalence in this restricted sense should not be con- fused with the more common theoretical use discussed in Chapter 3 of this book.
For example, Vinay and Darbelnet suggest that the cultural connotation of a reference to the game of cricket in an English text might be best translated into French by a reference to the Tour de France. The seven main translation categories are described 27—30 as operating on three levels; these three levels reflect the main structural elements of the book. They are: 1 the lexicon; 2 syntactic structures; 3 the message. Two further terms are introduced which look above word level; these are: 1 word order and thematic structure pp. This level of analysis presages to some extent the higher level text and discourse-based analysis considered in Chapters 5 and 6 of this book.
Clearly, this is a crucial difference. Vinay and Darbelnet stress p. The authors continue by giving pp. The first four steps are also followed by Vinay and Darbelnet in their analysis of published translations. The divisions proposed include examples of individual words e. To facilitate analysis where oblique translation is used, Vinay and Darbelnet suggest numbering the translation units in both the ST and TT for an example, see Table 4.
The units which have the same number in each text can then be compared to see which translation procedure has been adopted. Catford 20 follows the Firthian and Hallidayan linguistic model, which analyses language as communication, operating functionally in context and on a range of different levels e.
Textual equivalence is thus tied to a particular ST—TT pair, while formal equivalence is a more general system-based concept between a pair of languages. When the two concepts diverge, a translation shift is deemed to have occurred. Catford considers two kinds of shift: 1 shift of level and 2 shift of category: 1 A level shift 73—5; —3 would be something which is expressed by grammar in one language and lexis in another; this could, for example, be: aspect in Russian being translated by a lexical verb in English: e.
These are subdivided into four kinds: a Structural shifts: These are said by Catford to be the most common form of shift and to involve mostly a shift in grammatical structure. Examples given between French and English are number and article systems, where, although similar systems operate in the two lan- guages, they do not always correspond. However, his analysis of intra-system shifts betrays some of the weaknesses of his approach. He does, however, p. However, as Catford himself notes p.
He does not look at whole texts, nor even above the level of the sentence. He, too, gives a categoriza- tion of features of texts where equivalence may need to be achieved. These are p. Their importance in a translation depends on the type of text. Thus, vowel length and articulation must not vary in dubbing, while, in a technical text, denotative meaning is of prime importance and must not vary. He maintains Miko 66 that retaining the expressive character or style of the ST is the main and perhaps only goal of the translator.
Miko suggests an analysis of style under categories such as operativity, iconicity, subjectivity, affectation, prominence and contrast. This is an important development. Shift analysis can be seen as a way of influencing the system of norms which govern the translation process, a concept which is discussed in more detail in Chapter 7.
Stylistic equivalence is itself defined p. It is a means of describing what constitutes the translation product but there are limits about what it can or even attempts to tell us about the actual process of translation. The linguistic component needs to be understood by reference not only to explicit but also to implicit meaning in an attempt to recover the authorial intention. However, rather than placing the emphasis on a structural representation of semantics, the interpretive model stresses the deverbalized cognitive processing that takes place.
Yet deverbalization, a key plank in the interpretive model, is really underdeveloped theoretically partly because of the problems of observing the process. If deverbalization occurs in a non-verbal state in the mind, how is the researcher going to gain access to it, apart from in the reconstituted form of the verbalized output after the re-expression stage? That is, the communicator gives the hearer communicative clues that allow the inference to be made. Translators, for their part, are faced with a similar situation and have several responsibilities pp.
As an instance of failed communication, Gutt pp. By focusing on the communicative process and cognitive processing, Gutt rejects those translation models, such as register analysis see Chapter 6 and descriptive studies see Chapter 7 , that are based on a study of input—output. He even contends that trans- lation as communication can be explained using relevance theoretic concepts alone. In that respect, he claims p. Roger Bell, in his own modelling of the translation process Bell 35—81 , draws on linguistic concepts such as semantic structure analysis see our Chapter 3 on discourse analytic categories such as transitivity, modality and cohesion Chapter 6 and on psycho- linguistic processing.
Synthesis pp. If there is no available clause structure in the FSS to convey the particular meanings, the proposition is passed through the parser which is now functioning as a syntactic synthesizer and, finally, the writing system is activated to realize the clause as a string of symbols which constitute the target language text. Bell 60 This model must remain hypothetical, since Bell does not support it with empirical evidence and the illustrative texts are decontextualized. We use it as the basis for this case study, applying it to a short illustrative text. This text is a brief extract about the area of Greenwich in London, taken from a tourist brochure for boat tours on the river Thames.
Boxes 4. Table 4. Often there are simultaneous lexical correspondences of both small and longer segments. For instance, ST translation unit 13 built by the Romans could be considered as three separate, clearly Box 4. Invaders from the continent passed either by ship or the Old Dover Road, built by the Romans, on their way to the capital.
In , the Danes moored their longships at Greenwich and raided Canterbury, returning with Archbishop Alfege as hostage and later murdering him on the spot where the church named after him now stands. Box 4. Similarly, ST units 23 with Archbishop Alfege and 24 as hostage could be considered as a single unit of thought. This type of segmentation problem recurs constantly. Categorization of the translations of ST units from Table 4. Discussion of case study Analysis of this box shows around thirteen direct translations out of twenty-nine translation units.
There is thus word order shift. This is also amplification. Borrowing of Old Dover Road, although with addition of article la. The figures can only be approximate because there is a crucial problem of determining the translation unit and the boundaries between the categories are vague.
Some units e. Most importantly, although Vinay and Darbelnet purport to describe the translation process, their model in fact focuses on the translation product. There is no incorporation of higher-level discourse considerations nor a means of discussing the effect the changes might have on the reader. However, like Catford, who in the s applied a systematic contrastive linguistic approach to translation, theirs is a static linguistic model. Fuzziness of category boundaries and the automatic counting of shifts are problems that have con- tinued to affect later attempts. Meanwhile, a different approach to the examination and explanation of translation procedures has been afforded by cognitive theorists, starting with from the Paris school of the s and including Gutt from relevance theory and Bell.
Increasingly, such research methods have made use of technological advances think-aloud protocols, key-stroke records, eye-trackers , though methodological procedures remain to be standardized. For a summary of cognitive theories, see Hurtado and Alves forthcoming. See also the discussion of Gutt in Hatim and Munday , Unit 8. Discussion and research points 1 Look at the analysis in the case study. Are there points where you disagree with the analysis? What does this tell us about the use of this kind of model?
Gli invasori provenienti dal continente passavano sulle navi o lungo la Old Dover Road, costruita dai Romani, mentre si dirigevano verso la capitale. How does the analysis differ from that of the French translation? Are there any language combinations for which their taxonomy is problematic? Look at what they wrote. How different are they from other writers on translation shifts? How practical do you think it is to analyse stylistic shifts? Look, too, at more recent work on the translation of style by Boase-Beier , Bosseaux , Parks , Munday If possible, ask others to test out and evaluate your model according to how systematic, practical and useful it is.
In what ways does the model differ from Nida's three- phase model studied in Chapter 3? Which do you feel has more potential for explaining the translation process? Based on his arguments, how far do you agree with Gutt that 'there is no need for developing a separate theory of translation, with concepts and a theoretical framework of its own'? What advantages and limitations of this kind of research do you note? Reiss stresses equivalence at text level, linking language functions to text types and translation strategy. Nord, C. Reiss, K. Kitron, in L. Vermeer, H. Her functional approach aims initially at systematizing the assessment of translations.
These links can be seen in Table 5. The form of language is dialogic, the focus is appellative and Reiss calls this text type operative. Examples of text varieties or genres Textsorte associated with each of the three text types are given by Reiss 20 and presented visually by Chesterman see Figure 5. Following this diagram, the reference work is the text variety which is the most fully informa- tive text type; the poem is a highly expressive, form-focused type, and an advertisement is the clearest operative text type attempting to persuade someone to buy or do something.
Between these poles are positioned a host of hybrid of types. Similarly, a sermon gives information about the religion while fulfilling the operative function by attempting to persuade the congregation to a certain way of behaving. These methods occupy the last two rows of Table 5. Reiss 54—88 also lists a series of intralinguistic and extralinguistic instruction criteria Instruktionen by which the adequacy of a TT may be assessed. Although interrelated, the importance of these criteria varies according to text type Reiss For example, the translation of any content-focused text should first aim at preserving semantic equivalence.
For a TT that is a news item, second place might probably be occupied by grammatical criteria, whereas a popular science book might pay more attention to the individual style of the ST. Similarly, Reiss p. Originally written as a satirical novel to attack the government of the day i.
Alternatively, a TT may have a different communicative function from the ST: an operative election address in one language may be translated for analysts in another country interested in finding out what policies have been presented and how i. However, over the years there have been a number of criticisms, which are summarized by Fawcett —8.
One of the criticisms is why there should only be three types of language function. Business and financial texts in English contain a large number of simple and complex metaphors: markets are bullish and bearish, profits soar, peak, dive and plummet, while the credit crunch bites and banks employ a scorched-earth policy in the face of hostile take-over bids.
Some of these have a fixed translation in another language, but the more complex and individualistic metaphors do not, and more recent work e. Dickins has also moved from the consideration of linguistic metaphor to con- ceptual metaphors that represent and structure perceptions of reality.
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Similarly, the transla- tion of business texts into English requires more than just attention to the informative value of the ST, since such a method could create an English TT that is lacking in the expressive function of language. Namely, whether text types can really be differentiated. An annual business report, classed by Reiss as a strongly informative text, can also show a strongly expressive side.
In Figure 5. Finally, the translation method employed depends on far more than just text type. This is a key question in the rest of this chapter and also in Chapter 6. Coming from a predominantly German-theoretical background, Snell-Hornby notably borrows the notion of prototypes for the categorizing of text types. Depending on the text type under consideration, she incorporates cultural history, literary studies, sociocultural and area studies and, for legal, economic, medical and scientific translation, the study of the relevant specialized subject.
Her view of the field is illustrated by Figure 5. Snell-Hornby 31 explains that, horizontally, the diagram is to be read as a series of clines, from left to right, with no clear demarcations. Level E covers areas of linguistics relevant to translation and level F, the lowest-order level, deals with phonological aspects, such as alliteration, rhythm and speakability of stage translation and film dubbing.
This is an interesting attempt to bring together diverse areas of translation and to bridge the gap between the commercial and artistic translations described by Schleier- macher in see Chapter 2. Yet one must question whether an attempt to incorporate all genres and text types into such a detailed single overarching analytical framework is really viable. There is no necessity for translation studies to focus solely on the literary as was so often the case until the last fifty years or solely the technical.
Yet it would also be true to say that there is no reason to suppose that consideration of all kinds of language in a prototypical continuum necessarily produces more useful results for the analysis of translations and for translator training. A student wishing to be a commercial translator is likely to need a somewhat different training focus compared to one who would like to be a literary translator, even if each can benefit from studying the work of the other.
These players each have their own specific primary and secondary goals.
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The roles of the different participants in the translatorial action are analysed. In the case of the professional translator faced with such a text, the likely goals are primarily to earn money, and secondarily to fulfil the contract and to process the text message p. According to the analysis given, the translator may be a non-expert both in the text type and specific subject area.
Extra input of subject-area knowledge would need to come from the ST writer within the company or through careful research by the translator s. Translatorial action focuses very much on producing a TT that is functionally communi- cative for the receiver. This means, for example, that the form and genre of the TT must be guided by what is functionally suitable in the TT culture, rather than by merely copying the ST profile.
What is functionally suitable has to be determined by the translator, who is the expert in translatorial action and whose role is to make sure that the intercultural transfer takes place satisfactorily. The needs of the receiver are the determining factors for the TT. Thus, as far as terminology is concerned, a technical term in a ST manual may require clarification for a non-technical TT user.
Additionally, in order to maintain cohesion for the TT reader, a single term will need to be translated consistently p. However, the model can be criticized, not least for the complexity of its jargon for example message-transmitter compounds , which does little to explain practical translation situations for the individual translator. Also, since one of the aims of the model is to offer guidelines for intercultural transfer, it is disappointing that it fails to consider cultural difference in more detail or in the kinds of terms proposed by the culturally oriented models discussed in Chapters 8 and 9.
There needs to be a relationship between ST and TT, and the nature of this relationship is determined by the purpose or skopos. Vermeer as a technical term for the purpose of a translation and of the action of translating. Skopos theory focuses above all on the purpose of the translation, which determines the translation methods and strategies that are to be employed in order to produce a functionally adequate result.
This result is the TT, which Vermeer calls the translatum. Therefore, in skopos theory, knowing why a ST is to be translated and what the function of the TT will be are crucial for the translator. Some explanation is required here. Rule 2 is important in that it relates the ST and TT to their function in their respective linguistic and cultural contexts. The irreversibility in point 3 indicates that the function of a translatum in its target culture is not necessarily the same as in the source culture.
In other words, the TT must be translated in such a way that it is coherent for the TT receivers, given their circumstances and knowledge. The fidelity rule merely states p. However, the hierarchical order of the rules means that intertextual coherence rule 5 is of less importance than intratextual coherence rule 4 , which, in turn, is subordinate to the skopos rule 1. An important advantage of skopos theory is that it allows the possibility of the same text being translated in different ways according to the purpose of the TT and the commission which is given to the translator.
The theory does not state what the principle is: this must be decided separately in each specific case. On the other hand, if the will appeared in a novel, the translator might prefer to find a slightly different ambiguity that works in the TL without the need of a formal footnote, so as not to interrupt the reading process. Vermeer describes the commission as comprising 1 a goal and 2 the conditions under which that goal should be achieved including deadline and fee , both of which should be negotiated between the commissioner and the translator.
In Reiss and Vermeer , adequacy describes the relations between ST and TT as a con- sequence of observing a skopos during the translation process. In other words, if the TT fulfils the skopos outlined by the commission, it is functionally and communicatively adequate. However, full functional constancy is considered to be the exception. Even if the skopos is adequately fulfilled, it may be inadequate at the stylistic or semantic levels of individual segments.
Thus, for a poet or a translator, the goal may be to publish the resultant translatum poem and to keep copyright over it so as to make money from its reproduction. Two points are at issue in the second criticism: to what extent does ST type determine translation method and what is the logic of the link between ST type and translation skopos compare section 5. The third criticism in particular is tackled by another func- tionalist, Christiane Nord, with her model of translation-oriented text analysis.
Such is the case, for example, in literary translation, where the TT allows the TT receiver access to the ideas of the ST but where the reader is well aware that it is a translation. The function may be the same for both ST and TT. For instance, a translated computer manual or software should fulfil the function of instructing the TT receiver in the same way as the ST does for the ST reader. However, she also gives examples of other kinds of translations where it is not possible to preserve the same function in trans- lation. The model is based on a functional concept, enabling understanding of the function of ST features and the selection of translation strategies appropriate to the intended purpose of the translation.
The trans- lation commission should give the following information for both texts: the intended text functions; the addressees sender and recipient ; the time and place of text reception; the medium speech and writing ; the motive why the ST was written and why it is being translated. This information enables the translator to prioritize what information to include in the TT. In the example given by Nord, a brochure for Heidelberg University, the motive is the celebration of the th anniversary of its founding, and so clearly events surrounding the anniversary are most important.
These factors are: subject matter content: including connotation and cohesion presuppositions: real-world factors of the communicative situation presumed to be known to the participants composition: including microstructure and macrostructure non-verbal elements: illustrations, italics, etc. However, Nord stresses that it does not matter which text-linguistic model is used: What is important, though, is that [it] include[s] a pragmatic analysis of the communi- cative situations involved and that the same model be used for both source text and translation brief, thus making the results comparable.
Nord 62 This provides some flexibility, although clearly the form of the analysis is crucial in determining which features are prioritized in the translation. In our case study, we therefore apply this synthesized model to a ST. Case study This case study is taken from a real-life translation commission. TTs were to be produced in a range of European languages for sale abroad.
However, in order to keep costs down, the many illustrations were to be retained from the ST. The ST—TT profiles in the translation commission would be as follows: The intended text functions: The ST has an informative function, transmitting information about cookery and specific recipes. It also has an appellative function, since it is appealing to children to act on what they read to make the recipes and become interested in food and in cooking.
The TT will be function-preserving as far as is possible. The addressees: The ST addressees are probably both the British children aged 10 and over mentioned above and their parents or other older relatives, carers or friends , who are likely to be the purchasers of the book. Many of the recipes also presuppose some assistance from an adult. The TT addressees are the TL children aged 10 and over and their parents or other adults.
The time difference is, therefore, of little importance. The medium: The ST is a printed paperback book of forty-eight pages with many photographs and illustrations on each page. The TTs are to follow the same format, i. The motive: The ST has the purpose of teaching British children the basics of cooking in an entertaining way using tools and ingredients that are readily available.
The TT has the purpose of doing the same for the TT children. However, this is a case not only of a difference in addressee language. Were that the only criterion, then the words on the page could simply be translated and transferred into the TL. There are also important differences of culture, especially regarding customs, experience and presuppositions. These become evident dur- ing ST analysis. ST analysis As noted in section 5. Clearly these are severe limitations on the translator. There are two main relevant factors.
One, as noted in the intended text functions, is that we are dealing with a recipe book and, as is well known, recipes are a strictly organized text variety or genre with conventions that vary interlingually. The other factor is related to the appellative function and the fact that the addressees are children. The lexis in the ST is consequently slightly simplified and rather more interpersonal than in most cookery books.
The translator must aim to produce a similarly simplified TT that fulfils the same appellative function as well as the informative function. Depending on the language, this may even mean going against the conventions of the recipe and not using infinitive forms, since they tend to distance the addressee. This becomes evident in analysing the presuppositions implicit in the ST. A few examples are given in Box 5. The presupposition in the ST is that the child will have seen these dishes, perhaps made by an adult, and understand what the final product is to look like.
In target cultures where these dishes are unknown, the children and the adults may be unsure whether the recipe is turning out correctly. Changing the names of some of the recipes for example to Chinese vegetables, exotic rice and hot fruit dessert may make them more accessible to the TT receivers, although not necessarily easier to cook.
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Ingredients: Some ingredients, such as fresh ginger, pitta bread, or processed foods such as ovenbake chips and mini-croutons, may be unavailable in some target cul- tures. This means that either the whole recipe would be impossible to make, or the preparation of it would be different.
In the TT some of these ingredients can be altered to ones that are more readily available in the target culture. Cooking utensils: Utensils such as kettles, garlic presses and potato mashers are not used in all cultures. In a recipe for creamy fish pie p. Do it until there are no lumps left. The Dutch and Italian translations give a single word: puree-stamper and schiacciapatate respectively.
However, in the French and Spanish TTs the translators tried to overcome the problem that potato mashers do not exist in their cultures by suggesting a different utensil, in each case orienting the translation towards the target culture. Both translations are functionally adequate because they describe the picture, fit into the caption space and enable the TT readers to produce the mashed potatoes. Discussion of case study The kind of approach followed in the case study allows important elements of the transla- tion process to be identified.
- ... auf der Bühne.
- Downloadable Content.
- The original German film: Head Full of Honey.
- Giving presentations: with focus on international audiences;
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This focus enables individual, and groups of, problematic features to be identified. However, as we saw in Chapter 4, it would be wrong to think that all phenomena can be categorized easily. In the case of the recipe book, it is the difference in culture and experi- ence of the ST and TT addressees which requires most attention. While functional theories may assist in translating potato masher, the link between culture and language is far more complex.
The following chapter begins to explore this, and the concept of discourse, in more depth. Translation is viewed as a communicative transaction involving initiator, commissioner, and the producers, users and receivers of the ST and TT. Readers are strongly recommended to follow up the summaries given here by turning to the original works themselves in order to see these theories in full. Baker ed.
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Snell-Hornby 51—60 , writing from a firmly German perspective, discusses the theories described here. Trosberg , develops the analysis of text types by incorporating functional linguistic categories. Discussion and research points 1 Look at translations that you yourself have done either in a language class or in professional translation situations. How would you fit them in to Katharina Reiss's text typology? Are there any texts that do not easily fit in? Look at a variety of text types in your own language pairs to see how metaphors are used. Consider linguistic metaphors cf.
Newmark and conceptual metaphors cf. Dickins How would you translate them? Does the translation vary according to text type?